Parkinson's disease, or Parkinson's, is a long-term degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that affects the motor system. As the disease worsens, non-motor symptoms become more common; the symptoms emerge slowly. Early in the disease, the most obvious symptoms are shaking, slowness of movement, difficulty with walking. Thinking and behavioral problems may occur. Dementia becomes common in the advanced stages of the disease. Depression and anxiety are common, occurring in more than a third of people with PD. Other symptoms include sensory and emotional problems; the main motor symptoms are collectively called "parkinsonism", or a "parkinsonian syndrome". The cause of Parkinson's disease is unknown, but is believed to involve both genetic and environmental factors; those with a family member affected are more to get the disease themselves. There is an increased risk in people exposed to certain pesticides and among those who have had prior head injuries, while there is a reduced risk in tobacco smokers and those who drink coffee or tea.
The motor symptoms of the disease result from the death of cells in the substantia nigra, a region of the midbrain. This results in not enough dopamine in this region of the brain; the cause of this cell death is poorly understood, but it involves the build-up of proteins into Lewy bodies in the neurons. Diagnosis of typical cases is based on symptoms, with tests such as neuroimaging used to rule out other diseases. There is no cure for Parkinson's disease. Treatment aims to improve the symptoms. Initial treatment is with the antiparkinson medication levodopa, followed by dopamine agonists when levodopa becomes less effective; as the disease progresses and neurons continue to be lost, these medications become less effective while at the same time they produce a complication marked by involuntary writhing movements. Diet and some forms of rehabilitation have shown some effectiveness at improving symptoms. Surgery to place microelectrodes for deep brain stimulation has been used to reduce motor symptoms in severe cases where drugs are ineffective.
Evidence for treatments for the non-movement-related symptoms of PD, such as sleep disturbances and emotional problems, is less strong. In 2015, PD resulted in about 117,400 deaths globally. Parkinson's disease occurs in people over the age of 60, of whom about one percent are affected. Males are more affected than females at a ratio of around 3:2; when it is seen in people before the age of 50, it is called early-onset PD. The average life expectancy following diagnosis is between 15 years; the disease is named after the English doctor James Parkinson, who published the first detailed description in An Essay on the Shaking Palsy, in 1817. Public awareness campaigns include World Parkinson's Day and the use of a red tulip as the symbol of the disease. People with Parkinson's who have increased the public's awareness of the condition include actor Michael J. Fox, Olympic cyclist Davis Phinney, professional boxer Muhammad Ali, actor Alan Alda; the movement difficulties found in PD are called parkinsonism, defined as bradykinesia in combination with one of three other physical signs: muscular rigidity, tremor at rest, postural instability.
A number of different disorders can have parkinsonism type movement issues. Parkinson's disease is the most common form of parkinsonism and is sometimes called "idiopathic parkinsonism", meaning parkinsonism with no identifiable cause. Identifiable causes of parkinsonism include toxins, side effects of drugs, metabolic derangement, brain lesions such as strokes. Several neurodegenerative disorders may present with parkinsonism and are sometimes referred to as "atypical parkinsonism" or "Parkinson plus" syndromes, they include multiple system atrophy, progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration, dementia with Lewy bodies. Scientists sometimes refer to Parkinson’s disease as a synucleinopathy to distinguish it from other neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease where the brain accumulates tau protein. Considerable clinical and pathological overlap exists between synucleinopathies. In contrast to Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease presents most with memory loss, the cardinal signs of Parkinson's disease are not normal features of Alzheimer's.
Dementia with Lewy bodies is another synucleinopathy and it has close pathological similarities with PD with the subset of PD cases with dementia known as Parkinson's disease dementia. The relationship between PD and DLB is complex and incompletely understood, they may represent parts of a continuum with variable distinguishing clinical and pathological features or they may prove to be separate diseases. The most recognizable symptoms in Parkinson's disease are movement related. Non-motor symptoms, which include autonomic dysfunction, neuropsychiatric problems, sensory and sleep difficulties, are common; some of these non-motor symptoms may be present at the time of diagnosis. Four motor symptoms are considered cardinal in PD: tremor, slowness of movement and postural instability; the most common presenting sign is a co
In Hindu scriptures, Vena was a great king. However, he became corrupt; the world became so gloomy and dark that the earth-goddess Bhumidevi decided that she would not provide crops to humans anymore. She went into hiding. Meanwhile, a group of Rishis killed Vena out of anger, they rubbed the thigh of his corpse, took out all the evil from his body. Afterwards they rubbed Vena's arm, the good Prithu emerged; this being was Vishnu incarnate, as soon as he was born, Vishnu's Sharanga bow fell from heaven into his hands. However, Bhumidevi still refused to give crops to people; as soon as Prithu, son of Vena, threatened to kill her, she gave in, but in return Prithu would be her eternal guardian. This is why Bhumidevi is known as Prithvi; the sacred literature of the Hindus contains many cases of conflicts between the Brahmins and the Kshatriyas and of sanguinary wards between the two. In the Rigveda, Vena is a personification of a celestial being the rainbow; the name of the hymn is Vena, as is the name of the author of RV 9.85
Candi & The Backbeat was a Canadian pop band fronted by lead vocalist Candita "Candy" Pennella. Band members included Nino Milazzo, Paul Russo, Rich Imbrogno; the band is best known among U. S. audiences for the freestyle classic "Dancing Under a Latin Moon", a major dance hit which made number 68 on the Billboard Hot 100 in 1988. An Italian wedding band they released their debut self-titled album Candi in 1988 on the I. R. S. Records label, which included "Dancing Under a Latin Moon", "Under Your Spell", nominated for Single of the Year at the Juno Awards of 1990. Candi's "Under Your Spell" and "Missing You" were both nominated for Best Dance Recording at the same award show. Pennella was nominated for Female Vocalist of the Year, losing to Rita MacNeil, she was nominated for the same award the next year. The band, renamed Candi & The Backbeat, released the album World Keeps on Turning in 1990; the title track from the album was nominated for the Best Dance Recording at the Juno Awards of 1991. After the promotion of the album, they decided not to continue with the project.
Candy ended up marrying her drummer and teaches high school in the Toronto area. 1988 - Dancing Under a Latin Moon, 1988 - Under Your Spell 1989 - Missing You 1989 - Love Makes No Promises 1990 - The World Just Keeps On Turning 1991 - Friends Forever, 1991 - Good Together Side one: "Under Your Spell" "Missing You" "Shine On" "Independent" "Love Makes No Promises" Side two: "Dancing Under a Latin Moon" "Dance With Me" "Lucky Night" "Pleasure Island" "Closer Than Ever" featuring Eugene Hunt Side one: "The World Just Keeps On Turning" "Friends Forever" "What's In A Love" "Dream Train" "Good Together"Side two: "Time For A New Life" "Getting Closer" "Someone Like You" "Find Love" "Saving All The Love"