Feltham is a large town in the London Borough of Hounslow, west London, west of Twickenham, south-west of Hounslow and north of Walton-on-Thames. Feltham formed an ancient parish in the Spelthorne hundred of Middlesex; the Domesday Book records an annual value of six pounds sterling. A large area of ten cultivated ploughlands is recorded. Following Mortain's son's forfeit of lands, the land was granted to the Redvers/de Ripariis/Rivers family; the heir in that family, Hubert de Burgh swapped Feltham and Kempton with Henry III for his manors of Aylsham in Norfolk and Westhall in Suffolk. In 1440 Henry VI granted numerous privileges to his joint royal custodian of the two manors, including a daily income of up to 12 shillings and that "corn, hay and carriages and other goods and chattels should not be seized for the king's use". While under total royal control following Henry VIII's full annexation of the manor into the Honour of Hampton Court, a lease of all of its manor court rights and "franchises, privileges and hereditaments" was granted under his daughter Elizabeth I to the Killigrew family of Kempton Park, for 80 years.
However the large manor itself passed 40 years in 1631 by grant to Francis Cottington, established at his new Hanworth Park, who had become Lord Treasurer and leader of the pro-Spanish, pro-Roman Catholic faction in the court of Charles I. His nephew sold it, after a major fire and a temporary loss caused by John Bradshaw, who arranged the King's execution, under the Commonwealth of England, to Sir Thomas Chamber, his son inherited Feltham manor, whose daughter by an empowering marriage to Admiral Vere of Hanworth in the same historic county of Middlesex led to its next owner having a high title and degree of wealth: her son, Aubrey Beauclerk, 5th Duke of St Albans inherited the manor and a dukedom with considerable land from a cousin. The Duke was a British landowner and a collector of antiquities and works of art, seated at Hanworth, who funded an excavation in Italy which produced many sculpture artifacts. Parting with much of the Duke's surfeit of large country houses, minor plot sales dividing the two ancient manors took place in the 19th century.
In the early 20th century, until death, the land now considered Feltham was either subdivided by developers and farmers or owned by senior judge Ernest Pollock turned politician, Viscount Hanworth who saw the large Hanworth manor, which covered most of Hanworth parish divided up due to taxation and its being well-placed to cater to the demand for new homes due to transport links. In this period in 1784 General William Roy set out the baseline of what would become the Ordnance Survey across Hounslow Heath, passing through Feltham. General Roy is commemorated by a local pub; the MOD Defence Geographic Centre maintains a base in Feltham, announced for disposal in the 2015–2020 Parliament. In 1831, Feltham occupied an area of 2,620 acres, stretching into Hounslow Heath and had a population of 924; the Waterloo to Reading Line established a station here from its construction in 1848. From 1894 to 1904 the Felham parish was included in the Staines Rural District. In 1901 the parish had a population of 4,534 and accordingly in 1904 it was split from the rural district to form the Feltham Urban District.
In 1932 the parishes of Hanworth and East Bedfont were transferred from the Staines district to Feltham Urban District. From the 1860's until late 1920's Feltham was home to the "Cabbage King," A. W. Smith. Smith was considered one of the most successful market gardeners of the time, his "Glass City" of greenhouses along Feltham's High street was unmatched. Smith lived in the Feltham House for a time, his greenhouses have since disappeared. Feltham Urban District was disbanded in 1965, along with the Middlesex County Council. For administrative purposes Feltham is now part of Greater London the geographic and historic county of Middlesex was never abolished by statute. A poll on the Feltham and Bedfont Appreciation Society group on Facebook found that Feltham residents overwhelmingly continue to identify their home county as Middlesex. Although opened in 1910, major expansion took place in a similar period, at the extreme south-west of the post town, at Feltham Young Offenders' Institution or HM Prison Feltham, a major such institution providing a range of employments and rehabilitation schemes for young people.
Near the town's border with Ashford and the neighbouring village of East Bedfont. Famous former resident Freddie Mercury of rock band Queen was commemorated by a permanent, Hollywood-style granite star in Feltham's town-centre piazza, unveiled on 24 November 2009 by Queen guitarist Brian May, alongside Freddie's mother, Jer Bulsara, his sister. In 2011, owing to neglect and weather damage, Hounslow Council removed the memorial, resolving to substitute a smaller one elsewhere; the land is flat but well-drained, Feltham is centred 13.5 miles west south west of central London at Charing Cross and 2 miles from Heathrow Airport. The neighbouring settlements are Hounslow, East Bedfont, Sunbury-on-Thames and Hanworth. There is no specific town council for Feltham, instead a Bedfont, Hanworth Area Forum of councillors considers issues specific to the area on t
An urban park or metropolitan park known as a municipal park or a public park, public open space, or municipal gardens, is a park in cities and other incorporated places to offer recreation and green space to residents of, visitors to, the municipality. The design and maintenance is done by government agencies on the local level, but may be contracted out to a park conservancy, friends of group, or private sector company. Common features of municipal parks include playgrounds, hiking and fitness trails or paths, bridle paths, sports fields and courts, public restrooms, boat ramps, and/or picnic facilities, depending on the budget and natural features available. Park advocates claim that having parks near urban residents, including within a 10-minute walk, provide multiple benefits. A park is an area of open space provided for recreational use owned and maintained by a local government. Grass is kept short to discourage insect pests and to allow for the enjoyment of picnics and sporting activities.
Trees are chosen for their beauty and to provide shade, with an increasing emphasis on reducing an urban heat island effect. Some early parks include the La Alameda de Hércules, in Seville, a promenaded public mall, urban garden and park built in 1574, within the historic center of Seville; the Városliget in the City of Pest, what is today Budapest, was a city property when afforestation started in the middle of the 18th century, from the 1790s with the clear aim to create a public park. Between 1799 and 1805 it was rented out to the Batthyány family to carry out such a project but the city had taken back control and in 1813 announced a design competition to finish the park. An early purpose-built public park, although financed was Princes Park in the Liverpool suburb of Toxteth; this was laid out to the designs of Joseph Paxton from 1842 and opened in 1843. The land on which the park was built was purchased by Richard Vaughan Yates, an iron merchant and philanthropist, in 1841 for £50,000; the creation of Princes Park showed great foresight and introduced a number of influential ideas.
First and foremost was the provision of open space for the benefit of townspeople and local residents within an area, being built up. Secondly it took the concept of the designed landscape as a setting for the suburban domicile and re-fashioned it for the provincial town in a most original way. Nash's remodelling of St James's Park from 1827 and the sequence of processional routes he created to link The Mall with Regent's Park transformed the appearance of London's West End. With the establishment of Princes Park in 1842, Joseph Paxton did something similar for the benefit of a provincial town, albeit one of international stature by virtue of its flourishing mercantile sector. Liverpool had a burgeoning presence in global maritime trade before 1800, during the Victorian era its wealth rivalled that of London itself; the form and layout of Paxton's ornamental grounds, structured about an informal lake within the confines of a serpentine carriageway, put in place the essential elements of his much-imitated design for Birkenhead Park in Birkenhead.
The latter commenced in 1843 with the help of public finance and deployed the ideas which Paxton had pioneered at Princes Park on a more expansive scale. Frederick Law Olmsted praised its qualities. Indeed, Paxton is credited as having been one of the principal influences on Olmsted and Calvert's design for New York's Central Park of 1857. Another early public park, the Peel Park, England, opened on 22 August 1846. In The Politics of Park Design: A History of Urban Parks in America, Professor Galen Cranz identifies four phases of park design in the U. S. In the late 19th century, city governments purchased large tracts of land on the outskirts of cities to form "pleasure grounds": semi-open, charmingly landscaped areas whose primary purpose was to allow city residents the workers, to relax in nature; as time passed and the urban area grew around the parks, land in these parks was used for other purposes, such as zoos, golf courses and museums. These parks continue to draw visitors from around the region and are considered regional parks, because they require a higher level of management than smaller local parks.
According to the Trust for Public Land, the three most visited municipal parks in the United States are Central Park in New York, Lincoln Park in Chicago, Mission Bay Park in San Diego. In the early 1900s, according to Cranz, U. S. cities built neighborhood parks with swimming pools and civic buildings, with the intention of Americanizing the immigrant residents. In the 1950s, when money became available after World War II, new parks continued to focus on both outdoor and indoor recreation with services, such as sports leagues using their ball fields and gymnasia; these smaller parks were built in residential neighborhoods, tried to serve all residents with programs for seniors, adults and children. Green space was of secondary importance; as urban land prices climbed, new urban parks in the 1960s and after have been pocket parks. One example of a pocket park is Chess Park in California; the American Society of Landscape Architects gave this park a General Design Award of Honor in 2006. These small parks provide greenery, a place to sit outdoors, a playground for children.
All four types of park continue to exist in urban areas. Because of the large amount of open space and natural habitat in the former pleasure grounds, the
Osterley Park is a large park and one of the largest open spaces in London. In its grounds, there is a large mansion, referred to as'Osterley House'; the park lies between Isleworth. It is operated by the National trust; when the house was built it was surrounded by countryside. It was one of a group of large houses close to London which served as country retreats for wealthy families. Other surviving country retreats of this type near London include Chiswick House; the park is one of the largest open spaces in west London, although the M4 motorway cuts across the middle of it. The original building on this site was a manor house built in the 1570s for banker Sir Thomas Gresham, who purchased the manor of Osterley in 1562; the "faire and stately brick house" was completed in 1576. It is known; the stable block from this period remains at Osterley Park. Gresham was so wealthy he bought the neighbouring Manor of Boston in 1572. Two hundred years the manor house was falling into disrepair, when, as the result of a mortgage default, it came into the ownership of Sir Francis Child, the founder of Child's Bank.
In 1761 Sir Francis's grandsons and Robert, employed Scottish architect Robert Adam, just emerging as one of the most fashionable architects in Britain, to remodel the house. When Francis died in 1763, the project was taken up by his brother and heir Robert Child, for whom the interiors were created; the house is of red brick with white stone details and is square, with turrets in the four corners. Adam's design, which incorporates some of the earlier structure, is unusual, differs in style from the original construction. One side is left open and is spanned by an Ionic pedimented screen, approached by a broad flight of steps and leads to a central courtyard, at piano nobile level. Adam's neoclassical interiors are among his most notable sequences of rooms. Horace Walpole described the drawing room as "worthy of Eve before the fall." The rooms are characterised by elaborate but restrained plasterwork, rich varied colour schemes, a degree of coordination between decor and furnishings unusual in English neoclassical interiors.
Notable rooms include the entrance hall, which has large semi-circular alcoves at each end, the Etruscan dressing room, which Adam said was inspired by the Etruscan vases in Sir William Hamilton's collection, illustrations of, published. Adam designed some of the furniture, including the opulent domed state bed, still in the house. Robert Child's only daughter, Sarah Anne Child, married John Fane, 10th Earl of Westmorland in 1782; when Child died two months his will placed his vast holdings, including Osterley, in trust for his eldest granddaughter, Lady Sarah Sophia Fane, born in 1785. She married George Child-Villiers, 5th Earl of Jersey, thus Osterley passed into the Jersey family; this was done deliberately by Child. This was because Fane eloped with Sarah Child to Gretna Green and Child was so enraged that he left his entire estate to "the first born child", he didn't specify Sarah Sophia, nor did he specify the gender. The grounds of Osterley Park were used for the training of the first members of the Local Defence Volunteers when the 9th Earl, a friend of publisher Lord Hulton, allowed writer and military journalist Captain Tom Wintringham to establish the first Home Guard training school at the park in May/June 1940, teaching the theory and practice of modern mechanical warfare, guerilla warfare techniques and using the estate workers' homes scheduled for demolition, to teach street fighting techniques.
The painter Roland Penrose taught camouflage techniques here, attempting to disguise the obvious charms of a naked Lee Miller. Maj. Wilfred Vernon taught the art of mixing home-made explosives, his explosives store can still be seen at the rear of the house, while Canadian Bert "Yank" Levy, who had served under Wintringham in the Spanish Civil War taught knife fighting and hand-to-hand combat. Despite winning world fame in newsreels and newspaper articles around the world, the school was disapproved of by the War Office and Winston Churchill, was taken over in September 1940. Closed in 1941, its staff and courses were reallocated to other newly opened War Office-approved Home Guard schools. George Child Villiers, 9th Earl of Jersey, opened Osterley to the public in 1939 after having received many requests to see its historic interior; the Earl justified his decision by saying that it was "sufficient answer that he did not live in it and that many others wished to see it". A series of exhibitions of artworks by living artists were staged by the Earl in the top-floor rooms of Osterley to contrast the 18th-century interiors on the ground floor on its 1939 opening.
Though it never came to fruition, the Earl planned to create an arboretum in the grounds of Osterley. After the Second World War the Earl approached Middlesex County Council who had shown interest in purchasing the house before the war, but decided to give the house and its park to the National Trust; the furniture at Osterley was sold to the Albert Museum. The 9th Earl moved to the island of Jersey in 1947, taking many pictures from Osterley's collection with him, although some were destroyed in a warehouse fire on the island soon after; the Earl assisted the Ministry of Wor
Hounslow Heath is a local nature reserve in the London Borough of Hounslow. The public open space, which covers 200 acres, is all that remains of the historic Hounslow Heath which covered more than 4,000 acres; the present day area is bounded by A315 Staines Road, A3063 Wellington Road South, A314 Hanworth Road, the River Crane. The heathland of Hounslow Heath covered an area underlain by Taplow gravel that now includes parts of Bedfont, Cranford, Hampton, Hanworth, Harmondsworth, Hounslow, Stanwell, Teddington and Heathrow. Hounslow Heath has had major historical importance crossed by main routes from London to the west and southwest of Britain. Staines Road, the northern boundary of the present heath, was Via Trinobantes. There are several historic references to Roman camps close to the heath. Continuous recorded history dates back to Norman times. In 1546, Hounslow Heath was surveyed with a recorded area of 4,293 acres. Various armies used the heath due to its proximity to London and Hampton Court.
Oliver Cromwell stationed an army there at the end of the English Civil War in 1647. James II camped his army there, conducted military exercises and mock battles to try to intimidate the population in London. In 1793, Hounslow Barracks was built to the north of Staines Road as part of the preparations to meet a possible French invasion. In the 17th and 18th centuries, the heath was notorious as the haunt of highwaymen and footpads, being crossed by the Great West Road and the Bath Road; the eventual mapping of the whole of the United Kingdom by the Ordnance Survey began with the measuring of an accurate base-line on Hounslow Heath, chosen for its flatness and its relative proximity to the Royal Greenwich Observatory. A sighting was made of the spire of All Saints' church in Banstead, along that line a length of 27,400 feet was precisely measured; this work by General William Roy was the start of the Anglo-French Survey, which led to the Principal Triangulation of Great Britain. By 1900, the heath was still in use as a training ground for horse-mounted cavalry based at Hounslow Barracks, a gun shooting range, adjacent army medical units including an isolation hospital.
After the outbreak of World War I in 1914, Hounslow Heath Aerodrome was established, that developed to become a fighter aircraft defence and training base. In 1919, the aerodrome became the sole London Terminal Aerodrome, hosted the first scheduled daily international commercial air services. In 1920, it surrendered its role to Croydon Airport, closed; the heath was again used for military training and a repair depot. On the south side of Staines Road, to the north of the Heath, is a monument, now in a state of neglect, commemorating the first flight to Australia, a modified Vickers Vimy bomber G-EAOU, flown by Australian brothers Keith and Ross Smith, which took off from Hounslow Heath Aerodrome on 12 November 1919 and arrived in Darwin on 10 December. A plaque marks the entrance to London's first civil airport, stating: "London Terminal Aerodrome Hounslow Heath August 1919 - 1920. From here the first British international airline operation and the first flight from Europe to Australia was made.
Erected by the Heston and Isleworth Borough Council". On 10 April 2016, another memorial to the aerodrome was unveiled and dedicated by the Airfields of Britain Conservation Trust south of the car park beside the Staines Road. An area to the west of the present heath was used for gravel extraction after World War II. Used for landfill until the late 1960s, the land was reclaimed to form Hounslow Heath Golf Centre which opened in 1979. Bronze Age spearheads and sword and knife fragments from Hounslow, are held at the British Museum Celtic badges and amulets discovered in a field at Hounslow in 1864. In 1999, excavations on the former Feltham Marshalling Yards to the south of the heath unearthed remains of an Iron Age furnace and post holes from a round house. There are various remains of former mills and other industrial archaeological features adjoining the River Crane near the heath; this part of the river is classified as an Archaeological Priority Area. Hounslow Heath is a designated local nature reserve and Site of Metropolitan Importance for Nature Conservation, is made up of lowland heath, dry acid grassland, scrub, neutral grasslands, wildflower meadows, providing a wild, rugged country setting with a large network of paths.
Hounslow parks and open spaces Hounslow Council website: Parks and Open Spaces
St James's Park
St James's Park is a 23-hectare park in the City of Westminster, central London. The park lies at the southernmost tip of the St James's area, named after a leper hospital dedicated to St James the Less, it is the most easterly of a near-continuous chain of parks that includes Green Park, Hyde Park, Kensington Gardens. The park is bounded by Buckingham Palace to the west, the Mall to the north, Horse Guards to the east, Birdcage Walk to the south, it meets Green Park at Queen's Gardens with the Victoria Memorial at its centre, opposite the entrance to Buckingham Palace. St James's Palace is on the opposite side of The Mall; the closest London Underground stations are St James's Park, Green Park and Westminster. The park is Grade I listed on the Register of Historic Parks and Gardens; the park has a small lake, St James's Park Lake, with two islands, West Island, Duck Island, named for the lake's collection of waterfowl. A resident colony of pelicans has been a feature of the park since pelicans were donated by a Russian ambassador in 1664 to Charles II.
While most of the time the wings are clipped, there is a pelican who can be seen flying to the London Zoo in hopes of another meal. The Blue Bridge across the lake affords a view west towards Buckingham Palace framed by trees. Looking east the view includes the Swire Fountain to the north of Duck Island and, past the lake, the grounds of Horse Guards Parade, with Horse Guards, the Old War Office and Whitehall Court behind. To the south of Duck Island is the Tiffany Fountain on Pelican Rock, past the lake is the Foreign and Commonwealth Office, with the London Eye, the Shell Tower, the Shard behind; the park has a children's playground including a large sandpit. In 1532, Henry VIII bought an area of marshland, it lay to the west of York Palace acquired by Henry from Cardinal Wolsey. On James I's accession to the throne in 1603, he ordered that the park be drained and landscaped, exotic animals were kept in the park, including camels, crocodiles, an elephant and exotic birds, kept in aviaries. While Charles II was in exile in France under the Commonwealth of England, he was impressed by the elaborate gardens at French royal palaces, on his ascension he had the park redesigned in a more formal style by the French landscaper André Mollet.
A 775-metre by 38-metre canal was created. The king opened the park to the public and used the area to entertain guests and mistresses, such as Nell Gwyn; the park became notorious at the time as a meeting place for impromptu acts of lechery, as described by John Wilmot, 2nd Earl of Rochester in his poem "A Ramble in St James's Park". In the late 17th and early 18th centuries cows grazed on the park, milk could be bought fresh at the "Lactarian", described by Zacharias Conrad von Uffenbach in 1710; the 18th century saw further changes, including the reclamation of part of the canal for Horse Guards Parade and the purchase of Buckingham House at the west end of the Mall, for the use of Queen Charlotte in 1761. Further remodelling in 1826–27, commissioned by the Prince Regent and overseen by the architect and landscaper John Nash, saw the canal's conversion into a more naturally-shaped lake, formal avenues rerouted to romantic winding pathways. At the same time, Buckingham House was expanded to create the palace, Marble Arch was built at its entrance, whilst The Mall was turned into a grand processional route.
It opened to public traffic 60 years in 1887. The Marble Arch was moved to its current location at the junction of Oxford Street and Park Lane in 1851 and the Victoria Memorial was erected between 1906 and 1934. Media related to St. James's Park at Wikimedia Commons Visitor information at the Royal Parks website
National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty
The National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty known as the National Trust, is an independent charity and membership organisation for environmental and heritage conservation in England and Northern Ireland. It is the largest membership organisation in the United Kingdom; the trust describes itself as "a charity that works to preserve and protect historic places and spaces—for for everyone". The trust was founded in 1895 and given statutory powers, starting with the National Trust Act 1907; the trust tended to focus on English country houses, which still make up the largest part of its holdings, but it protects historic landscapes such as in the Lake District, historic urban properties, nature reserves. In Scotland, there is an independent National Trust for Scotland; the Trust has special powers to prevent land being sold off or mortgaged, although this can be over-ridden by Parliament. The National Trust has been the beneficiary of bequests, it owns over 350 heritage properties, which includes many historic houses and gardens, industrial monuments, social history sites.
Most of these are open to the public for a charge. Others are leased, on terms; the Trust is one of the largest landowners in the United Kingdom, owning over 247,000 hectares of land, including many characteristic sites of natural beauty, most of which are open to the public free of charge. The Trust, one of the largest UK charities financially, is funded by membership subscriptions, entrance fees and revenue from gift shops and restaurants within its properties, it has been accused of focusing too much on country estates, in recent years, the trust has sought to broaden its activities by acquiring historic properties such as former mills, early factories and the childhood homes of Paul McCartney and John Lennon. In 2015, the trust undertook a governance review to mark the 10th anniversary of the current governance structure; the review led to the downsizing of the limitation of tenure to two terms. The National Trust was incorporated in 1895 as an "association not for profit" under the Companies Acts 1862–90, in which the liability of its members was limited by guarantee.
It was incorporated by six separate Acts of Parliament: The National Trust Acts 1907, 1919, 1937, 1939, 1953, 1971. It is a charitable organisation registered under the Charities Act 2006, its formal purpose is: The trust was founded on 12 January 1895 by Octavia Hill, Sir Robert Hunter and Hardwicke Rawnsley, prompted in part by the earlier success of Charles Eliot and the Kyrle Society. In the early days, the trust was concerned with protecting open spaces and a variety of threatened buildings; the trust's first nature reserve was Wicken Fen, its first archaeological monument was White Barrow. The trust has been the beneficiary of numerous donations of money. From 1924 to 1931, the trust's chairman was John Bailey, of whom The Times said in 1931, "The strong position which the National Trust now occupies is due to him, it will never be known how many generous gifts of rural beauty and historic interest the nation owes, directly or indirectly, to his persuasive enthusiasm." At the same time, a group of anonymous philanthropists set up the Ferguson's Gang.
The focus on country houses and gardens, which now comprise the majority of its most visited properties, came about in the mid 20th century when the private owners of many of the properties were no longer able to afford to maintain them. Many were donated to the trust in lieu of death duties; the diarist James Lees-Milne is credited with playing a central role in the main phase of the trust's country house acquisition programme, though he was in fact an employee of the trust, was carrying through policies decided by its governing body. Sir Jack Boles, Director General of the Trust between 1975 and 1983, oversaw the acquisition of Wimpole Hall, Canons Ashby and Kingston Lacy; the last is a notable asset as it comprises an art collection, Corfe Castle, Studland Bay, Badbury Rings and a host of commercial and domestic buildings and land. One of the biggest crises in the trust's history erupted at the 1967 annual general meeting, when the leadership of the trust was accused of being out of touch and placing too much emphasis on conserving country houses.
In response, the council asked Sir Henry Benson to chair an advisory committee to review the structure of the trust. Following the publication of the Benson Report in 1968, much of the administration of the trust was devolved to the regions. In the 1990s, a dispute over whether deer hunting should be permitted on National Trust land caused bitter disputes within the organisation, was the subject of much debate at annual general meetings, but it did little to slow the growth in its membership numbers. In 2005, the trust moved to a new head office in Wiltshire; the building was constructed on an abandoned railway yard, is intended as a model of brownfield renewal. It is named Heelis, taken from the married name of children's author Beatrix Potter, a huge supporter of, donor to, the trust, which now owns the land she owned in Cumbria; the trust is an independent charity rather than a government institution. Historic England and
A nature reserve is a protected area of importance for flora, fauna or features of geological or other special interest, reserved and managed for conservation and to provide special opportunities for study or research. Nature reserves may be designated by government institutions in some countries, or by private landowners, such as charities and research institutions, regardless of nationality. Nature reserves fall into different IUCN categories depending on the level of protection afforded by local laws, it is more protected than a nature park. Cultural practices that equate to the establishment and maintenance of reserved areas for animals date back to antiquity, with King Devanampiya Tissa of Anuradhapura establishing one of the world's earliest wildlife sanctuaries in the 3rd century BC. Early reservations had a religious underpinning, such as the'evil forest' areas of West Africa which were forbidden to humans, who were threatened with spiritual attack if they went there. Sacred areas taboo from human entry to fishing and hunting are known by many ancient cultures worldwide.
The world's first modern nature reserve was established in 1821 by the naturalist and explorer Charles Waterton around his estate in Walton Hall, West Yorkshire. He spent £9000 on the construction of a 3 mile long, 9 ft tall wall to enclose his park from poachers, he tried to encourage birdlife by hollowing out trunks for owls to nest in. He invented artificial nest boxes to house starlings and sand martins and unsuccessfully attempted to introduce little owls from Italy. Waterton allowed local people access to his reserve and was described by David Attenborough as “one of the first people anywhere to recognise not only that the natural world was of great importance but that it needed protection as humanity made more and more demands on it”. Drachenfels was protected as the first state-designated nature reserve in modern-day Germany; the first major nature reserve was Yellowstone National Park in Wyoming, United States, followed by the Royal National Park near Sydney and the Barguzin Nature Reserve of Imperial Russia, the first of zapovedniks set up by a federal government for the scientific study of nature.
In Australia, a nature reserve is the title of a type of protected area used in the jurisdictions of the Australian Capital Territory, New South Wales and Western Australia. The term “nature reserve” is defined in the relevant statutes used in those states and territories rather than by a single national statute; as of 2016, 1767 out of a total of 11044 protected areas listed within the Australian National Reserve System used the term “nature reserve" in their names. In Brazil, nature reserves are classified as ecological stations estações ecológicas) or biological reserves by the National System of Conservation Units, their main objectives are preserving fauna and flora and other natural attributes, excluding direct human interference. Visits are allowed only with permission, only for educational or scientific purposes. Changes to the ecosystems in both types of reserve are allowed to restore and preserve the natural balance, biological diversity and natural ecological processes. Ecological stations are allowed to change the environment within defined limits for the purpose of scientific research.
A wildlife reserve in Brazil is protected, hunting is not allowed, but products and by-products from research may be sold. There are 30 nature reserves in Egypt; those nature reserves were built according to the laws no. 102/1983 and 4/1994 for protection of the Egyptian nature reserve. Egypt announced a plan from to build 40 nature reserves from 1997 to 2017, to help protect the natural resources and the culture and history of those areas; the largest nature reserve in Egypt is Gebel Elba in the southeast, on the Red Sea coast. Denmark has three national parks and several nature reserves, some of them inside the national park areas; the largest single reserve is Hanstholm Nature Reserve, which covers 40 km2 and is part of Thy National Park. In Sweden, there are 29 national parks; the first of them was established in 1909. In fact, Sweden was the first European country. There are 4,000 nature reserves in Sweden, they comprise about 85% of the surface, protected by the Swedish Environmental Code. In Estonia, there are 5 national parks, more than 100 nature reserves, around 130 landscape protection areas.
The largest nature reserve in Estonia is Alam-Pedja Nature Reserve, which covers 342 km2. As of 2017, France counts 10 national parks, around 8 marine parks. In 1995 Germany had 5,314 nature reserves covering 6,845 km2, the largest total areas being in Bavaria with 1,416 km2 and Lower Saxony with 1,275 km2. In Hungary, there are 10 National Parks, more than 15 nature reserves and more than 250 protected areas. Hortobágy National Park is the largest continuous natural grassland in Europe and the oldest national park in Hungary, it is situated on the plain of the Alföld. It was established in 1972. There are alkaline grasslands interrupted by marshes, they have a sizable importance. One of the most spectacular sights of the park is the autumn mi