A reservoir is, most an enlarged natural or artificial lake, pond or impoundment created using a dam or lock to store water. Reservoirs can be created in a number of ways, including controlling a watercourse that drains an existing body of water, interrupting a watercourse to form an embayment within it, through excavation, or building any number of retaining walls or levees. Defined as a storage space for fluids, reservoirs may hold gasses, including hydrocarbons. Tank reservoirs elevated, or buried tanks. Tank reservoirs for water are called cisterns. Most underground reservoirs are used to store liquids, principally either water or petroleum, below ground. Reservoir is most an enlarged natural or artificial lake. A dam constructed in a valley relies on the natural topography to provide most of the basin of the reservoir. Dams are located at a narrow part of a valley downstream of a natural basin; the valley sides act as natural walls, with the dam located at the narrowest practical point to provide strength and the lowest cost of construction.
In many reservoir construction projects, people have to be moved and re-housed, historical artifacts moved or rare environments relocated. Examples include the temples of Abu Simbel, the relocation of the village of Capel Celyn during the construction of Llyn Celyn, the relocation of Borgo San Pietro of Petrella Salto during the construction of Lake Salto. Construction of a reservoir in a valley will need the river to be diverted during part of the build through a temporary tunnel or by-pass channel. In hilly regions, reservoirs are constructed by enlarging existing lakes. Sometimes in such reservoirs, the new top water level exceeds the watershed height on one or more of the feeder streams such as at Llyn Clywedog in Mid Wales. In such cases additional side dams are required to contain the reservoir. Where the topography is poorly suited to a single large reservoir, a number of smaller reservoirs may be constructed in a chain, as in the River Taff valley where the Llwyn-on, Cantref and Beacons Reservoirs form a chain up the valley.
Coastal reservoirs are fresh water storage reservoirs located on the sea coast near the river mouth to store the flood water of a river. As the land based reservoir construction is fraught with substantial land submergence, coastal reservoir is preferred economically and technically since it does not use scarce land area. Many coastal reservoirs were constructed in Europe. Saemanguem in South Korea, Marina Barrage in Singapore and Plover Cove in China, etc are few existing coastal reservoirs. Where water is pumped or siphoned from a river of variable quality or size, bank-side reservoirs may be built to store the water; such reservoirs are formed by excavation and by building a complete encircling bund or embankment, which may exceed 6 km in circumference. Both the floor of the reservoir and the bund must have an impermeable lining or core: these were made of puddled clay, but this has been superseded by the modern use of rolled clay; the water stored in such reservoirs may stay there for several months, during which time normal biological processes may reduce many contaminants and eliminate any turbidity.
The use of bank-side reservoirs allows water abstraction to be stopped for some time, when the river is unacceptably polluted or when flow conditions are low due to drought. The London water supply system is one example of the use of bank-side storage: the water is taken from the River Thames and River Lee. Service reservoirs store treated potable water close to the point of distribution. Many service reservoirs are constructed as water towers as elevated structures on concrete pillars where the landscape is flat. Other service reservoirs can be entirely underground in more hilly or mountainous country. In the United Kingdom, Thames Water has many underground reservoirs, sometimes called cisterns, built in the 1800s, most of which are lined with brick. A good example is the Honor Oak Reservoir in London, constructed between 1901 and 1909; when it was completed it was said to be the largest brick built underground reservoir in the world and it is still one of the largest in Europe. This reservoir now forms part of the southern extension of the Thames Water Ring Main.
The top of the reservoir is now used by the Aquarius Golf Club. Service reservoirs perform several functions, including ensuring sufficient head of water in the water distribution system and providing water capacity to out peak demand from consumers, enabling the treatment plant to run at optimum efficiency. Large service reservoirs can be managed to reduce the cost of pumping, by refilling the reservoir at times of day when energy costs are low. Circa 3 000 BC, the craters of extinct volcanoes in Arabia were used as reservoirs by farmers for their irrigation water. Dry climate and water scarcity in India led to early development of stepwells and water resource management techniques, including the building of a reservoir at Girnar in 3000 BC. Artificial lakes dating to the 5th century BC have been found in ancient Greece; the artificial Bhojsagar lake in present-day Madhya Pradesh state of India, constructed in the 11th century, covered 650 square kilometres. In Sri Lanka large reservoirs were created by ancient Sinhalese kings in order to save the water for irrigation.
The famous Sri Lankan king Pa
Pymmes Park is located in Edmonton, London and is bordered by the North Circular Road. The park is a Metropolitan Open Space, Local Importance of Nature Conservation, a site of Archaeological Importance; the area known as Pymmes Park dates back to 1327. Prior to 1578 the estate changed hands several times until Thomas Wilson a statesman bought the estate in 1579. In 1582 William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley, Lord High Treasurer, purchased the estate which remained in the family until 1801; the Ray family owned the estate from 1808 to 1899. The estate was purchased by the local council to provide public open space following an increase in the local population; the park was opened to the public in 1906. The park contains a Victorian walled garden, bounded on three sides by Grade II listed walls, containing an ornamental pond, herbaceous borders and bedding plants. Access is on request to a member of the Parks staff. In recent years, the park has undergone major changes due to the widening of the North Circular Road in the 1990s.
An application to the Heritage Lottery Fund was successful and £2.8 million was granted for the restoration of the Victorian Parkland in a scheme known as the Pymmes Park restoration project. Pymmes Park lake has suffered from severe pollution for many years. In 2014, the London Borough of Enfield announced plans to create a wetland covering 4,000 square metres to improve the quality of the water entering the lake. Facilities include tennis courts. Multi-use games area, football pitches, children's playground and ornamental pond; the Pymmes Brook Trail follows the approximate course of Pymmes Brook. Since 2011, a weekly 5 kilometres park run is held in the park. Silver Street railway station Buses 34 102 144 149 192 259 279 349 444 Pymmes Park information Photos of Pymmes Park
Hadley Wood is a suburb in the north of Greater London, close to the border with Hertfordshire. It is located in the London Borough of Enfield, about 11 miles north north-west of Charing Cross and is situated close to Barnet. Hadley Wood sits just East of the village of Monken Hadley, with the two settlements sharing several features of social life. However, in modern history the two communities are distinct and separate, belonging to different parishes which in turn belong to different civil Boroughs and ecclesiastical Deaneries. Hadley Wood has always possessed a strong historical link with the suburb of Cockfosters. In civil administration, Hadley Wood was part of the Municipal Borough of Enfield since its foundation in 1850 all the way up until 1965. Hadley Wood became part of the newly created Ward of Hadley Wood and Cockfosters in 1909 to allow for the return of local councillors. In 1965 the Municipal Borough was abolished, the London Borough of Enfield formed; the Ward of Hadley Wood and Cockfosters, whilst covering the same geographical area, is now known as the Ward of Cockfosters.
In ecclesiastical administration, Hadley Wood remains part of the parish of Cockfosters and the Deanery of Enfield. However, in 1911 a small local church dedicated to St Paul was opened on Hadley Wood. Although it has not achieved the status of a parish church, it now operates independently of Cockfosters parish church with its own staff and administration; the large, four-platform railway station at Hadley Wood seems somewhat out of proportion to the size of the community. Yet, there seems to be little or no evidence to support the theory. Hadley Wood School is a primary school administered by the London Borough of Enfield. There is a Church of England Primary School in the neighbouring community of Monken Hadley, administered by the London Borough of Barnet. A private Roman Catholic secondary school, St Martha's Convent School, takes female students from the ages of 11-18 and is located in nearby Monken Hadley. Hadley Wood railway station is located at the meeting of Crescent East and Crescent West in the centre of Hadley Wood.
It is operated by Great Northern. There is no underground station in Hadley Wood; the closest are High Barnet. London Buses routes 399 serve Hadley Wood. Beech Hill Park, a grade II listed building off Beech Hill, today used as the club house of Hadley Wood Golf Course. Charles Jack and landowner, responsible for the construction of Hadley Wood. Albert Kingwell, long-serving estate manager at Hadley Wood. Clark, Nancy. Hadley Wood: Its background and development.. Hadley Wood Association
Trent Park is an English country house, together with its former extensive grounds, in north London. The original great house and a number of statues and other structures located within the grounds are Grade II listed buildings; the site is designated as Metropolitan Green Belt, lies within a conservation area, is included within the Register of Parks and Gardens of Special Historic Interest in England. The house itself until 2012 formed the Trent Park campus of Middlesex University; the campus was home to the performing arts, teacher education, product design and engineering, television production and biological science departments of the university and the Flood Hazard Research Centre, but was vacated in October 2012. The parkland extends to some 320 hectares and has been known as the Trent Country Park since 1973. There is a sports ground in Southgate Hockey Centre. There used to be an indoor tennis court, attended by royalty; this became a sports hall. Trent Park dates back to the fourteenth century when it was a part of Enfield Chase, one of Henry IV's hunting grounds.
In 1777 George III leased the site to Sir Richard Jebb, his favourite doctor, as a reward for saving the life of the King's younger brother, the Duke of Gloucester. Jebb chose the name Trent, because it was in Trent, that the King's brother had been saved. Jebb subsequently acquired the freehold interest in the house and on his death it was sold to Lord Cholmondeley. In about 1836 the house was bought by the banker David Bevan for his son Robert Cooper Lee Bevan on his marriage to Lady Agneta Yorke. Robert Bevan built Christ Church, Trent, in 1838 to provide a suitable place of worship for the district. In 1909 the estate was sold to father of Philip Sassoon. Sir Philip Sassoon inherited the estate in 1912 upon his father's death and went on to entertain many notable guests at Trent Park, including Charlie Chaplin and Winston Churchill. Sir Philip Sassoon had a reputation for being one of the greatest hosts in Britain. Herbert Baker designed one house for him in 1912, Port Lympne the Port Lympne Wild Animal Park, in Kent, Philip Tilden rebuilt another, Trent Park, from 1923.
Stylistic differences between the two houses illustrate changes in taste among members of British high society of the period. Trent Park possessed a landscape designed by Humphrey Repton but the existing house was Victorian and undistinguished. Sassoon and his designers turned it into one of the houses of the age, "a dream of another world – the white-coated footmen serving endless courses of rich but delicious food, the Duke of York coming in from golf... Winston Churchill arguing over the teacups with George Bernard Shaw, Lord Balfour dozing in an armchair, Rex Whistler absorbed in his painting... while Philip himself flitted from group to group, an alert, influential but unobtrusive stage director – all set against a background of mingled luxury and informality, brilliantly contrived..."This atmosphere, as Clive Aslet has suggested, represented a complete about-face from Sassoon's earlier extravagance at Port Lympne to what Aslet called "an appreciation of English reserve." In the words of Christopher Hussey, at Trent, Sassoon caught "that indefinable and elusive quality, the spirit of a country house... an essence of cool, chintzy, unobtrusive rooms that rises in the mind when we are thinking of country houses."
During the Second World War, Trent Park was used as a centre to extract information from captured German officers. During the Battle of Britain in 1940, captured Luftwaffe pilots were held at Trent Park; the rooms at Trent Park had been equipped with hidden microphones that allowed the British to listen in to the pilots' conversations. This provided information about the German pilots' views on a number of matters, including the relative strengths and weaknesses of German aircraft. In the war it was used as a special prisoner-of-war camp for captured German generals and staff officers, they were treated hospitably, provided with special rations of whisky and allowed regular walks on the grounds. The hidden microphones and listening devices allowed the British military to gather important information and an intimate insight into the minds of the German military elite. An example of the intelligence gained from Trent Park is the existence and location of the German rocket development at Peenemünde Army Research Center, when General von Thoma discussed what he had seen there.
This led to the area being targeted for a heavy bomber attack by the RAF. Intelligence was gained on war crimes, political views, the resistance in Germany that led to the attempt to assassinate Hitler. Eighty-four generals and a number of lower-ranking staff officers were brought to Trent Park. More than 1,300 protocols were written by the time. Selected transcripts were dramatised in the 2008 History Channel 5-part series The Wehrmacht. In the episode The Crimes, General Dietrich von Choltitz is quoted as saying in October 1944: "We all share the guilt. We went along with everything, we half-took the Nazis instead of saying'to hell with you and your stupid nonsense'. I misled my soldiers into believing this rubbish. I feel utterly ashamed of myself. We bear more guilt than these uneducated animals." The transcripts from Trent Park are included in the 2011 book Soldaten: On Fighting and Dying, The Secret WWII Transcripts of German POWS b
Enfield Lock railway station
Enfield Lock railway station is on the West Anglia Main Line, it is in Enfield Lock in the London Borough of Enfield, London. It is 11 miles 65 chains down the line from London Liverpool Street and is situated between Brimsdown and Waltham Cross, its three-letter station code is ENL and it is in Travelcard zone 6. The station and all trains serving. Enfield Lock was the main station for the Royal Small Arms Factory until its closure in the late 1980s, now serves the large housing development on the site known as Enfield Island Village, as well as the nearby Innova Science and Business park; the railway line from Stratford to Broxbourne was opened by the Northern & Eastern Railway on 15 September 1840. The station itself was opened by the Eastern Counties Railway in 1855 as Ordnance Factory renamed in 1886 to Enfield Lock; the lines through Enfield Lock were electrified on 5 May 1969. Prior to the completion of electrification in 1969, passenger services between Cheshunt and London Liverpool Street through Enfield Lock station were operated by Class 125 diesel multiple units.
London Buses routes 121 and 491 serve the station. Enfield Town railway station Enfield Chase railway station Train times and station information for Enfield Lock railway station from National Rail
Forty Hall is a manor house of the 1620s in Forty Hill in Enfield, north London. The house, a Grade I listed building, is today used as a museum by the London Borough of Enfield. Within the grounds is the site of the former Tudor Elsyng Palace. Forty Hall is located in the north of the London Borough of Enfield, the northernmost borough of London; the hall and formal park are located on the top of Forty Hill, a level gravel plateau standing above the flood plain of the River Lea to the east, the valley of the Turkey Brook to the north and west. The park slopes down into the valley. A loop in the former course of the New River forms the boundary of much of the estate, though this has since been re-routed to the east. To the north are Whitewebbs and Myddelton House; the road to the east was the main route from Enfield to Waltham Cross, but traffic has been re-routed towards to A10. The house was built between 1629 and 1632, it is said to have been built by Sir Nicholas Raynton or Rainton, a wealthy London haberdasher, Lord Mayor of London from 1632 to 1633.
However Tuff, writing in 1858, says that it was built by Sir Hugh Fortee and bought by Raynton, quoting a 1635 survey describing a copyhold house "some time Hugh Fortee's, late Sir Thomas Gurney's". Lambert gives Fortee as the origin of the name; the detailed history of the house has until been poorly understood, since it is known to have been built in the 1620s, but has the external appearance of an 18th-century house. A detailed examination was carried out for Enfield council as part of the Forty Hall Conservation Plan; this concluded that the house was not designed by a famous architect such as Inigo Jones, but by a "clever artisan builder". The original square house was not altered much in the 17th century other than a small extension to the north-west in 1636. In 1640 Rainton was imprisoned for refusing to help Charles, he was buried at St Andrew's Church in Enfield. The hall passed to his great-nephew Nicholas, he was able to extend the estate northwards by buying and demolishing the neighbouring Elsyng Palace in 1656.
In 1696 the hall passed to John Wolstenholme, who carried out major refurbishment following a fire, including construction of an extension to the south-west, planted the avenue. In 1740 the house passed to Eliab Breton. Owners included Edmund Armstrong and James Meyer, whose family built the nearby Jesus Church in 1835. In 1894 the hall was bought by Henry Carrington Bowles of the neighbouring Myddelton House for his son Major Henry Ferryman Bowles, MP for Enfield and 1st Baronet Bowles. In 1897 there were further changes including enlargement of the south-west wing. In 1951 the Bowles family sold it to the Municipal Borough of Enfield, the predecessor of the London Borough of Enfield, it has since been used as a museum. The Hall closed to the public in late 2010 for a major redevelopment project funded by Enfield Council and the Heritage Lottery Fund. Alterations included the restoration of the original position of the staircase; the Hall reopened on 30 June 2012. The Hall's permanent exhibition tells the story of the house and its estate throughout the ages and looks at the life and times of Sir Nicholas Rainton and life in the seventeenth century through a range of visual and audio interpretation and displays.
There is a range of guided tours, led by a Jacobean character. The exhibition programme focuses on art and heritage; the estate of around 107 hectares makes up part of the London Metropolitan Green Belt. Around the house are formal gardens and a small lake; the remainder includes a park, open to the public and a farm. An avenue of trees runs down the hill from the house into the valley of the Turkey Brook known locally as Maidens Brook; the northern and much of the southern boundary are marked by the former course of the New River. Gillam, Geoffrey. Forty Hall, Enfield, 1629–1997: house, walled kitchen garden, pleasure grounds, park & home farm. Enfield: Enfield Archaeological Society. ISBN 0950187720. Media related to Forty Hall at Wikimedia Commons Forty Hall & Estate – official site Forty Hall on the VisitWoods website
Forty Hill is a residential suburb in the north of the London Borough of Enfield, England. To the north is Bulls Cross, to the south Enfield Town, to the west Clay Hill, to the east Enfield Highway. Forty Hill was recorded as Fortyehill 1610, Fortie hill 1619, Fortee hill 1686, named from Fortey c.1350, that is' the island in marsh', from Old English forth-ēg with reference to the rising ground above the River Lea marshes. There have been houses in the road now known as Forty Hill since at least 1572; the area includes the historic Forty Hall, built in the 17th century in the grounds of the former Tudor palace of Elsyng. In its grounds is the older Dower House. Other older buildings nearby include the early 18th century Worcester Lodge and 18th century Elsynge House and Sparrow Hall, the 19th century Elms and Clock House. George Birkbeck lived at Forty Hill in the 1820s. Jesus Church, near Maiden's Bridge, was built in 1835 and the nearby school in 1851. Goat Lane is named after a pub established before 1794, replaced by a large building in mock-Elizabethan style in the 1930s.
Some housing was built during Victorian times but most of the area consists of terraced houses and maisonettes built in the 1930s. Interior of the Carpenter's Shop at Forty Hill, Enfield - exhibited 1813thumbnail There are many bus services which serve the area. Nearby is Gordon Hill railway station; the area was crossed by the A105 road, running north from Enfield Town past Forty Hall and Myddelton House to meet the A1010 near Waltham Cross. This was altered to terminate at the A110 in Enfield Town, the main route cut to discourage through traffic from using the narrow Maiden's Bridge. There are now no major roads crossing the area, by-passed by the A110 to the south and the A10 to the east. Forty Hall Manor and Country Park is a manor with gardens, it is open all year round. Many events and exhibitions are held here; the London Loop long-distance footpath follows the Turkey Brook to the north of Forty Hall. Nearby to the north in Bulls Cross are Myddelton House Gardens and Capel Manor horticultural college with 74 acres of grounds open to the public, including a maze and themed gardens.
Special events take place here throughout the year. Nearby are Whitewebbs Park and Clay Hill House; the hill which gives its name to the district lies to the north of the built-up area and is occupied by Forty Hall and its grounds. It rises to a plateau around 50 metres above sea level composed of the Boyn Hill Gravel, a deposit laid down by a former course of the Thames. To the west and north is the valley of the Turkey Brook, which meets the Cuffley Brook here before flowing east to the Lea. To the south and east are the lower and gravels and'brickearths' of the Lea Valley; the former course of the New River runs up the north side of the Turkey Brook valley north and west of the hill, before crossing the valley to run south-east between Forty Hill and Clay Hill, the limit of the higher glacial hills to the west. The New River has since been straightened to flow southwards to the east of Forty Hill, using an aqueduct to cross Turkey Brook near Maidens Bridge. Graham Dalling: Forty Hill a history A Church of England church in Forty Hill The school linked with Jesus church