Liatris is a genus of flowering plants in the boneset tribe within the sunflower family native to North America. Its most common name is blazing star; some species are used as ornamental plants, sometimes in flower bouquets. They are perennials. Liatris species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including the flower moths Schinia gloriosa and Schinia sanguinea, both of which feed on the genus, Schinia tertia and Schinia trifascia. Liatris is in the tribe Eupatorieae of the aster family. Like other members of this tribe, the flower heads have no ray florets. Liatris is in the subtribe Liatrinae along with Trilisa and other genera. Liatris is related to Garberia, a genus with only one species endemic to Florida; the two genera can be distinguished by karyotype. Species in the genus include: Liatris acidota – sharp blazing star, Gulf Coast blazing star - TX LA Liatris aestivalis – summer blazing star - TX OK Liatris aspera – tall blazing star - ONT, United States Liatris borealis - Allegheny Mountains of PA Liatris × boykinii - GA AL Liatris bracteata – bracted blazing star - TX Liatris chapmanii – Chapman's blazing star - FL GA AL Liatris cokeri – Coker's blazing star - NC SC Liatris compacta – scaly blazing star - AR OK Liatris creditonensis - ONT Liatris cylindracea – Ontario blazing star, fewhead blazing star - ONT, central + southeastern United States Liatris cymosa – branched blazing star - TX Liatris × deamii Liatris densispicata - MN Liatris elegans – pinkscale blazing star, elegant blazing star - TX OK AR LA MS AL FL GA SC Liatris elegantula – shaggy blazing star - TN MS AL GA FL Liatris fallacior - ND Liatris × frostii - MN MO Liatris garberi – Garber's blazing star - FL Bahamas Liatris gholsonii – Gholson's blazing star - FL Liatris × gladewitzii - ONT, MI WI IL Liatris glandulosa – glandular blazing star - TX Liatris gracilis – slender blazing star - MS AL GA FL SC Liatris helleri – Heller's blazing star, turgid blazing star - MD WV VA NC Liatris hirsuta – hairy blazing star - central + southeastern United States Liatris laevigata – shortleaf blazingstar - FL GA Liatris lancifolia – lanceleaf blazingstar - NM TX CO WY KS NE SD IA Liatris ligulistylis – Rocky Mountain blazing star, strap-style blazing star - MAN SAS ALB ND SD MN WI IL IA MO NE WY MT CO NM Liatris microcephala – small-head blazing star - NC SC GA AL TN KY Liatris novae-angliae – New England blazing-star Liatris ohlingerae – Florida blazing star, scrub blazing star - FL Liatris oligocephala – Cahaba torch - AL Liatris patens – spreading blazing star, Georgia blazing star - FL GA SC Liatris pauciflora – fewflower blazing star - AL GA FL SC NC Liatris pilosa – grass-leaf blazing star, shaggy blazing star - SC NC VA MD DE PA NJ Liatris × platylepis - LA Liatris provincialis – Godfrey's blazing star - FL Liatris punctata – dotted blazing star, plains gayfeather - MAN SAS ALB eastern + central United States Coahuila, Nuevo León, San Luis Potosí Liatris pycnostachya – prairie blazing star, button snakeroot, cattail gayfeather, thickspike gayfeather, Kansas gayfeather - QUE eastern United States Liatris × ridgwayi - IL KS Liatris savannensis – savanna blazing star - FL Liatris scariosa – northern gayfeather, devil's bite - eastern + central United States Liatris × serotina - LA Liatris × spheroidea - ONT Liatris spicata – dense blazing star, button snakewort, florist gayfeather, marsh blazingstar, prairie-pine - ONT QUE eastern United States Liatris squarrosa – loosescale gayfeather, scaly blazing star - central + southeastern United States Liatris squarrulosa – southern gayfeather, Appalachian blazing star - south-central + southeastern United States Liatris × steelei - IL IN KY Liatris tenuifolia – pine-needle gayfeather, shortleaf gayfeather - MS AL GA TN SC Liatris tenuis – gulf blazing star, Shinners' gayfeather - TX LA Liatris virgata – wand blazing star, King's Mountain gayfeather, piedmont gayfeather - VA WV NC SC GA Liatris × weaveri - NE
Prairies are ecosystems considered part of the temperate grasslands and shrublands biome by ecologists, based on similar temperate climates, moderate rainfall, a composition of grasses and shrubs, rather than trees, as the dominant vegetation type. Temperate grassland regions include the Pampas of Argentina and Uruguay, the steppe of Ukraine and Kazakhstan. Lands referred to as "prairie" tend to be in North America; the term encompasses the area referred to as the Interior Lowlands of Canada, the United States, Mexico, which includes all of the Great Plains as well as the wetter, hillier land to the east. In the U. S. the area is constituted by most or all of the states of North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska and Oklahoma, sizable parts of the states of Montana, Colorado, New Mexico, Missouri, Illinois, Indiana and western and southern Minnesota. The Palouse of Washington and the Central Valley of California are prairies; the Canadian Prairies occupy vast areas of Manitoba and Alberta. According to Theodore Roosevelt: Prairie is the French word for meadow.
The formation of the North American Prairies started with the uplift of the Rocky Mountains near Alberta. The mountains created a rain shadow; the parent material of most prairie soil was distributed during the last glacial advance that began about 110,000 years ago. The glaciers expanding southward scraped the landscape, picking up geologic material and leveling the terrain; as the glaciers retreated about 10,000 years ago, it deposited this material in the form of till. Wind based loess deposits form an important parent material for prairie soils. Tallgrass prairie evolved over tens of thousands of years with the disturbances of fire. Native ungulates such as bison and white-tailed deer, roamed the expansive, diverse grasslands before European colonization of the Americas. For 10,000-20,000 years, native people used fire annually as a tool to assist in hunting and safety. Evidence of ignition sources of fire in the tallgrass prairie are overwhelmingly human as opposed to lightning. Humans, grazing animals, were active participants in the process of prairie formation and the establishment of the diversity of graminoid and forbs species.
Fire has the effect on prairies of removing trees, clearing dead plant matter, changing the availability of certain nutrients in the soil from the ash produced. Fire kills the vascular tissue of trees, but not prairie species, as up to 75% of the total plant biomass is below the soil surface and will re-grow from its deep roots. Without disturbance, trees will encroach on a grassland and cast shade, which suppresses the understory. Prairie and spaced oak trees evolved to coexist in the oak savanna ecosystem. In spite of long recurrent droughts and occasional torrential rains, the grasslands of the Great Plains were not subject to great soil erosion; the root systems of native prairie grasses held the soil in place to prevent run-off of soil. When the plant died, the fungi, bacteria returned its nutrients to the soil; these deep roots help native prairie plants reach water in the driest conditions. Native grasses suffer much less damage from dry conditions than many farm crops grown. Prairie in North America is split into three groups: wet and dry.
They are characterized by tallgrass prairie, mixed, or shortgrass prairie, depending on the quality of soil and rainfall. In wet prairies, the soil is very moist, including during most of the growing season, because of poor water drainage; the resulting stagnant water is conducive to the formation of fens. Wet prairies have excellent farming soil; the average precipitation is 10–30 inches a year. Mesic prairie good soil during the growing season; this type of prairie is the most converted for agricultural usage. Dry prairie has somewhat wet to dry soil during the growing season because of good drainage in the soil; this prairie can be found on uplands or slopes. Dry soil doesn't get much vegetation due to lack of rain; this is the dominant biome in the Southern Canadian agricultural and climatic region known as Palliser's Triangle. Once thought to be unarable, the Triangle is now one of the most important agricultural regions in Canada thanks to advances in irrigation technology. In addition to its high local importance to Canada, Palliser's Triangle is now one of the most important sources of wheat in the world as a result of these improved methods of watering wheat fields.
Despite these advances in farming technology, the area is still prone to extended periods of drought, which can be disastrous for the industry if it is prolonged. An infamous example of this is the Dust Bowl of the 1930s, which hit much of the United States great plains ecoregion - contributing to the Great Depression. Nomadic hunting has been the main human activity on the prairies for the majority of the archaeological record; this once included many now-extinct species of megafauna. After the other extinction, the main hunted animal on the prairies was the plains bison. Using loud noises and waving large signals, Native peoples would drive bison in fenced pens called to be killed with bows and arrows or spears, or drive them off a cliff, to kill or injure the bison en masse. Th
Butterflies are insects in the macrolepidopteran clade Rhopalocera from the order Lepidoptera, which includes moths. Adult butterflies have large brightly coloured wings, conspicuous, fluttering flight; the group comprises the large superfamily Papilionoidea, which contains at least one former group, the skippers, the most recent analyses suggest it contains the moth-butterflies. Butterfly fossils date to the Paleocene, about 56 million years ago. Butterflies have the typical four-stage insect life cycle. Winged adults lay eggs on the food plant; the caterpillars grow, sometimes rapidly, when developed, pupate in a chrysalis. When metamorphosis is complete, the pupal skin splits, the adult insect climbs out, after its wings have expanded and dried, it flies off; some butterflies in the tropics, have several generations in a year, while others have a single generation, a few in cold locations may take several years to pass through their entire life cycle. Butterflies are polymorphic, many species make use of camouflage and aposematism to evade their predators.
Some, like the monarch and the painted lady, migrate over long distances. Many butterflies are attacked by parasites or parasitoids, including wasps, protozoans and other invertebrates, or are preyed upon by other organisms; some species are pests because in their larval stages they can damage domestic trees. Larvae of a few butterflies eat harmful insects, a few are predators of ants, while others live as mutualists in association with ants. Culturally, butterflies are a popular motif in the literary arts; the Oxford English Dictionary derives the word straightforwardly from Old English butorflēoge, butter-fly. A possible source of the name is the bright yellow male of the brimstone; the earliest Lepidoptera fossils are of a small moth, Archaeolepis mane, of Jurassic age, around 190 million years ago. Butterflies evolved from moths, so while the butterflies are monophyletic, the moths are not; the oldest butterflies are from the Palaeocene MoClay or Fur Formation of Denmark 55 million years old.
The oldest American butterfly is the Late Eocene Prodryas persephone from the Florissant Fossil Beds 34 million years old. Traditionally, the butterflies have been divided into the superfamily Papilionoidea excluding the smaller groups of the Hesperiidae and the more moth-like Hedylidae of America. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the traditional Papilionoidea is paraphyletic with respect to the other two groups, so they should both be included within Papilionoidea, to form a single butterfly group, thereby synonymous with the clade Rhopalocera. Butterfly adults are characterized by their four scale-covered wings, which give the Lepidoptera their name; these scales give butterfly wings their colour: they are pigmented with melanins that give them blacks and browns, as well as uric acid derivatives and flavones that give them yellows, but many of the blues, greens and iridescent colours are created by structural coloration produced by the micro-structures of the scales and hairs. As in all insects, the body is divided into three sections: the head and abdomen.
The thorax is composed of each with a pair of legs. In most families of butterfly the antennae are clubbed, unlike those of moths which may be threadlike or feathery; the long proboscis can be coiled. Nearly all butterflies are diurnal, have bright colours, hold their wings vertically above their bodies when at rest, unlike the majority of moths which fly by night, are cryptically coloured, either hold their wings flat or fold them over their bodies; some day-flying moths, such as the hummingbird hawk-moth, are exceptions to these rules. Butterfly larvae, have a hard head with strong mandibles used for cutting their food, most leaves, they have cylindrical bodies, with ten segments to the abdomen with short prolegs on segments 3–6 and 10. Many are well camouflaged; the pupa or chrysalis, unlike that of moths, is not wrapped in a cocoon. Many butterflies are sexually dimorphic. Most butterflies have the ZW sex-determination system where females are the heterogametic sex and males homogametic. Butterflies are distributed worldwide except Antarctica.
Of these, 775 are Nearctic. The monarch butterfly is native to the Americas, but in the nineteenth century or before, spread across the world, is now found in Australia, New Zealand, other parts of Oceania, the Iberian Peninsula, it is not clear.
Aster is a genus of perennial flowering plants in the family Asteraceae. Its circumscription has been narrowed, it now encompasses around 180 species, all but one of which are restricted to Eurasia. Aster amellus is the type species of the family Asteraceae; the name Aster comes from the Ancient Greek word ἀστήρ, meaning "star", referring to the shape of the flower head. Many species and a variety of hybrids and varieties are popular as garden plants because of their attractive and colourful flowers. Aster species are used as food plants by the larvae of a number of Lepidoptera species—see list of Lepidoptera that feed on Aster. Asters can grow in all hardiness zones; the genus Aster once contained nearly 600 species in Eurasia and North America, but after morphologic and molecular research on the genus during the 1990s, it was decided that the North American species are better treated in a series of other related genera. After this split there are 180 species within the genus, all but one being confined to Eurasia.
The New World species have now been reclassified in the genera Almutaster, Doellingeria, Eurybia, Oligoneuron, Oreostemma and Symphyotrichum, though all are treated within the same tribe, Astereae. Regardless of the taxonomic change, most are still referred to as "asters", or "Michaelmas daisies", because of their typical blooming period. See the List of Aster synonyms for more information; some common species that have now been moved are: Aster breweri – Brewer's aster Aster chezuensis – Jeju aster Aster cordifolius – blue wood aster Aster dumosus – rice button aster, bushy aster Aster divaricatus – white wood aster Aster ericoides – heath aster Aster integrifolius – thick-stem aster Aster koraiensis – Korean aster Aster laevis – smooth aster Aster lateriflorus – "Lady in Black", calico aster Aster meyendorffii – Meyendorf's aster Aster nemoralis - bog aster Aster novae-angliae – New England aster Aster novi-belgii – New York aster Aster peirsonii – Peirson's aster Aster protoflorian, frost aster Aster scaber – edible aster Aster scopulorum – lava aster Aster sibiricus – Siberian asterThe "China aster" is in the related genus Callistephus.
In the United Kingdom, there is only one native member of Aster tripolium, the sea aster. The species known as Aster linosyris is now Galatella linosyris. Aster alpinus subsp. Vierhapperi is the only species native to North America. Many species and a variety of hybrids and varieties are popular as garden plants because of their attractive and colourful flowers. Aster species are used as food plants by the larvae of a number of Lepidoptera species—see list of Lepidoptera that feed on Aster. Asters can grow in all hardiness zones; some common species are: Aster ageratoides – rough-surface aster Aster alpinus – alpine aster Aster amellus – European Michaelmas daisy, Italian aster Aster arenarius – beach-sand aster Aster fastigiatus – highly-branch aster Aster glehnii – Ulleungdo aster Aster hayatae – Korean montane aster Aster hispidus – bristle-hair aster Aster iinumae – perennial false aster Aster incisus – incised-leaf aster Aster lautureanus – connected aster, mountain aster Aster linosyris – goldilocks aster Aster maackii – Maack's aster Aster magnus – magnus aster Aster spathulifolius – seashore spatulate aster Aster tataricus – Tatarian aster, Tatarinow's aster Aster tonglingensis Aster tongolensis Aster tripolium – sea aster, seashore aster Those marked agm have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.
Aster × frikartii Frikart's asterAster × frikartii'Mönch' agm A. × frikartii'Wunder von Stäfa' agm'Kylie"Ochtendgloren' agm'Photograph' agm The Hungarian revolution of 31 October 1918, became known as the "Aster Revolution" due to protesters in Budapest wearing this flower
The raccoon, sometimes spelled racoon known as the common raccoon, North American raccoon, northern raccoon, or coon, is a medium-sized mammal native to North America. The raccoon is the largest of the procyonid family, having a body length of 40 to 70 cm and a body weight of 5 to 26 kg, its grayish coat consists of dense underfur which insulates it against cold weather. Three of the raccoon's most distinctive features are its dexterous front paws, its facial mask, its ringed tail, which are themes in the mythologies of the indigenous peoples of the Americas. Raccoons are noted for their intelligence, with studies showing that they are able to remember the solution to tasks for at least three years, they are nocturnal and omnivorous, eating about 40% invertebrates, 33% plants, 27% vertebrates. The original habitats of the raccoon are deciduous and mixed forests, but due to their adaptability they have extended their range to mountainous areas, coastal marshes, urban areas, where some homeowners consider them to be pests.
As a result of escapes and deliberate introductions in the mid-20th century, raccoons are now distributed across much of mainland Europe and Japan. Though thought to be solitary, there is now evidence that raccoons engage in gender-specific social behavior. Related females share a common area, while unrelated males live together in groups of up to four animals to maintain their positions against foreign males during the mating season, other potential invaders. Home range sizes vary anywhere from 3 hectares for females in cities to 5,000 hectares for males in prairies. After a gestation period of about 65 days, two to five young, known as "kits", are born in spring; the kits are subsequently raised by their mother until dispersal in late fall. Although captive raccoons have been known to live over 20 years, their life expectancy in the wild is only 1.8 to 3.1 years. In many areas and vehicular injury are the two most common causes of death; the word "raccoon" was adopted into English from the native Powhatan term, as used in the Colony of Virginia.
It was recorded on John Smith's list of Powhatan words as aroughcun, on that of William Strachey as arathkone. It has been identified as a reflex of a Proto-Algonquian root *ahrah-koon-em, meaning " one who rubs and scratches with its hands". Spanish colonists adopted the Spanish word mapache from the Nahuatl mapachtli of the Aztecs, meaning " one who takes everything in its hands". In many languages, the raccoon is named for its characteristic dousing behavior in conjunction with that language's term for bear, for example Waschbär in German, Huan Xiong in Chinese, orsetto lavatore in Italian, araiguma in Japanese. Alternatively, only the washing behavior might be referred to, as in Russian poloskun; the colloquial abbreviation coon is used in words like coonskin for fur clothing and in phrases like old coon as a self-designation of trappers. In the 1830s, the United States Whig Party used the raccoon as an emblem, causing them to be pejoratively known as "coons" by their political opponents, who saw them as too sympathetic to African-Americans.
Soon after that the term became an ethnic slur in use between 1880 and 1920, the term is still considered offensive. In the first decades after its discovery by the members of the expedition of Christopher Columbus, the first person to leave a written record about the species, taxonomists thought the raccoon was related to many different species, including dogs, cats and bears. Carl Linnaeus, the father of modern taxonomy, placed the raccoon in the genus Ursus, first as Ursus cauda elongata in the second edition of his Systema Naturae as Ursus Lotor in the tenth edition. In 1780, Gottlieb Conrad Christian Storr placed the raccoon in its own genus Procyon, which can be translated as either "before the dog" or "doglike", it is possible that Storr had its nocturnal lifestyle in mind and chose the star Procyon as eponym for the species. Based on fossil evidence from Russia and Bulgaria, the first known members of the family Procyonidae lived in Europe in the late Oligocene about 25 million years ago.
Similar tooth and skull structures suggest procyonids and weasels share a common ancestor, but molecular analysis indicates a closer relationship between raccoons and bears. After the then-existing species crossed the Bering Strait at least six million years in the early Miocene, the center of its distribution was in Central America. Coatis and raccoons have been considered to share common descent from a species in the genus Paranasua present between 5.2 and 6.0 million years ago. This assumption, based on morphological comparisons of fossils, conflicts with a 2006 genetic analysis which indicates raccoons are more related to ringtails. Unlike other procyonids, such as the crab-eating raccoon, the ancestors of the common raccoon left tropical and subtropical areas and migrated farther north about 2.5 million years ago, in a migration, confirmed by the discovery of fossils in the Great Plains dating back to the middle of the Pliocene. Its most recent ancestor was Procyon rexroadensis, a large Blancan raccoon from the Rexroad Formation characterized by its narrow back teeth and large lower jaw.
As of 2005, Mammal Species of the World recognizes 22 subspecies of raccoons. Four of these subspecies living only on small Central American and Caribbean islan
Collin County, Texas
Collin County is a county in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 United States Census, the county's population was 782,341, making it the seventh-most populous county in Texas and the 63rd-largest county by population in the United States; the 2017 Census Bureau estimate for Collin County's population is 969,603. Its county seat is McKinney. Collin County is part of Texas Metropolitan Statistical Area. A small portion of the city of Dallas is in the county. Both the county and the county seat were named after Collin McKinney, one of the five men who drafted the Texas Declaration of Independence and the oldest of the 59 men who signed it. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 886 square miles, of which 841 square miles is land and 45 square miles is covered by water. Lavon Lake Grayson County Fannin County Hunt County Rockwall County Dallas County Denton County As of the 2015 Texas Population Estimate Program, the population of the county was 923,201, non-Hispanic whites 535,165.
Black Americans 84,858. Other non-Hispanic 146,109. Hispanics and Latinos 157,069; as of the census of 2010, there were 782,341 people. According to U. S. Census figures released in 2006, the racial makeup of the county was as follows: 77.21% White, 7.26% African American, 10.02% Asian, 0.45% Native American, 5.06% of other or mixed race. 12.8% Hispanic of any race. As of the census of 2000, there were 491,675 people, 181,970 households, 132,292 families residing in the county; the population density was 580 people per square mile. There were 194,892 housing units at an average density of 230 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 81.39% White, 4.79% Black or African American, 0.47% Native American, 6.92% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 4.26% from other races, 2.11% from two or more races. 10.27% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 181,970 households out of which 40.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.10% were married couples living together, 7.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.30% were non-families.
22.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 3.10% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.68 and the average family size was 3.18. As of the 2010 census, there were about 4.4 same-sex couples per 1,000 households in the county. In the county, the population was spread out with 28.70% under the age of 18, 7.40% from 18 to 24, 37.90% from 25 to 44, 20.70% from 45 to 64, 5.30% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females there were 99.80 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.80 males. The median income for a household in the county was $70,835, the median income for a family was $81,856. Males had a median income of $57,392 versus $36,604 for females; the per capita income for the county was $33,345. About 3.30% of families and 4.90% of the population were below the poverty line, including 5.10% of those under age 18 and 7.10% of those age 65 or over. Based on median household income, as of 2006, Collin County is the second richest county in Texas after Fort Bend, is considered one of the wealthiest counties in the United States.
However, Collin - like other Texas counties - has one of the nation's highest property tax rates. In 2007, it was #21 for property taxes as percentage of the homes value on owner occupied housing, it ranked in the Top 100 for amount of property taxes paid and for percentage of taxes of income. Part of this is due to the Robin Hood plan school financing system in Texas. Collin County, like all counties in Texas, is governed by a Commissioners Court; the court consists of the county judge, elected county-wide, four commissioners who are elected by the voters in each of four precincts. Collin County is a Republican stronghold in congressional elections; the last Democrat to win the county was Lyndon Johnson in 1964. The factors caused Collin to swing hard to the Republican Party in the 1960s and 1970s: and the expansion of the Dallas suburbs into Collin County; the following school districts lie within Collin County: Allen Independent School District Anna Independent School District Farmersville Independent School District Lovejoy Independent School District McKinney Independent School District Melissa Independent School District Plano Independent School District Princeton Independent School District Wylie Independent School DistrictThe following districts lie within the county: Bland Independent School District Blue Ridge Independent School District Celina Independent School District Community Independent School District Frisco Independent School District Leonard Independent School District Prosper Independent School District Royse City Independent School District Trenton Independent School District Van Alstyne Independent School District Whitewright Independent School District Collin College opened its first campus on Highway 380 in McKinney in 1985.
The college has grown to seven campuses/locations—two in McKinney and two in Plano and as well as Frisco and Rockwall. Dallas Baptist University has an extension site in Frisco, DBU Frisco; the majority of the University of Texas at Dallas campus in Richardson, Texas lies within Collin County. Collin County Parks and Open Spaces Bratonia Park Myers Park Parkhill Prairie Sister Grove Park Trinity Tr
Dallas the City of Dallas, is a city in the U. S. state of Texas and the seat of Dallas County, with portions extending into Collin, Denton and Rockwall counties. With an estimated 2017 population of 1,341,075, it is the ninth most-populous city in the U. S. and third in Texas after Houston and San Antonio. It is the eighteenth most-populous city in North America as of 2015. Located in North Texas, the city of Dallas is the main core of the largest metropolitan area in the Southern United States and the largest inland metropolitan area in the U. S. that lacks any navigable link to the sea. It is the most populous city in the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex, the fourth-largest metropolitan area in the country at 7.3 million people as of 2017. The city's combined statistical area is the seventh-largest in the U. S. as of 2017, with 7,846,293 residents. Dallas and nearby Fort Worth were developed due to the construction of major railroad lines through the area allowing access to cotton and oil in North and East Texas.
The construction of the Interstate Highway System reinforced Dallas's prominence as a transportation hub, with four major interstate highways converging in the city and a fifth interstate loop around it. Dallas developed as a strong industrial and financial center and a major inland port, due to the convergence of major railroad lines, interstate highways and the construction of Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport, one of the largest and busiest airports in the world. A "beta" global city, the economy of Dallas has been considered diverse with dominant sectors including defense, financial services, information technology, telecommunications, transportation. Dallas is home to 9 Fortune 500 companies within the city limits; the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex hosts additional Fortune 500 companies, including American Airlines, ExxonMobil and J. C. Penney. Over 41 colleges and universities are in its metropolitan area, the most of any metropolitan area in Texas; the city has a population from a myriad of ethnic and religious backgrounds and the sixth-largest LGBT population in the United States as of 2016.
WalletHub named Dallas the fifth most-diverse city in the U. S. in 2018. Preceded by thousands of years of varying cultures, the Caddo people inhabited the Dallas area before Spanish colonists claimed the territory of Texas in the 18th century as a part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain. France claimed the area but never established much settlement. In 1819, the Adams-Onís Treaty between the United States and Spain defined the Red River as the northern boundary of New Spain placing the future location of Dallas well within Spanish territory; the area remained under Spanish rule until 1821, when Mexico declared independence from Spain, the area was considered part of the Mexican state of Coahuila y Tejas. In 1836, with a majority of Anglo-American settlers, gained independence from Mexico and formed the Republic of Texas. Three years after Texas achieved independence, John Neely Bryan surveyed the area around present-day Dallas, he established a permanent settlement near the Trinity River named Dallas in 1841.
The origin of the name is uncertain. The official historical marker states it was named after Vice President George M. Dallas of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. However, this is disputed. Other potential theories for the origin include his brother, Commodore Alexander James Dallas, as well as brothers Walter R. Dallas or James R. Dallas. A further theory gives the origin as the village of Dallas, Scotland, similar to the way Houston, Texas was named after Sam Houston whose ancestors came from the Scottish village of Houston, Renfrewshire; the Republic of Texas was annexed by the United States in 1845 and Dallas County was established the following year. Dallas was formally incorporated as a city on February 2, 1856. With the construction of railroads, Dallas became a business and trading center and was booming by the end of the 19th century, it became an industrial city, attracting workers from Texas, the South, the Midwest. The Praetorian Building in Dallas of 15 stories, built in 1909, was the first skyscraper west of the Mississippi and the tallest building in Texas for some time.
It marked the prominence of Dallas as a city. A racetrack for thoroughbreds was built and their owners established the Dallas Jockey Club. Trotters raced at a track in Fort Worth; the rapid expansion of population increased competition for jobs and housing. In 1921, the Mexican president Álvaro Obregón along with the former revolutionary general visited Downtown Dallas's Mexican Park in Little Mexico; the small neighborhood of Little Mexico was home to a Latin American population, drawn to Dallas by factors including the American Dream, better living conditions, the Mexican Revolution. On November 22, 1963, President John F. Kennedy was assassinated on Elm Street while his motorcade passed through Dealey Plaza in Downtown Dallas; the upper two floors of the building from which alleged assassin Lee Harvey Oswald shot Kennedy, the Texas School Book Depository, have been converted into a historical museum covering the former president's life and accomplishments. On July 7, 2016, multiple shots were fired at a peaceful protest in Downtown Dallas, held against the police killings of two black men from other states.
The gunman identified as Micah Xavier Johnson, began firing at police officers at 8:58 p.m. killing five officers and injuring nine. Two bystanders were injured; this marked the deadliest day for U. S. law enforcement since the September 11 attacks. Johnson told police during a standoff that he