A village green is a common open area within a village or other settlement. Traditionally, a village green was common grassland at the centre of a rural settlement used for grazing with a pond for watering cattle and other stock; the village green provided, may still provide, an open-air meeting place for the local people, which may be used for public celebrations such as May Day festivities. The term is used more broadly to encompass woodland, sports grounds and roads; some historical village greens have been lost as a result of the agricultural revolution and urban development. Greens are now most to be found in the older villages of mainland Europe, the United Kingdom, older areas of the United States. Town expansion in the mid-20th century led in England to the formation of local conservation societies centring on village green preservation, as celebrated and parodied in The Kinks' album The Kinks Are The Village Green Preservation Society; the Open Spaces Society is a present-day UK national campaigning body.
The term may apply to urban parks. In the United States, the most famous example of a town green is the New Haven Green in New Haven, Connecticut. New Haven was the first planned city in the United States. Used for grazing livestock, the Green dates from the 1630s and is well preserved today despite lying at the heart of the city centre; the largest green in the U. S. is a mile in length, can be found in Lebanon, Connecticut. One of the most unusual is the Dartmouth Green in Hanover, New Hampshire, owned and cleared by the college in 1770; the college, not the town, still owns it and surrounded it with buildings as a sort of collegiate quadrangle in the 1930s, although its origin as a town green remains apparent. A fine example of a traditional American town green exists in downtown Morristown, NJ; the Morristown Green dates from 1715 and has hosted events ranging from executions to clothing drives. Apart from the general use of the term, village green has a specific legal meaning in England and Wales, includes the less common term town green.
Town and village greens were defined in the Commons Registration Act 1965, as amended by the Countryside and Rights of Way Act 2000, as land:, allotted by or under any Act for the exercise or recreation of the inhabitants of any locality or on which the inhabitants of any locality have a customary right to indulge in lawful sports and pastimes or if it is land on which for not fewer than twenty years a significant number of the inhabitants of any locality, or of any neighbourhood within a locality, have indulged in lawful sports and pastimes as of right. Registered greens are now governed by the Commons Act 2006, but the fundamental test of whether land is a town and village green remains the same, thus land can become a village green if it has been used for twenty years without force, secrecy or request. Village green legislation is used to try to frustrate development. Recent case law makes it clear that registration as a green would render any development which prevented continuing use of the green as a criminal activity under the Inclosure Act 1857 and the Commons Act 1876.
This leads to some most curious areas being claimed as village greens, sometimes with success. Recent examples include two lakes and a beach; the Open Spaces Society states that in 2005 there were about 3,650 registered greens in England covering 8,150 acres and about 220 in Wales covering about 620 acres. A notable example of a village green is that in the village of Finchingfield in Essex, said to be "the most photographed village in England"; the green dominates the village, slopes down to a duck pond, is flooded after heavy rain. The small village of Car Colston in Nottinghamshire, has two village greens, totaling 29 acres; some greens that used to be a common or otherwise at the centre of a village have been swallowed up by a city growing around them. Sometimes they become a city park or a square, manage to maintain a sense of place. London has several of these: Newington Green is a good example, with Newington Green Unitarian Church anchoring the northern end. There are two places in the United States called Village Green: Village Green-Green Ridge and Village Green, New York.
Some New England towns, along with some areas settled by New Englanders such as the townships in the Connecticut Western Reserve, refer to their town square as a village green. The village green of Bedford, New York, is preserved as part of Bedford Village Historic District; the only village green in the United States still used for agriculture lies in Connecticut. This green is one of the largest in the nation. In Indonesia in Java, a similar place is called Alun-Alun, it is a central part of Javanese village culture. The northern part of the province of Drenthe in the Netherlands is known for its village greens. Zuidlaren is the village with the largest number of village greens in the Netherlands; the Błonia Park established in the Middle Ages, is an example of a large village green in Kraków, Poland. Common land Park The Open Spaces Society -- gives UK information on. Town Greens of Connecticut—historical information on the town greens that are found in every Connecticut town
Twickenham is an affluent suburban area of south-west London, England. It is 10 miles west-southwest of Charing Cross. Part of Middlesex, it has formed part of the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames since 1965. Twickenham has an extensive town centre and is famous for being the home of rugby union in England, with hundreds of thousands of spectators visiting Twickenham Stadium, the world's largest rugby stadium, each year; the historic riverside area is famous for its network of 18th-century buildings and pleasure grounds, many of which survive intact. This area has three grand period mansions with public access: York House, Marble Hill and Strawberry Hill House. Another has been lost. Among these is the Neo-Gothic prototype home of Horace Walpole which has given its name to a whole district, Strawberry Hill, is linked with the oldest Roman Catholic university in the country, St Mary's University. Excavations have revealed settlements in the area dating from the Early Neolithic Mesolithic periods.
Occupation seems to have continued through the Iron Age and the Roman occupation. The area was first mentioned in an 8th-century charter to cede the area to Waldhere, Bishop of London, "for the salvation of our souls"; the charter, dated 13 June 704, is signed with 12 crosses. The signatories included Swaefred of Cenred of Mercia and Earl Paeogthath. In Norman times Twickenham was part of the Manor of Isleworth – itself part of the Hundred of Hounslow, Middlesex; the manor had belonged to Ælfgār, Earl of Mercia in the time of Edward the Confessor, but was granted to Walter de Saint-Valery by William I of England after the Norman Conquest of England in 1066. The area was farmed for several hundred years, while the river provided opportunities for fishing and trade. Bubonic plague spread to the town in 1665 and 67 deaths were recorded, it appears. There was a watch house in the middle of the town, with stocks, a pillory and a whipping post whose owner was charged to "ward within and about this Parish and to keep all Beggars and Vagabonds that shall lye abide or lurk about the Towne and to give correction to such...".
In 1633 construction began on York House. It was occupied by Edward Montagu, 2nd Earl of Manchester in 1656 and by Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon. 1659 saw the first mention of the Twickenham Ferry, although ferrymen had been operating in the area for many generations. Sometime before 1743 a "pirate" ferry appears to have been started by Twickenham inhabitants. There is a floating hostelry of some kind. Several residents wrote to the Lord Mayor of the City of London:... Complaining that there is fixed near the Shore of Twickenham on the River Thames a Vessell made like a Barge and called the Folly wherein divers loose and disorderly persons are entertained who have behaved in a indecent Manner and do afront divers persons of Fashion and Distinction who in an Evening Walk near that place, desired so great a Nuisance might be removed.... In 1713 the nave of the ancient St Mary's Church collapsed, the church was rebuilt in the Neo-classical style to designs by a local architect, John James. In 1736, the noted pharmacist and quack doctor Joshua Ward set up the Great Vitriol Works to produce sulphuric acid, using a process discovered in the seventeenth century by Johann Glauber in which sulphur is burned together with saltpetre, in the presence of steam.
The process generates an unpleasant smell, which caused objections from local residents. The area was soon home to the world's first industrial production facility for gunpowder, on a site between Twickenham and Whitton on the banks of the River Crane. There were frequent explosions and loss of life. On 11 March 1758, one of two explosions was felt in Reading, in April 1774 another explosion terrified people at church in Isleworth. In 1772 three mills blew up. Horace Walpole, 4th Earl of Orford, wrote complaining to his friend and relative Henry Seymour Conway Lieutenant General of the Ordnance, that all the decorative painted glass had been blown out of his windows at Strawberry Hill; the powder mills remained in operation until 1927. Much of the site is now occupied by Crane Park, in which the old Shot Tower, mill sluices and blast embankments can still be seen. Much of the area along the river next to the Shot Tower is now a nature reserve; the 1818 Enclosure Award led to the development of 182 acres of land to the west of the town centre between the present day Staines and Hampton Roads, where new roads – Workhouse Road, Middle Road, 3rd, 2nd and 1st Common Roads – were laid out.
During the 18th and 19th centuries, a number of fine houses were built and Twickenham became a popular place of residence for people of "fashion and distinction". Further development was stimulated by the opening of Twickenham station in 1848. Electricity was introduced to Twickenham in 1902 and the first trams arrived the following year. In 1939, when All Hallows Lombard Street was demolished in the City of London, its distinctive stone tower designed by Christopher Wren, with its peal of ten bells and connecting stone cloister, the interior furnishings, including a Renatus Harris organ and a pulpit used by John Wesley, were brought to Twickenham to be incorporated in the new All Hallows Church on
Kew is a district in the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames, 1.5 miles north-east of Richmond and 7.1 miles west by south-west of Charing Cross. Julius Caesar may have forded the Thames at Kew in 54 BC during the Gallic Wars. Kew is the location of the Royal Botanic Gardens, now a World Heritage Site, which includes Kew Palace. Kew is the home of important historical documents such as Domesday Book, held at The National Archives. Successive Tudor and Georgian monarchs maintained links with Kew. During the French Revolution, many refugees established themselves there and it was the home of several artists in the 18th and 19th centuries. Since 1965 Kew has incorporated the former area of North Sheen which includes St Philip and All Saints, the first barn church consecrated in England, it is now in a combined Church of England ecclesiastical parish with Kew. Today, Kew is an expensive residential area because of its suburban hallmarks. Among these are sports-and-leisure open spaces, transport links, restaurants, no high-rise buildings, modest road sizes and gardens.
Most of Kew developed in the late 19th century, following the arrival of the District line of the Underground. Further development took place in the 1920s and 1930s when new houses were built on the market gardens of North Sheen and in the first decade of the 21st century when more river-fronting flats and houses were constructed by the Thames on land owned by Thames Water; the name Kew, recorded in 1327 as Cayho, is a combination of two words: the Old French kai and Old English hoh. The land spur is formed by the bend in the Thames. Kew forms part of the Richmond Park UK Parliament constituency. For elections to the European Parliament it is part of the London constituency. For elections to the London Assembly it is part of the South West London Assembly constituency. Kew was added in 1892 to the Municipal Borough of Richmond, formed two years earlier, and, in the county of Surrey. In 1965, under the London Government Act 1963, the boundaries of Greater London were expanded to include Kew which, with Richmond, transferred to the new London Borough of Richmond upon Thames.
The fashion clothing retailer Jigsaw's headquarters are in Kew. A former industry in Kew was that of nameplate manufacturing, by the Caxton Name Plate Manufacturing Company, based on Kew Green; the company was founded in 1964 and folded in 1997. Kew Retail Park stands on the site of a former factory where, from the 1920s until 1967, Dodge made lorries with the model name Kew. Cars were manufactured there. Dodge Brothers became a Chrysler subsidiary in 1928 and truck production moved to Chrysler's car plant at Kew. In 1933 it began to manufacture a British chassis, at its works in Kew, using American engines and gearboxes. After Chrysler bought the Maxwell Motor Company and their Kew works, the cars of the lighter Chrysler range – Chrysler Airflows, De Sotos and Plymouths — were assembled at this Kew site until the Second World War; the various models of De Sotos were named Richmond and Croydon. During the Second World War this Chrysler factory was part of London Aircraft Production Group and built Handley Page Halifax aircraft assemblies.
When wartime aircraft production ceased, the plant did not resume assembly of North American cars. Charles Somerset, 1st Earl of Worcester, was granted lands at Kew in 1517; when he died in 1526 he left his Kew estates to his third wife, with the remainder to his son George. In 1538 Sir George Somerset sold the house for £200 to Thomas Cromwell, who resold it for the same amount to Charles Brandon, 1st Duke of Suffolk. Brandon had already inhabited Kew during the life of his wife Mary Tudor, the daughter of Henry VII and widow of the French king Louis XII. According to John Leland's Cygnea Cantio, she stayed in Kew for a time after her return to England. One of Henry VIII's closest friends, Henry Norris, lived at Kew Farm, owned by Elizabeth I's favourite, Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester; this large palatial house on the Thames riverbank predated the royal palaces of Kew Palace and the White House. Excavations at Kew Gardens in 2009 revealed a wall. In Elizabeth's reign, under the Stuarts, houses were developed along Kew Green.
West Hall, which survives in West Hall Road, dates from at least the 14th century and the present house was built at the end of the 17th century. Elizabeth Stuart, daughter of James I, was given a household at Kew in 1608. Queen Anne subscribed to the building of the parish church on Kew Green, dedicated to St Anne in 1714, three months before the queen's death; the Hanoverians maintained the strongest links with Kew, in particular Princess Augusta who founded the botanic gardens and her husband Frederick, Prince of Wales who lived at the White House in Kew. Augusta, as Dowager Princess of Wales, continued to live there until her death in 1721. Frederick commissioned the building of the first substantial greenhouse at Kew Gardens. In 1761 the future George III and Queen Charlotte moved into the White House at Kew, they established their main summer court at Kew from the 1770s. Queen Charlotte died at the Dutch House in Kew in 1818. William IV spent most of his early life at Richmond and at Kew Palace, where he was educated by private tutors.
During the French Revolution, many refugees established themselves in Kew, having built many of the houses of this period. In the 1760s and 1770s the royal pr
Hampton is a suburban area on the north bank of the River Thames, in the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames, which includes Hampton Court Palace. Hampton is served by two railway stations, including one south of Hampton Court Bridge in East Molesey. Hampton is west of Hampton Wick and Kingston upon Thames. There are long strips of public riverside in Hampton and the Hampton Heated Open Air Pool is one of the few such swimming pools in Greater London; the riverside, on the reach above Molesey Lock, has residential islands and grand or decorative buildings including Garrick's House and the Temple to Shakespeare. Hampton Ferry provides access across the Thames to the main park of Molesey and the Thames Path National Trail; the most common type of housing in the north of the district is terraced homes. At the western edge of London, many workers commute to Central London; the Anglo-Saxon parish of Hampton converted to secular use in the 19th century included present-day Hampton, Hampton Hill, Hampton Wick and hamlet of Hampton Court surrounding Hampton Court Palace which together are called The Hamptons.
The combined population of the Hamptons was 37,131 at the 2001 census. The name Hampton may come from the Anglo-Saxon words hamm meaning an enclosure in the bend of a river and ton meaning farmstead or settlement; the ten years to 1911 saw the highest percentage of population increase, the figures for 1851, 1871 and every 10 years to 1911 being: 3,134. A further 25% rise took place in the 1920s. In his national gazetteer written between 1870 and 1872, John Marius Wilson described Hampton Wick as being technically a hamlet, he furthered that the total area was 3,190 acres and the exact respective figures were £14, 445 excluding Hampton Wick, of which £300 was in gas works. Both halves had developed Urban Sanitary Districts recorded in the 1891 census Hampton and Hampton Wick were Urban Districts from 1894–1937, preceding the creation of the Borough of Twickenham, which Hampton joined. At the edge of London, from time immemorial until 1965 Hampton was in Middlesex, a former postal county and this designation is still common in this part of the former county among residents and businesses.
Tagg's Island and much of Hampton's riverside by association became known as Thames Riviera from the 1920s: the island was leased to Fred Karno, an entertainment impresario, who opened an elevated, three-storey rambling mansard roof hotel, the Karsino in 1913, demolished in 1971. World War I impacted the business, which rebranded as The Thames Riviera, rivalling the hotel in Maidenhead for the name, followed by The Palm Beach and The Casino; the Riviera aspect is sometimes described in literature by the Council however is controversial among dissenters to the land use wholly private housing, where Hampton's riverside is not open parkland – it is no longer endorsed by London's bus operator with a stop of that name, in the 2010s named after instead a long public meadow known as St Albans Riverside. A cannon in Roy Grove marks the Hampton end of the baseline measured in 1784 by General William Roy in preparation of the Anglo-French Survey to measure the relative situation of Greenwich Observatory and Paris Observatory.
This high precision survey was the forerunner of the Principal Triangulation of Great Britain which commenced in 1791, one year after Roy's death. In the report of the operation Roy gives the locations of the ends of the baseline as Hampton Poor-house and King's Arbour; the latter lies with the confines of Heathrow Airport. The exact end points of the baseline were made by two vertical pipes which carried flag-poles but in 1791, when the base was remeasured, the ends were marked by two cannons sunk into the ground, it is certain that the cannons have been disturbed and moved over the intervening years Hampton Academy, an Academy in Hampton Hampton School, an independent school for boys. Lady Eleanor Holles School is an independent school for girls, it is 13th in GCSE results among the top independent schools in the UK. The latter two schools share a new-for-2000 Millennium Boathouse. Oxford and Cambridge Boat Race and Women's Oxford v Cambridge Henley Boat Race participants of this century have attended the schools.
Hampton Junior School Hampton Preparatory School, the junior school for Hampton School Hampton Hill Junior School Hampton Infant and Nursery School Carlisle Infants school Buckingham Primary School Twickenham Prep School The Christian churches in Hampton and Hampton Hill work together as Churches Together Around Hampton. The church buildings are a significant presence in the area many of them being architecturally stand-alone listed buildings in otherwise quite homogenous 20th century housing estates; the ministers and members provide a range of services for the community. The affiliated churches are: Hampton Methodist Church, Hampton Hampton Baptist Church, Hampton Hampton Hill United Reformed Church, Hampton Hill St Theodore's Roman Catholic Church, Hampton St Francis de Sales, Hampton Hill and Upper Teddington All Saints, Old Farm Road, Hampton St Mary, Church Street (by Thames Str
Hampton Court Park
Hampton Court Park between the gardens of Hampton Court Palace and Kingston upon Thames and Surbiton in south west London, England, is a walled royal park managed by the Historic Royal Palaces. In 2014, part of it was designated a biological Site of Special Scientific Interest, it takes up most of the final meander of the non-tidal reaches of the River Thames and is divided between a golf course, meadows interspersed with trees used for deer, seasonal horse grazing and wildlife. A corner of the park is used annually for the Hampton Court Flower Show and the part nearest to the palace has the Long Water — an early set of hydro-engineered ponds or lakes, fed by water from the distant River Colne, as are the bodies of water in the neighbouring park, Bushy Park. Plant and animal lifeHampton Court Park is a walled deer park of around 700 acres, with a herd of fallow deer, has been open to the public since 1894. Verges by the A308 road scattered with deciduous trees line the northern wall; these trees, with few evergreens, continue across much of the park.
It is documented Cardinal Wolsey inclosed with a wall about 2,000 acres to form this park and Bushy Park for his purchase and reconstruction into an exceptionally grand house on the former manor house of Hampton. It formed what became before his death Hampton Court Palace, taken over by Henry VIII; the king was an avid hunter and had the park used for breeding rabbits and/or hares and partridges. The inventory of Cromwell's goods made in 1659 records "about 700 deer", compared to "about 1,700" and "about 30 red deer" in Bushy Park. Mediaeval Oak A tree, called the Mediaeval Oak, in one of the tees for the golf course in the southern part of the park, is said to be 750 years old. Drained water meadow since medieval period The public towpath by the lowest part of the non-tidal Thames above Teddington Lock lies in all other directions apart from the palace. An emergency conditions flood meadow but not a lowered "Flood Storage Area" most of it is in planning (policy Flood Zone 2 or 3, in long term flood risk zones ranging across its four categories High risk, affecting a small portion means that each year this area has a chance of flooding of greater than 3.3%.
North of the road and a cluster of houses connected with the parks is a narrow set of Paddocks and Bushy Park. The Long Water, a namesake of a more well-visited lake in Kensington Gardens, flows in the park eastward from the back of Hampton Court Palace ending at the Golden Jubilee Fountain and is underground connected to a landscaped channel, the Longford River after the Upper Lodge Water Gardens and the Diana Fountain, Bushy Park; the annual Hampton Court Flower Show is held in 25 acres of the park. It is organized by the Royal Horticultural Society and began in 1990. Many prefer it to the better known Chelsea Flower Show because there is more space, plants and equipment can be bought at the show; as it is the world's most popular event of this type extensive traffic jams can build up. The show has sometimes been criticized for risking damage to historic features in the park. List of Sites of Special Scientific Interest in Greater London Map sources for Hampton Court Park Hampton Court Flower Show Friends of Bushy & Home Parks Photograph of the Jubilee Fountain
Crane Park is a 30 hectare public park next to the River Crane in western Twickenham. The park north of the river is in the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames, the south in the London Borough of Hounslow, it is part of The Crane Corridor Site of Metropolitan Importance for Nature Conservation, includes two Local Nature Reserves, Crane Park Island and Pevensey Road. The Hounslow Gunpowder Works opened in the late 1760s in. Crane Park Island was created to provide a mill pond for the water to drive the machinery. There were many explosions and the Shot Tower is now thought to have been a windmill for recirculating water to power the mills, rather than a shot tower for making lead shot; the licence to manufacture gunpowder was withdrawn in 1927, part of the site was sold to Twickenham Council, which turned it into Crane Park. This opened in 1935, was inherited by Richmond Council when Twickenham Council was abolished in 1965; the Shot Tower is a Grade II listed building. The park has large areas of woodland, as well as pasture areas and the river bank, it has important industrial archaeology.
It is managed to encourage wildlife, Marsh frogs and the scarce water vole breed on the banks of the river. Although the park borders the London Borough of Hounslow, it is only accessible from Twickenham. There are entrances on Crane Park Road, Ellerman Avenue, Hanworth Road, Mill Road, Great Chertsey Road, Hospital Bridge Road and Meadway; the London Loop long distance footpath goes through the park
WWT London Wetland Centre
WWT London Wetland Centre is a wetland reserve managed by the Wildfowl and Wetlands Trust in the Barnes area of the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames, southwest London, England, by Barn Elms. The site is formed of four disused Victorian reservoirs tucked into a loop in the Thames; the centre first opened in 2000, in 2002 an area of 29.9 hectares was designated a Site of Special Scientific Interest as the Barn Elms Wetland Centre. The centre occupies more than 100 acres of land, occupied by several small reservoirs; these were converted into a wide range of wetland features and habitats before the centre opened in May 2000. It was the first urban project of its kind in the United Kingdom. Many wild birds which have now made their home in the Centre cannot be found anywhere else in London, there are nationally significant numbers of gadwall and northern shoveler. Other wild birds include Eurasian bittern, northern pintail, northern lapwing, water rail, ring-necked parakeet, Eurasian sparrowhawk, sand martin, common kingfisher, little grebe and great crested grebe.
The centre holds a collection of captive wildfowl. It is host to regular lectures and events concerned with preserving Britain's wetland animals and was featured on the BBC television programme Seven Natural Wonders in 2005 as one of the wonders of the London area, with a focus on the region's parakeets, in an episode presented by Bill Oddie; the site contains a large visitors' building, used as a wedding venue. In 2012 London Wetland Centre was voted Britain's Favourite Nature Reserve in the BBC Countryfile Magazine Awards. List of Sites of Special Scientific Interest in London Official website WWT London Wetland Centre on Facebook WWT London Wetland Centre on Twitter "Map of Barn Elms Wetland Centre SSSI". Natural England