San Francisco 49ers
The San Francisco 49ers are a professional American football team located in the San Francisco Bay Area. They compete in the National Football League as a member of the league's National Football Conference West division; the team plays its home games at Levi's Stadium in Santa Clara, located 45 miles southeast of San Francisco in the heart of Silicon Valley. Since 1988, the 49ers have been headquartered in Santa Clara; the team was founded in 1946 as a charter member of the All-America Football Conference and joined the NFL in 1949 when the leagues merged. The 49ers were the first major league professional sports franchise based in San Francisco; the name "49ers" comes from the prospectors who arrived in Northern California in the 1849 Gold Rush. The team is and corporately registered as the San Francisco Forty Niners; the team began play at Kezar Stadium in San Francisco before moving across town to Candlestick Park in 1970 and to Levi's Stadium in Santa Clara in 2014. The 49ers won five Super Bowl championships between 1981 and 1994, led by Hall of Famers Joe Montana, Jerry Rice, Ronnie Lott, Steve Young, coach Bill Walsh.
As of 2017, the team has won 12 conference championships, with the first in 1981 and the last in 2018. They have been division champions 29 times between 1970 and 2019, making them one of the most successful teams in NFL history; the 49ers have been in the league playoffs 50 times: 49 times in the NFL and one time in the AAFC. The team has set numerous notable NFL records, including most consecutive road games won, most consecutive seasons leading league scoring, most consecutive games scored, most field goals in a season, fewest turn-overs in a season, most touchdowns in a Super Bowl. According to Forbes Magazine, the team is the 4th most-valuable team in the NFL, valued at $3 billion in July 2016. In 2016, the 49ers were ranked the 10th most valuable sports team in the world, behind basketball's Los Angeles Lakers and above soccer's Bayern Munich; the San Francisco 49ers, an original member of the new All-America Football Conference, were the first major league professional sports franchise based in San Francisco, one of the first major league professional sports teams based on the Pacific Coast.
In 1946, the team joined the Los Angeles Rams of the rival National Football League as the first two teams playing a "big four"-sport in the Western United States becoming part of the NFL themselves in 1950. In 1957, the 49ers enjoyed their first sustained success as members of the NFL. After losing the opening game of the season, the 49ers won their next three against the Rams and Packers before returning home to Kezar Stadium for a game against the Chicago Bears on October 27, 1957; the 49ers fell behind the Bears 17–7. Tragically, 49ers owner Tony Morabito died during the game; the 49ers players learned of his death at halftime when coach Frankie Albert was handed a note with two words: "Tony's gone." With tears running down their faces, motivated to win for their departed owner, the 49ers scored 14 unanswered points to win the game, 21–17. Dicky Moegle's late-game interception in the endzone sealed the victory. After Tony's death 49er ownership went to Tony's widow, Josephine V. Morabito; the 49ers special assistant to the Morabitos, Louis G. Spadia was named general manager.
During the decade of the 1950s the 49ers were known for their so-called "Million Dollar Backfield", consisting of four future Hall of Fame members: quarterback Y. A. Tittle and running backs John Henry Johnson, Hugh McElhenny, Joe Perry, they became the only full-house backfield inducted into the Pro Football Hall of Fame. For most of the next 13 years, the 49ers hovered around.490, except for 1963 and 1964 when they went 2–12 and 4–10 respectively. Key players for these 49ers included running back Ken Willard, quarterback John Brodie, offensive lineman Bruce Bosley. During this time the 49ers became the first NFL team to use the shotgun formation, it was named by the man who devised the formation, San Francisco 49ers' coach Red Hickey, in 1960. The formation, where the quarterback lines up seven yards behind the center, was designed to allow the quarterback extra time to throw; the formation was used for the first time in 1960 and enabled the 49ers to beat the Baltimore Colts, who were not familiar with the formation.
In 1961 using the shotgun, the 49ers got off to a fast 4–1 start, including two shutouts in back-to-back weeks. In their sixth game they faced the Chicago Bears, who by moving players closer to the line of scrimmage and rushing the quarterback, were able to defeat the shotgun and in fact shut out the 49ers, 31–0. Though the 49ers went only 3–5–1 the rest of the way, the shotgun became a component of most team's offenses and is a formation used by football teams at all levels. In 1962, the 49ers had a frustrating season, they won only one game at Kezar Stadium. After posting a losing record in 1963. Victor Morabito died May 10, 1964, at age 45; the 1964 season was another lost campaign. According to the 1965 49ers Year Book the co-owners of the team were: Mrs. Josephine V. Morabito Fox, Mrs. Jane Morabito, Mrs. O. H. Heintzelman, Lawrence J. Purcell, Mrs. William O'Grady, Albert J. Ruffo, Franklin Mieuli, Frankie Albert, Louis G. Spadia and James Ginella; the 1965 49ers rebounded nicely to finish with a 7–6–1 record.
They were led that year by John Brodie, who after being plagued by injuries came back to become one of the NFL's best passers by throwing for 3,112 yards and 30 touchdowns. In 1966, the Morabito widows named Lou Sp
History of the St. Louis Rams
The professional American football franchise now known as the Los Angeles Rams played in St. Louis, Missouri, as the St. Louis Rams from the 1995 through the 2015 seasons; the Rams franchise relocated from Los Angeles to St. Louis in 1995, without a National Football League team since the Cardinals moved to Phoenix, Arizona in 1988; the team's primary stadium was The Dome at America's Center, known as the Trans World Dome and the Edward Jones Dome while utilized by the Rams. The Rams’ first home game in St. Louis was at Busch Memorial Stadium, where they played before the Dome was completed, in a 17-13 victory against the New Orleans Saints on September 10, 1995; that season, they played their first game at the newly-completed Dome on November 12 in a 28-17 victory against the Carolina Panthers. Their last game played in St. Louis was against the Tampa Bay Buccaneers on December 17, 2015, which they won, 31–23; the Rams’ last game as a St. Louis-based club was on January 3, 2016, against the San Francisco 49ers at Levi's Stadium, where they lost in overtime 19–16.
Following the 2015 NFL season, the team returned to Los Angeles. During the Rams' tenure in St. Louis, the franchise won its first and, to date, only Super Bowl title during the 1999 season in XXXIV and made Super Bowl XXXVI two years but were upset by the New England Patriots in the game that began the Patriots dynasty. Assisted by the Greatest Show on Turf offense, the Rams enjoyed their greatest period of success from 1999 to 2006, but struggled throughout their remaining years in St. Louis. Upon their relocation back to Los Angeles, the Rams went 12 seasons without obtaining a winning record and 11 seasons without qualifying for the postseason. For 22 of their 28 years the St. Louis Cardinals called Busch Memorial Stadium home after it opened in 1966, after spending their first six seasons in St. Louis at Sportsman's Park. However, the overall mediocrity of the Cardinals, combined with stadium issues, caused game attendance to dwindle; the Bidwills, the family that owned the Cardinals, decided to move the team for a second time after having relocated the franchise from Chicago to St. Louis in 1960.
The cities the Bidwells considered included Baltimore, New York City, Jacksonville, whilst Columbus and Oakland made overtures without Bidwell considering them. Nonetheless, Cardinals fans were unhappy at losing their team, Bill Bidwill, fearing for his safety, stayed away from several of the 1987 home games; the Cardinals’ final home game in St. Louis was on December 13, 1987, which they won 27–24 over the New York Giants in front of 29,623 fans on a late Sunday afternoon. Not long after the 1987 season, Bidwill agreed to move to the Phoenix area on a handshake deal with state and local officials, the team became the Phoenix Cardinals, they planned to play at Arizona State University’s Sun Devil Stadium in Tempe on a temporary basis while a new stadium was being built. For the Cardinals, the savings and loan crisis derailed financing for the stadium, forcing the Cardinals to play at Arizona State for 18 years. Prior to the Rams’ 1979 Super Bowl season, owner Carroll Rosenbloom drowned in an accident.
His widow, Georgia Frontiere, inherited 70% ownership of the team. Frontiere fired her step-son, Steve Rosenbloom, assumed total control of the franchise; as had been planned prior to Carroll Rosenbloom's death, the Rams moved from their longtime home at the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum to Anaheim Stadium in nearby Orange County in 1980. The move was necessitated in part by the fact that the Coliseum was difficult to sell out because of its abnormally large seating capacity, subjecting the team to the league's local-market TV blackout rule, whenever home games did not sell out. Southern California's population patterns were changing. A.'s a decline in the city of Los Angeles' citizenship and earning power. Anaheim Stadium was built in 1966 as the home of the California Angels Major League Baseball franchise. To accommodate the Rams’ move, the ballpark was reconfigured with luxury suites and enclosed to accommodate crowds of about 65,000 for football. In 1982 the Coliseum was occupied by the Los Angeles Raiders.
The combined effect of these two factors was to force the Rams’ traditional fan base to be split between two teams. Making matters worse, at this time the Rams were unsuccessful on the field, while the Raiders were thriving — winning Super Bowl XVIII in 1983. Meanwhile, the Los Angeles Lakers won championships in 1980 and 1982 en route to winning five titles in that decade, the Los Angeles Dodgers won the World Series in 1981 and 1988, the Los Angeles Kings, buoyed by the acquisition of Wayne Gretzky in August 1988, advanced to the 1993 Stanley Cup Finals. Although not apparent at the time, the Rams’ loss in the 1989 NFC Championship Game marked the end of an era; the Rams would not have another winning season in Los Angeles before relocation. The first half of the 1990s featured four straight 10-loss seasons, no playoff appearances and waning fan interest; the return of Chuck Knox as head coach after successful stints as head coach of the Buffalo Bills and Seattle Seahawks would not boost the Rams’ fortunes.
Knox's run-oriented offense brought about the end of offensive coordinator Ernie Zampese’s tenure in 1993. General manager John Shaw was perceived by some to continually squander NFL Draft picks on sub-standard talent; the offensive scheme was not only unspectacular to watch, but dull by 1990s standards, further alienating fans. One bright spot for the offense d
John Kelly (sportscaster)
John Kelly is a hockey play-by-play broadcast announcer. He is the son of the late Dan Kelly. Kelly joined his father in the broadcast booth, for a game in November 1988, as Dan Kelly announced his final game, in which the Blues defeated the Flyers for the first time in Philadelphia since January 6, 1972. Kelly joined the Blues' broadcast team for the 1989-90 season and remained on the job until 1992, when he joined the then-fledgling Tampa Bay Lightning. Three years he joined the Colorado Avalanche, who were moving from Quebec, where they had spent 23 seasons as the Nordiques, he documented two Stanley Cup Championships in Denver, in 1995–96 and again in 2000–01. He became well known in Denver for his proclamation, "Thank you, thank you, thank you!!!!" after a big score by the Avs and,"SAVE BY ROY!" after a good save from former Avalanche goaltender Patrick Roy. He left the Avalanche after the 2003–04 season to rejoin the Blues on their telecasts. After the 2004–05 NHL lockout, he got the chance for the second time in 2005–06.
His younger brother Dan P. Kelly was the Blues' radio announcer from 1997 to 2000, before spending the next four seasons with the Columbus Blue Jackets. In addition to the Blues, Kelly worked the 2006 NHL Playoffs on Outdoor Life Network. During the mid-1990s, he worked on some regional telecasts for the NHL on Fox. Kelly substituted for Mike Haynes, the broadcaster who took over his play-by-play role for the Avalanche, on Altitude Sports and Entertainment during the 2008 playoffs due to Haynes' health problems. Kelly, whose minor league hockey assignments included the St. Catharines Saints and three years with the Adirondack Red Wings, obtained his realtor license during the 2004–05 NHL lockout, he subbed for Marv Albert on Rangers broadcasts during the late 1980s
Fort Zumwalt West High School
Fort Zumwalt West High School, the third high school established in the Fort Zumwalt School District, is located in O'Fallon, Missouri. First opened for the 1998–1999 school year, the school now has an approximate enrollment of 2,000 students with an average daily attendance rate of nearly 94%; the school's ACT scores averaged 22.1 in 2016, with 98.6% of graduates taking the test due to the statewide free ACT test. The graduation rate remains around 91%, with 42% attending four year college/university, 32% attending two year college/university; the dropout rate is 1.9%, as opposed to 4.0% at the state level. With 118 teachers, around 83% have a master's degree or higher, 100% have regular teaching certificates, they average 9.3 years of teaching experience. There is an average of 17 students per classroom; the school offers numerous Pre-AP and AP courses such as Calculus, Chemistry, World and US History, Biology and Composition and many more. The 2017 class graduated two National Merit Scholars.
The Fort Zumwalt West Women's soccer team won the school's first state and title in the 2007 season, which remains the only team state title. Teams with Final Four appearances include Girls Basketball, Wrestling and Girls Soccer; the Dance team was the 2017 Runner-up at the National Dance Competition in Orlando. 2007 – Alyssa Mautz, Chicago Red Stars soccer player 2008 – Cody Asche, Chicago White Sox baseball player with the Philadelphia Phillies 2009 – T. J. Moe, football player with the New England Patriots and St. Louis Rams in 2014 Fort Zumwalt West High School
Farrell Randal "Randy" Sklar and Jason Nathan Sklar, professionally known as the Sklar Brothers, are American identical twin comedians and actors. They hosted the show Cheap Seats on ESPN Classic, which came to an end on November 19, 2006, after four seasons. Randy and Jason grew up in suburban St. Louis, they went to the University of Michigan. While enrolled, they decided to pursue a career in comedy. In 1994, they moved to New York. In the summer of 1997, Jason and Randy starred in and wrote for MTV's sitcom/sketch/standup program Apt 2F, it was their first television work. The show lasted one season; the Sklar brothers have appeared in television shows such as CSI, Comedy Bang! Bang!, Mighty Med, Childrens Hospital, Law & Order, Providence, The Oblongs, Grey's Anatomy, Curb Your Enthusiasm, It's Always Sunny in Philadelphia. They appeared on season 3 of Better Call Saul as the owners of a music shop called ABQ In Tune; the Sklars have appeared in the films My Baby's Daddy, Bubble Boy, Wild Hogs, The Comebacks.
The brothers were pit reporters on Comedy Central's Battlebots. Randy appeared on an episode of Take Home Chef, where his wife and chef Curtis Stone surprised him with a gourmet dinner of Beef Wellington, they have appeared numerous times on Chelsea Lately. They have appeared on Comedy Central's @midnight, they produced and starred in a special that ran on ESPN 2 called Utilityman: The Quest for Cooperstown a lighthearted yet somewhat serious attempt to get seminal utility baseball player for the St. Louis Cardinals in the 1980s José Oquendo into the Baseball Hall of Fame in Cooperstown. Randy has appeared numerous times on the Forum on Jim Rome is Burning on ESPN and Rome on CBS Sports, they appear monthly on Rome on Showtime in a segment called Sklarred for Life. They appeared in the 2008 Microsoft film VoIP, they fill in as guest hosts for Jim Rome on his National and North American syndicated radio show on Premiere Radio on CBS Radio. They participated on NPR's southern California affiliate KPCC's The Madeleine Brand Show as sports correspondents.
They produced two Sports Pilots called Sklar Talk for NPR's KPCC that both aired in 2011. The Sklars are frequent guests on the podcasts Never Not Funny and World Football Daily, they have appeared on AST Radio, Jesse GO! and Battleship Pretension, WTF with Marc Maron, You Made It Weird, Professor Blastoff. They were featured in the Troma production Citizen Toxie: The Toxic Avenger IV as Jason Gonzales and Randy Diaz, a pair of Tromaville Anchormen. Randy and Jason are featured in an ad campaign by running apparel company Brooks. In August 2010, they made a cameo appearance in the web comedy The Legend of Neil in season 3 episode 3, depicting two football-loving'Armos' statues. In 2012, the twins began to appear in what would become a series of commercials for Time Warner Cable. In February 2014, the brothers recorded their first one-hour stand-up special at the Majestic Theater in Madison, Wisconsin; the special premiered on Netflix on April 25, 2014 and the CD/DVD dropped on iTunes on Tuesday April 29, 2014.
The brothers uniquely framed their special as if it were an NFL playoff game with Rich Eisen leading a roundtable discussion of the brothers' comedy on an NFL Network set, along with future Hall of Fame Defensive Lineman Dwight Freeney, NY Giant Defensive Back Terrell Thomas, actor and former Georgia Bulldog football player Omar Dorsey. In addition the ubiquitous sideline reporter Bonnie Bernstein makes a cameo, interviewing the brothers pre- and post-show; the stand up special features a pre-game breakdown by this crew, a halftime report, a post game wrap up. The stand up special titled What Are We Talking About will be available on Netflix instant streaming for three years after the April 25, 2014 premiere. Randy Sklar is married to Amy Sklar, an interior designer, featured on HGTVs Design Star and they have two daughters. Jason is married to Dr. Jessica Zucker, a fertility therapist who created her own line of critically acclaimed pregnancy loss cards, they have a daughter. While on a special Mother's Day themed episode of @midnight with their mother, she was asked to pick her favorite son.
Starting in 2004, Randy and Jason appeared on Cheap Seats, on which they played fictitious ESPN research assistants who end up hosting a comedy show as they comment on odd and notable sporting events from ESPN's extensive library. Cheap Seats borrowed its format from Mystery Science Theater 3000; the cast of MST3K were pleased with the show and afforded it a high honor - they appeared in the second season opener in their normal silhouette format, making fun of the Sklars' host show bits. So far it is the only time Michael J. Nelson, Bill Corbett and Kevin Murphy have appeared as their MST3K characters Mike Nelson, Crow T. Robot and Tom Servo since MST3K was cancelled; the brothers co-wrote with Nick Kroll the web series Layers, directed by Michael Blieden, on which they played twin publicists Larry and Terry Bridge. Their web series Back on Topps was produced by Vuguru, the online production company of Michael Eisner, it won two Streamy Awards. In 2010, the online network Crackle released Held Up, an original series written by the brothers and starring Kaitlin Olson of It's Always Sunny in Philadelphia.
Held Up tells the story of a bored bank teller’
Missouri is a state in the Midwestern United States. With over six million residents, it is the 18th-most populous state of the Union; the largest urban areas are St. Louis, Kansas City and Columbia; the state is the 21st-most extensive in area. In the South are the Ozarks, a forested highland, providing timber and recreation; the Missouri River, after which the state is named, flows through the center of the state into the Mississippi River, which makes up Missouri's eastern border. Humans have inhabited the land now known as Missouri for at least 12,000 years; the Mississippian culture built mounds, before declining in the 14th century. When European explorers arrived in the 17th century they encountered the Osage and Missouria nations; the French established Louisiana, a part of New France, founded Ste. Genevieve in 1735 and St. Louis in 1764. After a brief period of Spanish rule, the United States acquired the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. Americans from the Upland South, including enslaved African Americans, rushed into the new Missouri Territory.
Missouri was admitted as a slave state as part of the Missouri Compromise. Many from Virginia and Tennessee settled in the Boonslick area of Mid-Missouri. Soon after, heavy German immigration formed the Missouri Rhineland. Missouri played a central role in the westward expansion of the United States, as memorialized by the Gateway Arch; the Pony Express, Oregon Trail, Santa Fe Trail, California Trail all began in Missouri. As a border state, Missouri's role in the American Civil War was complex and there were many conflicts within. After the war, both Greater St. Louis and the Kansas City metropolitan area became centers of industrialization and business. Today, the state is divided into the independent city of St. Louis. Missouri's culture blends elements from Southern United States; the musical styles of ragtime, Kansas City jazz, St. Louis Blues developed in Missouri; the well-known Kansas City-style barbecue, lesser-known St. Louis-style barbecue, can be found across the state and beyond. Missouri is a major center of beer brewing.
Missouri wine is produced in Ozarks. Missouri's alcohol laws are among the most permissive in the United States. Outside of the state's major cities, popular tourist destinations include the Lake of the Ozarks, Table Rock Lake, Branson. Well-known Missourians include U. S. President Harry S. Truman, Mark Twain, Walt Disney, Chuck Berry, Nelly; some of the largest companies based in the state include Cerner, Express Scripts, Emerson Electric, Edward Jones, H&R Block, Wells Fargo Advisors, O'Reilly Auto Parts. Missouri has been called the "Mother of the West" and the "Cave State"; the state is named for the Missouri River, named after the indigenous Missouri Indians, a Siouan-language tribe. It is said that they were called the ouemessourita, meaning "those who have dugout canoes", by the Miami-Illinois language speakers; this appears to be folk etymology—the Illinois spoke an Algonquian language and the closest approximation that can be made in that of their close neighbors, the Ojibwe, is "You Ought to Go Downriver & Visit Those People."
This would be an odd occurrence, as the French who first explored and attempted to settle the Mississippi River got their translations during that time accurate giving things French names that were exact translations of the native tongue. Assuming Missouri were deriving from the Siouan language, it would translate as "It connects to the side of it," in reference to the river itself; this is not likely either, as this would be coming out as "Maya Sunni" Most though, the name Missouri comes from Chiwere, a Siouan language spoken by people who resided in the modern day states of Wisconsin, South Dakota, Missouri & Nebraska. The name "Missouri" has several different pronunciations among its present-day natives, the two most common being and. Further pronunciations exist in Missouri or elsewhere in the United States, involving the realization of the first syllable as either or. Any combination of these phonetic realizations may be observed coming from speakers of American English; the linguistic history was treated definitively by Donald M. Lance, who acknowledged that the question is sociologically complex, but that no pronunciation could be declared "correct", nor could any be defined as native or outsider, rural or urban, southern or northern, educated or otherwise.
Politicians employ multiple pronunciations during a single speech, to appeal to a greater number of listeners. Informal respellings of the state's name, such as "Missour-ee" or "Missour-uh", are used informally to phonetically distinguish pronunciations. There is no official state nickname. However, Missouri's unofficial nickname is the "Show Me State"; this phrase has several origins. One is popularly ascribed to a speech by Congressman Willard Vandiver in 1899, who declared that "I come from a state that raises corn and cotton and Democrats, frothy eloquence neither convinces nor satisfies me. I'm from Missouri, you have got to show me." This is in keeping with the saying "I'm from Missouri" which means "I'm skeptical of the matter and not convinced." However, according to researchers, the phrase "show me" was in use
White Americans are Americans who are descendants from any of the white racial groups of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa or in census statistics, those who self-report as white based on having majority-white ancestry. White Americans constitute the historical and current majority of the people living in the United States, with 72% of the population in the 2010 United States Census. Non-Hispanic whites totaled about 197,285,202 or 60.7% of the U. S. population. European Americans are the largest ethnic group of White Americans and constitute the historical population of the United States since the nation's founding; the United States Census Bureau defines white people as those "having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East or North Africa." Like all official U. S. racial categories, "White" has a "not Hispanic or Latino" and a "Hispanic or Latino" component, the latter consisting of White Mexican Americans and White Cuban Americans. The term "Caucasian" is synonymous with "white", although the latter is sometimes used to denote skin tone instead of race.
Some of the non-European ethnic groups classified as white by the U. S. Census, such as Arab Americans, Jewish Americans, Hispanics or Latinos, may not identify as or may not be perceived to be, white; the largest ancestries of American whites are: German Americans, Irish Americans, English Americans, Italian Americans, French Americans, Polish Americans, Scottish Americans, Scotch-Irish Americans, Dutch Americans, Norwegian Americans and Swedish Americans. However, the English Americans and British Americans demography is considered a serious under-count as the stock tend to self-report and identify as "Americans", due to the length of time they have inhabited the United States if their family arrived prior to the American Revolution; the vast majority of white Americans have ancestry from multiple countries. Definitions of, "White" have changed throughout the history of the United States; the term "White American" can encompass many different ethnic groups. Although the United States Census purports to reflect a social definition of race, the social dimensions of race are more complex than Census criteria.
The 2000 U. S. census states that racial categories "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country. They do not conform to any biological, anthropological or genetic criteria."The Census question on race lists the categories White or European American, Black or African American, American Indian and Alaska Native, Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander, plus "Some other race", with the respondent having the ability to mark more than one racial and or ethnic category. The Census Bureau defines White people as follows: "White" refers to a person having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East or North Africa, it includes people who indicated their race as "White" or reported entries such as German, Lebanese, Moroccan, or Caucasian. In U. S. census documents, the designation White overlaps, as do all other official racial categories, with the term Hispanic or Latino, introduced in the 1980 census as a category of ethnicity and independent of race.
Hispanic and Latino Americans as a whole make up a racially diverse group and as a whole are the largest minority in the country. The characterization of Middle Eastern and North African Americans as white has been a matter of controversy. In the early 20th century, peoples of Arab descent were sometimes denied entry into the United States because they were characterized as nonwhite. In 1944, the law changed, Middle Eastern and North African peoples were granted white status; the U. S. Census is revisiting the issue, considering creating a separate racial category for Middle Eastern and North African Americans in the 2020 Census. In cases where individuals do not self-identify, the U. S. census parameters for race give each national origin a racial value. Additionally, people who reported Muslim, Zoroastrian, or Caucasian as their "race" in the "Some other race" section, without noting a country of origin, are automatically tallied as White; the US Census considers the write-in response of "Caucasian" or "Aryan" to be a synonym for White in their ancestry code listing.
In the contemporary United States anyone of European descent is considered White. However, many of the non-European ethnic groups classified as White by the U. S. Census, such as Arab Americans, Jewish Americans, Hispanics or Latinos may not identify as, may not be perceived to be, White; the definition of White has changed over the course of American history. Among Europeans, those not considered White at some point in American history include Italians, Spaniards, Swedes and Russians. Early on in the United States, membership in the white race was limited to those of British, Germanic, or Nordic ancestry. David R. Roediger argues that the construction of the white race in the United States was an effort to mentally distance slave owners from slaves; the process of being defined as white by law came about in court disputes over pursuit of citizenship. Critical race theory developed in the 1970s and 1980s, influenced by the language of critical legal studies, which challenged concepts such as objective truth and judicial neutrality, by critical theory.
Academics and activists disillusioned with the outcomes of the Civil Rights Movement pointed out that though African Americans enjoyed legal equality, white Americans continued to hold disproportionate power and still had superior living standards