Midtown Atlanta, or Midtown, is a high-density commercial and residential neighborhood of Atlanta, Georgia. The exact geographical extent of the area is ill-defined due to differing definitions used by the city and local business groups. However, the commercial core of the area is anchored by a series of high-rise office buildings, condominiums and high-end retail along Peachtree Street between North Avenue and 17th Street. Midtown, situated between Downtown to the south and Buckhead to the north, is the second-largest business district in Metro Atlanta. In 2011, Midtown had a resident population of 41,681 and a business population of 81,418. Midtown has the highest density of art and cultural institutions in the Southeast, notably including the Fox Theatre, Woodruff Arts Center, the High Museum of Art, the Center for Puppetry Arts, the Atlanta Symphony Orchestra, the Museum of Design Atlanta. Midtown attracts over 6 million visitors annually in connection with large annual events such Atlanta Pride, the Atlanta Dogwood Festival, Music Midtown.
Since the 1990s, Midtown has been a primary area for high-density development due to the area's mass transit options, urban street grid, desirability. The definition and meaning of "Midtown" has varied over time, expanding from an original concept of a small neighborhood midway between Downtown and Buckhead. Boundary definitions vary by the source. In many cases, Midtown is a quasi-legal entity for zoning, law enforcement, tax purposes, it is defined by the City of Atlanta to include the business district along Peachtree Street as well as Historic Midtown, the residential area east of Piedmont Avenue and to the south of Piedmont Park. The Midtown Alliance defines a larger, "Greater Midtown" area of four square miles; this includes the area within the city's definition, but splitting it into the sub-areas Midtown Core and Midtown Garden District, i.e. Historic Midtown, it includes the neighborhoods of Ansley Park, Sherwood Forest, Atlantic Station, Home Park, Loring Heights. The area has gone by other names in the past.
An 1897 source refers to the area as North Atlanta, which would be the name of today's city of Brookhaven. The 1897 "North Atlanta" encompassed most of today's Midtown, Georgia Tech, English Avenue. Sources from the 1950s and early 1960s refer to the area as "Uptown Atlanta," a moniker which would be applied instead to Buckhead following its annexation; the southern half of Midtown between 8th Street and North Ave was purchased by Richard Peters in 1848 to use the pine forest there for fuel for his downtown flour mill. Over the next 40 years, Peters subdivided sections of these land lots off for a gridded residential area and built his own home there on Peachtree at 4th Street, his son, built his home on the block bounded by North Avenue, Piedmont Avenue, Ponce de Leon Avenue, Myrtle Street. The home, now called Ivy Hall, was restored by the Savannah College of Art & Design in 2008 and is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. After the Civil War, Peachtree between what is now 8th and 12th streets was still about a mile beyond the city limits, which ended at Pine Street.
After the American Civil War a shantytown named Tight Squeeze developed at Peachtree at what is now 10th Street. It was infamous for vagrancy, robberies of merchants transiting the settlement; as Atlanta grew further outwards from its historic center, mansions were constructed along Peachtree Street and the area around 10th was known as Blooming Hill. Cross streets were built and residential development began around 1880. Piedmont Park was established with the Piedmont Exposition of 1887, followed by the Cotton States and International Exposition of 1895, lending the area new prominence. Electric streetcar lines extended along Piedmont Avenue by 1895 and along Peachtree Street by 1900. In 1904, development on Ansley Park began. By the 1920s, Tenth and Peachtree had become the nexus of a significant shopping district for the surrounding neighborhood; the 1910 Encyclopædia Britannica listed Peachtree Street in Midtown as one of the finest residential areas of the city, along with Ponce de Leon Circle, Washington Street, Inman Park.
The Downtown Connector freeway opened in the 1950s, the blocks between Williams Street and Techwood Drive were demolished to make way for it. In 1959 Lenox Square and in 1964, Ansley Mall opened, the Tenth Street shopping district went into decline. By the late 1960s, Peachtree Street between Eighth and Fourteenth Streets had become a center of hippie culture known as The StripLarge-scale commercial development began with Colony Square, the first mixed-use development in the Southeast, built between 1969 and 1973; the MARTA subway line opened in 1981. In the 1980s, many older properties were demolished, some remaining vacant for decades. High-density commercial and residential development took root in the north–south corridor along Peachtree and West Peachtree; the BellSouth Center, now the AT&T Midtown Center, was long the landmark skyscraper in the area. However, commercial development escalated after 1987; the 2000s decade saw the construction of numerous high-rise condo buildings in Midtown, such as the Spire, 1010 Midtown.
In 2006, then-Mayor Shirley Franklin set in motion a plan to make the 14-block stretch of Peachtree Street a street-level shopping destination. The 2004 opening of the Seventeenth Street Bridge over the Downtown Connector reconnected Midtown with the west side of the city and to the Atlantic Station mixed-use development, built on the former site of the Atlantic Steel company; the Midtown Alliance, a group of volunteers, e
Disc golf is a flying disc sport in which players throw a disc at a target. It is played on a course of 9 or 18 holes. Players complete a hole by throwing a disc from a tee area toward a target, throwing again from the landing position of the disc until the target is reached; the number of throws a player uses to reach each target are tallied, players seek to complete each hole, the course, in the lowest number of total throws. The game is played in about 40 countries and there are over 103,000 active members of the PDGA worldwide. Disc golf was first invented in the early 1900s; the first game was held in Bladworth, Canada in 1926. Ronald Gibson and a group of his Bladworth Elementary School buddies played a game of throwing tin lids into 4 foot wide circles drawn into sandy patches on their school grounds, they called the game Tin Lid Golf and played on a regular basis. However, after they grew older and went their separate ways, the game came to an end, it was not until the 1970s that modern disc golf would be introduced to Canadians at the Canadian Open Frisbee Championships in Toronto and Vancouver, BC.
Modern disc golf started in the early 1960s, but there is debate over who came up with the idea first. The consensus is. Students at Rice University in Houston, for example, held tournaments with trees as targets as early as 1964, in the early 1960s, players in Pendleton King Park in Augusta, Georgia would toss Frisbees into 50-gallon barrel trash cans designated as targets. In 1968 Frisbee Golf was played in Alameda Park in Santa Barbara, California by teenagers in the Anacapa and Sola street areas. Gazebos, water fountains, lamp posts, trees were all part of the course; this took place for several years and an Alameda Park collectors edition disc still exists, though rare, as few were made. Clifford Towne from this group went on to hold a National Time Aloft record. Two early coordinators of the sport are George Sappenfield and Kevin Donnelly, through similar backgrounds and the help of Ed Headrick at Wham-O, were able to individually spread the sport in their California cities. Donnelly began playing a form of Frisbee golf in 1959 called Street Frisbee Golf.
In 1961, while a recreation leader and recreation supervisor for the City of Newport Beach, California, he formulated and began organizing Frisbee golf tournaments at nine of the city's playgrounds he supervised. This culminated in 1965 with a documented, Wham-O sponsored, citywide Frisbee golf tournament spearheaded by "Steady" Ed Headrick at Wham-O; this publicized tournament included hula hoops as holes, with published rules, hole lengths and prizes. In 1965, Sappenfield was a recreation counselor during a summer break from college during which, he set up an object course for his children to play on; when he finished college in 1968, Sappenfield became the Parks and Recreation supervisor for Conejo Recreation and Park District in Thousand Oaks, California. Sappenfield planned a disc golf tournament as part of a recreation project and contacted Wham-O Manufacturing to ask them for help with the event. Wham-O supplied Frisbees for throwing, hula hoops for use as targets. Before 1973 and the invention of the disc golf target called the disc pole hole, there were only a few disc golf object courses in the U.
S. and Canada. Despite having never heard of the International Frisbee Association that Ed Headrick and Wham-O had put together, or seeing a copy of the IFA Newsletter, Jim Palmeri, his brother, a small group of people from Rochester, NY, had been playing disc golf as a competitive sport on a regular basis since August 1970, including tournaments and weekly league play. By 1973, they had promoted two City of Rochester Disc Frisbee Championship events which featured disc golf as the main event. In Canada, beginning in 1970, Ken Westerfield and Jim Kenner played Frisbee golf daily on an 18 object hole course they designed at Queen's Park in downtown Toronto and presented Canada's first disc golf competitions. In California, the Berkeley Frisbee Group established a standardized 18 hole object course on the Berkeley campus in 1970. University of Michigan Nichols Arboretum, Ann Arbor had an object Frisbee golf course designed in the early 1970s. Wham-O's $50,000 Disc Golf Tournament was significant turning point for disc golf.
Held in Huntington Beach, California. The tournament was groundbreaking and foremost because of the cash involved, its massive payout right in the title, but because the competitors had to qualify for an invitation. 72 qualifying events were established around the country, bringing in the best disc golfers from across the United States. "Steady Ed" Headrick and Dave Dunipace are two inventors and players who impacted how disc golf is played. In 1976 Headrick formalized the rules of the sport, founded the Disc Golf Association, the Professional Disc Golf Association, the Recreational Disc Golf Association and invented the first formal disc golf target with chains and a basket. Dave Dunipace invented the modern golf disc in 1983, with the revolutionary change of adding a beveled rim, giving the disc a greater distance and accuracy. Dave was one of the founders of a well-known disc manufacturer. In 1982 Ed Headrick turned over control of the PDGA to the players and Ted Smethers to be run independently and to officiate the standard rules of play for the sport.
"Steady Ed" Headrick began thinking about the sport dur
Atlanta is the capital of, the most populous city in, the U. S. state of Georgia. With an estimated 2017 population of 486,290, it is the 38th most-populous city in the United States; the city serves as the cultural and economic center of the Atlanta metropolitan area, home to 5.8 million people and the ninth-largest metropolitan area in the nation. Atlanta is the seat of the most populous county in Georgia. A small portion of the city extends eastward into neighboring DeKalb County. Atlanta was founded as the terminating stop of a major state-sponsored railroad. With rapid expansion, however, it soon became the convergence point between multiple railroads, spurring its rapid growth; the city's name derives from that of the Western and Atlantic Railroad's local depot, signifying the town's growing reputation as a transportation hub. During the American Civil War, the city was entirely burned to the ground in General William T. Sherman's famous March to the Sea. However, the city rose from its ashes and became a national center of commerce and the unofficial capital of the "New South".
During the 1950s and 1960s, Atlanta became a major organizing center of the civil rights movement, with Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Ralph David Abernathy, many other locals playing major roles in the movement's leadership. During the modern era, Atlanta has attained international prominence as a major air transportation hub, with Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta International Airport being the world's busiest airport by passenger traffic since 1998. Atlanta is rated as a "beta" world city that exerts a moderate impact on global commerce, research, education, media and entertainment, it ranks in the top twenty among world cities and 10th in the nation with a gross domestic product of $385 billion. Atlanta's economy is considered diverse, with dominant sectors that include transportation, logistics and business services, media operations, medical services, information technology. Atlanta has topographic features that include rolling hills and dense tree coverage, earning it the nickname of "the city in a forest."
Revitalization of Atlanta's neighborhoods spurred by the 1996 Summer Olympics, has intensified in the 21st century, altering the city's demographics, politics and culture. Prior to the arrival of European settlers in north Georgia, Creek Indians inhabited the area. Standing Peachtree, a Creek village where Peachtree Creek flows into the Chattahoochee River, was the closest Indian settlement to what is now Atlanta; as part of the systematic removal of Native Americans from northern Georgia from 1802 to 1825, the Creek were forced to leave the area in 1821, white settlers arrived the following year. In 1836, the Georgia General Assembly voted to build the Western and Atlantic Railroad in order to provide a link between the port of Savannah and the Midwest; the initial route was to run southward from Chattanooga to a terminus east of the Chattahoochee River, which would be linked to Savannah. After engineers surveyed various possible locations for the terminus, the "zero milepost" was driven into the ground in what is now Five Points.
A year the area around the milepost had developed into a settlement, first known as "Terminus", as "Thrasherville" after a local merchant who built homes and a general store in the area. By 1842, the town had six buildings and 30 residents and was renamed "Marthasville" to honor the Governor's daughter. J. Edgar Thomson, Chief Engineer of the Georgia Railroad, suggested the town be renamed Atlanta; the residents approved, the town was incorporated as Atlanta on December 29, 1847. By 1860, Atlanta's population had grown to 9,554. During the American Civil War, the nexus of multiple railroads in Atlanta made the city a hub for the distribution of military supplies. In 1864, the Union Army moved southward following the capture of Chattanooga and began its invasion of north Georgia; the region surrounding Atlanta was the location of several major army battles, culminating with the Battle of Atlanta and a four-month-long siege of the city by the Union Army under the command of General William Tecumseh Sherman.
On September 1, 1864, Confederate General John Bell Hood made the decision to retreat from Atlanta, he ordered the destruction of all public buildings and possible assets that could be of use to the Union Army. On the next day, Mayor James Calhoun surrendered Atlanta to the Union Army, on September 7, Sherman ordered the city's civilian population to evacuate. On November 11, 1864, Sherman prepared for the Union Army's March to the Sea by ordering the destruction of Atlanta's remaining military assets. After the Civil War ended in 1865, Atlanta was rebuilt. Due to the city's superior rail transportation network, the state capital was moved from Milledgeville to Atlanta in 1868. In the 1880 Census, Atlanta surpassed Savannah as Georgia's largest city. Beginning in the 1880s, Henry W. Grady, the editor of the Atlanta Constitution newspaper, promoted Atlanta to potential investors as a city of the "New South" that would be based upon a modern economy and less reliant on agriculture. By 1885, the founding of the Georgia School of Technology and the Atlanta University Center had established Atlanta as a center for higher education.
In 1895, Atlanta hosted the Cotton States and International Exposition, which attracted nearly 800,000 attendees and promoted the New South's development to the world. During the first decades of the 20th century, Atlanta experienced a period of unprecedented growth. In three decades' time, Atlanta's population tripled as the city limits expanded to include nearby streetcar suburbs; the city's skyline emerged with the construction of the
The mile is an English unit of length of linear measure equal to 5,280 feet, or 1,760 yards, standardised as 1,609.344 metres by international agreement in 1959. With qualifiers, "mile" is used to describe or translate a wide range of units derived from or equivalent to the Roman mile, such as the nautical mile, the Italian mile, the Chinese mile; the Romans divided their mile into 5,000 roman feet but the greater importance of furlongs in pre-modern England meant that the statute mile was made equivalent to 8 furlongs or 5,280 feet in 1593. This form of the mile spread to the British-colonized nations some of which continue to employ the mile; the US Geological Survey now employs the metre for official purposes but legacy data from its 1927 geodetic datum has meant that a separate US survey mile continues to see some use. While most countries replaced the mile with the kilometre when switching to the International System of Units, the international mile continues to be used in some countries, such as Liberia, the United Kingdom, the United States, a number of countries with fewer than one million inhabitants, most of which are UK or US territories, or have close historical ties with the UK or US.
The mile was abbreviated m. in the past but is now sometimes written as mi to avoid confusion with the SI metre. However, derived units, such as miles per hour or miles per gallon, continue to be universally abbreviated as mph and mpg, respectively; the modern English word mile derives from Middle English myl and Old English mīl, cognate with all other Germanic terms for "miles". These derived from apocopated forms of the Latin mīlia or mīllia, the plural of mīle or mīlle "thousand" but used as a clipped form of mīlle passus or passuum, the Roman mile of one thousand paces; the present international mile is what is understood by the unqualified term "mile". When this distance needs to be distinguished from the nautical mile, the international mile may be described as a "land mile" or "statute mile". In British English, the "statute mile" may refer to the present international miles or to any other form of English mile since the 1593 Act of Parliament, which set it as a distance of 1,760 yards.
Under American law, the "statute mile" refers to the US survey mile. Foreign and historical units translated into English as miles employ a qualifier to describe the kind of mile being used but this may be omitted if it is obvious from the context, such as a discussion of the 2nd-century Antonine Itinerary describing its distances in terms of "miles" rather than "Roman miles"; the mile has been variously abbreviated—with and without a trailing period—as m, M, ml, mi. The American National Institute of Standards and Technology now uses and recommends mi in order to avoid confusion with the SI metre and millilitre. However, derived units such as miles per hour or miles per gallon continue to be abbreviated as mph and mpg rather than mi/h and mi/gal. In the United Kingdom road signs use m as the abbreviation for mile though height and width restrictions use m as the abbreviation for the metre, which may be displayed alongside feet and inches; the BBC style holds that "There is no acceptable abbreviation for'miles'" and so it should be spelt out when used in describing areas.
The Roman mile consisted of a thousand paces as measured by every other step—as in the total distance of the left foot hitting the ground 1,000 times. The ancient Romans, marching their armies through uncharted territory, would push a carved stick in the ground after each 1,000 paces. Well-fed and harshly driven Roman legionaries in good weather thus created longer miles; the distance was indirectly standardised by Agrippa's establishment of a standard Roman foot in 29 BC, the definition of a pace as 5 feet. An Imperial Roman mile thus denoted 5,000 Roman feet. Surveyors and specialized equipment such as the decempeda and dioptra spread its use. In modern times, Agrippa's Imperial Roman mile was empirically estimated to have been about 1,617 yards in length. In Hellenic areas of the Empire, the Roman mile was used beside the native Greek units as equivalent to 8 stadia of 600 Greek feet; the mílion continued to be used as a Byzantine unit and was used as the name of the zero mile marker for the Byzantine Empire, the Milion, located at the head of the Mese near Hagia Sophia.
The Roman mile spread throughout Europe, with its local variations giving rise to the different units below. Arising from the Roman mile is the "milestone". All roads radiated out from the Roman Forum throughout the Empire – 50,000 miles of stone-paved roads. At every mile was placed a shaped stone, on, carved a Roman numeral, indicating the number of miles from the center of Rome – the Forum. Hence, one always knew; the Italian mile was traditionally considered a direct continuation of the Roman mile, equal to 1000 paces, although its actual value over time or between regions could vary greatly. It was used in international contexts from the Middle Ages into the 17th century and is thus known as the "geographical mile", although the geographical mile is now a separate standard unit; the Arabic mile was not the common Arabic unit of length. The Arabic mile was, used by medieval geographers and scientists and constituted a kind of precursor to the nautical or geographical mile, it extended the Roman mile to fit an astronomical approximatio
Historic Fourth Ward Park
Historic Fourth Ward Park is a park built on the site of the old Ponce de Leon amusement park, in the Old Fourth Ward of Atlanta, just south of Ponce City Market and just west of the BeltLine trail. The park covers 17 acres in two separate sections, it is planned to connect these two parcels and cover a total of 30 acres. The park includes a pond with a path around it and has an aerator fountain to keep it from stagnating. An amphitheater, cushioned with bermudagrass, surrounds part of the pond; the skate park is located at 830 Willoughby Way, Georgia 30312. It is a 15,000 square feet facility which offers bowls and smooth-rolling concrete mounds; the designated skating facility is Atlanta's first public skate park. The park opened June 2011 with legendary skater Tony Hawk in attendance. Hawk's philanthropic foundation awarded the project $25,000. Hawk stated that the clear vision of BeltLine officials, as well as of Little Five Points' Stratosphere skateboards owner Thomas Taylor, who encouraged city officials to build the park influenced his foundation's decision to award the money.
Phase I, 5 acres from Morgan St. down to Rankin St. centered on waterfalls and the stormwater retention pond, opened in February 2011 ahead of the official grand opening in June 2011 Phase II brought the total size of the park to 12 acres, consisting of additions to the north and to the south: the section between Rankin St. south to Ralph McGill Blvd. opened in June 2011 with a playground and "splash pad" for children, urban forest and recirculating stream, restrooms, a grand stair, wildflower meadow, entry lawn and entry plaza from Ralph McGill Blvd. the section from North Ave. down to Morgan St. across from Ponce City Market and alongside Masquerade includes a grand entry, event lawn and "artifact bosque". Part of this extension opened to the public in January 2012. A separate 5-acre section, separated from the main park adjacent to the BeltLine and Freedom Parkway opened in June 2011 and includes a sports field, skate park and restrooms, it is accessible by car on foot from the BeltLine.
In January 2013 the BeltLine announced that it had acquired a 0.76-acre parcel which would connect the BeltLine with the park. A Phase III is planned which would connect Phase II with the separate skatepark parcel, adding 13 acres; the property is List of contemporary amphitheatres Design overview of the park at LandscapeOnline.com The Atlanta Beltline Historic Fourth Ward Park Conservancy Fourth Ward Alliance
Morningside/Lenox Park is an intown neighborhood in Atlanta, Georgia founded in 1923. It is located north of west of Druid Hills. 3,500 households comprise the neighborhood that includes the original subdivisions of Morningside, Lenox Park, University Park, Noble Park, Johnson Estates and Hylan Park. The area that became Atlanta was once home to the Creek Indians. Following the Indian Removal Act in 1832, the Creek National Council signed the Treaty of Cusseta, ceding their remaining lands east of the Mississippi to the U. S. and accepting relocation to the Indian Territory. Most of Atlanta's first settlers were from Northeast Georgia, though others came from the Carolinas and Virginia; some settled in Easton, a farming community at the present intersection of Piedmont Avenue and Monroe Drive. Industrious farmers whose land lay along major creeks established water-powered grist mills. Easton farmers ginned their cotton and ground their corn at Walker's Mill, across from today's Ansley Mall. In winter 1868, Joel Mable, a devout Scottish Presbyterian, organized the Union Sunday School in the Rock Spring School House.
The school was located near the current intersection of Morningside Drive and East Rock Springs Road. Two years 27 members organized Rock Spring Presbyterian Church, their names - Cheshire, Luckie and others - are familiar to this century's motorists. The first church, a white frame building without a steeple, was built in 1871 on the church's current site at Piedmont Avenue and Rock Springs Road. In 1876, Easton residents began using the Airline Belle, a steam train that ran between Atlanta and Toccoa for 42 years. Commuters boarded the train at a depot near. By 1888, Easton was 100 residents strong. By 1900, a number of Eastoners commuted to Atlanta by train; the new century brought many changes. Easton's post office closed in 1904. By 1911, the neighborhoods of today's Ansley Park and Virginia-Highland were under development; that same year, Plaster Bridge Road in front of Walker's Mill was paved. Kimballville Farm was a large farm in the area known for prime livestock. Visitors were invited to come out from Atlanta and spend a leisurely day on the farm and buy livestock or farm products.
Charles Lewis Fowler, a Baptist minister, founded Lanier University on University Drive the same year. The University Park subdivision was developed around the university in 1921, University Drive is a reminder of that time, but financial problems plagued the school. The owners sold it to a Jewish group, the structure is now part of the Congregation Shearith Israel synagogue. Two years real estate agents James R. Smith and M. S. Rankin build eight homes establishing Morningside Lenox Park. Advertisements stressed a 70-foot wide paved street in front of homes with Murphy beds and a servants' toilet in the basement. Morningside was touted as a "new type of suburb." Commuters traveled to and from their homes by streetcar and. The new development prospered after the city annexed the area in 1925. "The section known as Morningside, one of the newest subdivisions around Atlanta, was experiencing a boom. Many new homes had been built and many others were under construction; the streetcar line and pavement were being extended out North Highland Avenue from Virginia Avenue to Lanier Place.
Kimballville Farm, the fields east of Highland Avenue and the woods west of Highland, were being swiftly replaced by new homes and these were being occupied by young families of industrious and friendly people." -Mini-history of Haygood Memorial United Methodist Church Also in 1925, developer Byron C. Kistner built a row of shops on North Highland. Original tenants included Shackleford's Pharmacy, Henry's Dry Cleaning, Rogers Brothers Grocery and an A&P. In 1927, construction began on Morningside Shopping Center, the storefront strip on Piedmont just north of Monroe Drive; the growing neighborhood acquired a school when Morningside Elementary opened in 1929. The school had six classrooms on the lower floor of the western side of the current building. Enrollment grew, a new building was commissioned and completed in 1935, providing work for the unemployed during the Depression. Development of Noble Park, Johnson Estates, Hylan Park began in 1930. A year Lenox Park opened, featuring model homes with names like "The Barclay," "The Sussex" and "The Chateau".
Atlanta architects Ivey and Crook designed the homes in Lenox Park. In 1934, the Morningside Civic League beautified the neighborhood by planting crepe myrtles and dogwoods. Postwar housing shortages, coupled with FHA and VA loans, spurred more development after World War II. Residents of Jewish Washington-Rawson and Summerhill neighborhoods south of the State Capitol relocated to northeast Atlanta including Morningside - those old Jewish neighborhoods were demolished to make way for the Downtown Connector freeway and what is now Turner Field and its massive parking lots; the neighborhood faced a similar threat in the 1960s. In 1965, the Morningside Lenox Park Association was incorporated to fight plans to build I-485 through the neighborhood. By the late'60s, the state had demolished several homes for road right-of-way; the MLPA banded together with other east Atlanta neighborhoods to block the highway. Thanks to their pressure, the state dropped its plans for I-485 in 1973; the following year, Atlanta enacted a new city charter setting up 24
Cotton States and International Exposition
The 1895 Cotton States and International Exposition was held at the current Piedmont Park in Atlanta, United States. Nearly 800,000 visitors attended the event; the exposition was designed to promote the American South to the world and showcase products and new technologies, as well as to encourage trade with Latin America. The Cotton States and International Exposition featured exhibits from several states including various innovations in agriculture and technology. President Grover Cleveland presided over the opening of the exposition; the event is best remembered for the "Atlanta compromise" speech given by Booker T. Washington on September 18, promoting racial cooperation; the Exposition was open for 100 days, beginning on September 18, 1895 and ending December 31, 1895, attracted visitors from the U. S. and 13 countries. Over $2,000,000 was spent on the transformation of Piedmont Park; the government allocated $250,000 for the construction of a government building and many states and countries such as Argentina had their own buildings.
Constructed for the fair were the Tropical gardens, now known as the Atlanta Botanical Garden, Lake Clara Meer, a pond but was expanded to 11.5 acres for the event. Today, the stone balustrades scattered around the park are the only part of the enormous main building; the park remains as Joseph Forsyth Johnson designed it for the exposition. The supervising architect for the entire fair was Bradford Gilbert; the exposition included many exhibits in the categories of Minerals and Forestry, Agriculture and Accessories, Machinery and Appliances, Machinery, Electricity, Fine Arts and Sculpture, Liberal Arts and Literature. Pennsylvania's first woman American architect, Elise Mercur design the Woman's Building of the Cotton States and International Exposition, a Palladian style building constructed for the purpose of displaying the accomplishments of women. About six thousand exhibits were examined and beautifully designed; the Awards Committee awarded a total of 1,573 medals: 634 gold medals, 444 silver medals, 495 bronze medals.
In late September Charles Francis Jenkins demonstrated an early movie projector called the "Phantoscope." The great American band master John Philip Sousa composed his famous march, King Cotton, for the exposition, dedicated it to the people of the state of Georgia. Future politician and historian, Walter McElreath, described it in his memoirs: The railroad yards were jammed every morning with trains that brought enormous crowds; the streets were crowded all day long. Every conceivable kind of fakir bartered his wares. Dime museums flourished on every street.... Vast stucco hotels stood on Fourteenth Street.... I spent a great deal of time on the streets looking at the strange crowds -- American Indians, Hindus and people from every corner of the globe -- who had come as professional midway entertainers or fakirs. December 26, 1895, was Negro Day at the Expo. Famed African American quilter Harriet Powers attended this day and met with Irvine Garland Penn, the chief of the Negro Building at the Expo.
The Cotton States and International Exposition Speech was an address on the topic of race relations given by Booker T. Washington on September 18, 1895, at the exposition in Atlanta; the speech laid the foundation for the Atlanta compromise, an agreement between African-American leaders and Southern white leaders in which Southern blacks would work meekly and submit to white political rule, while whites guaranteed that blacks would receive basic education and due process of law. The speech was presented before a predominantly white audience and has been recognized as one of the most important and controversial speeches in American history. After the exposition, the grounds were purchased by the City of Atlanta and became Piedmont Park and the Atlanta Botanical Garden. Perdue, Theda. Race and the Atlanta Cotton States Exposition of 1895. Cardon, Nathan. "The South's'New Negroes' and African American Visions of Progress at the Atlanta and Nashville International Expositions, 1895-1897" Journal of Southern History.
Cardon, Nathan. A Dream of the Future: Race and Modernity at the Atlanta and Nashville World's Fairs. Fred L. Howe 1895 Cotton States and International Exposition Photographs from the Atlanta History Center Cotton States Exposition of 1895 historical marker Jenkins projector