A legation was a diplomatic representative office of lower rank than an embassy. Where an embassy was headed by an ambassador, a legation was headed by a minister. Ambassadors had precedence at official events. Legations were the most common form of diplomatic mission, but they fell out of favor after World War II and were upgraded to embassies. Through the 19th century and the early years of the 20th century, most diplomatic missions were legations. An ambassador was considered the personal representative of his monarch, so only a major power, a monarchy would send an ambassador and establish an embassy. A republic or a smaller monarchy would only establish a legation; because of diplomatic reciprocity a major monarchy would only establish a legation in a republic or a smaller monarchy. For example, in the waning years of the Second French Empire, the North German Confederation had an embassy in Paris, while Bavaria and the United States had legations; the practice of establishing legations fell from favor as the embassy became the standard form of diplomatic mission.
The establishment of the French Third Republic and the continued growth of the United States meant that two of the Great Powers were now republics. The French Republic continued the French Empire's practice of receiving ambassadors. In 1893, the United States followed the French precedent and began sending ambassadors, upgrading its legations to embassies; the last remaining American legations, in Bulgaria and Hungary, were upgraded to embassies in 1966. The last legations in the world were the Baltic legations, which were upgraded to embassies in 1991 after the Baltic states reestablished their independence from the Soviet Union. American Legation, Tangier Beijing Legation Quarter Concession Papal Legations, certain administrative regions of the erstwhile Papal States the "legations" of Ferrara and Romagna Villa Lituania
High commissioner (Commonwealth)
In the Commonwealth of Nations, a high commissioner is the senior diplomat in charge of the diplomatic mission of one Commonwealth government to another. Instead of an embassy, the diplomatic mission is called a high commission. In the British Empire, high commissioners were envoys of the Imperial government appointed to manage protectorates or groups of territories not under the sovereignty of the British Crown, while Crown colonies were administered by a governor, the most significant possessions, large confederations and the self-governing dominions were headed by a governor-general. For example, when Cyprus came under British administration in 1878 it remained nominally under the suzerainty of the Ottoman Empire; the representative of the British government and head of the administration was titled high commissioner until Cyprus became a Crown colony in 1925, when the incumbent high commissioner became the first governor. Another example were the high commissioners for Palestine. A high commissioner could be charged with the last phase of decolonisation, as in the Crown colony of the Seychelles, where the last governor became high commissioner in 1975, when self-rule under the Crown was granted, until 1976, when the archipelago became an independent republic within the Commonwealth.
As diplomatic residents were sometimes appointed to native rulers, high commissioners could be appointed as British agents of indirect rule over native states. Thus high commissioners could be charged with managing diplomatic relations with native rulers and their states, might have under them several resident commissioners or similar agents attached to each state. In regions of particular importance, a commissioner-general was appointed to have control over several high commissioners and governors, e.g. the commissioner-general for South-East Asia had responsibility for Malaya and British Borneo. The first high commissioner of India to London was appointed in 1920; the first agent of the Indian government was appointed to South Africa in 1927. Although not a dominion, the self-governing colony of Southern Rhodesia was represented in the United Kingdom by a high commission in London, while the United Kingdom had a high commission in Salisbury. Following the Unilateral Declaration of Independence by the government of Ian Smith in 1965, the Rhodesian high commissioner, Andrew Skeen was expelled from London, while his British counterpart, Sir John Johnston, was withdrawn by the British government.
The role of high commissioner for Southern Africa was coupled with that of British governor of the Cape Colony in the 19th century, giving the colonial administrator in question responsibility both for administering British possessions and relating to neighbouring Boer settlements. The protectorates of Bechuanaland and Swaziland were administered as high commission territories by the Governor-General of the Union of South Africa, the British high commissioner for Bechuanaland and Swaziland until the 1930s, with various local representatives by the British high commissioner to South Africa, represented locally in each by a resident commissioner; the British governor of the Crown colony of the Straits Settlements, based in Singapore, doubled as high commissioner of the Federated Malay States, had authority over the resident-general in Kuala Lumpur, who in turn was responsible for the various residents appointed to the native rulers of the Malay states under British protection. The British Western Pacific Territories were permanently governed as a group of minor insular colonial territories, under one single, not full-time, Western Pacific high commissioner, an office attached first to the governorship of Fiji, subsequently to that of the Solomon Islands, represented in each of the other islands units: by a Resident Commissioner, Consul or other official.
The high commissioner to New Zealand ex officio is the governor of the Pitcairn Islands. The first dominion high commissioner was appointed by Canada as its envoy in London. Sir John Rose, 1st Baronet, a Canadian businessman resident in London and former Canadian finance minister, had acted as the personal representative of the Canadian prime minister Sir John A. Macdonald, from 1869 to 1874 and was given the title of Financial Commissioner from 1874 until 1880. Alexander Mackenzie, while he was prime minister, appointed Edward Jenkins a British Member of Parliament with links to Canada, to act as the government's representative in London as agents-general, followed by former Nova Scotia premier William Annand; when Macdonald returned to power in 1878 he requested to elevate the position of financial commissioner to resident minister, but was denied the request by the British government who instead offered to allow the designation of high commissioner. The Canadian government appointed Alexander Tilloch Galt as the first high commissioner of Canada to the United Kingdom in 1880.
New Zealand appointed a high commissioner in 1905, in place of a resident agent-general which have been appointed since 1871. Australia did the same in 1910, South Africa in 1911; the British government continued not to appoint high commissioners to the Dominions, holding that the British government was represented by the relevant governor-general or go
The diplomatic corps is the collective body of foreign diplomats accredited to a particular country or body. The diplomatic corps may, in certain contexts, refer to the collection of accredited heads of mission who represent their countries in another state or country; as a body, they only assemble to attend state functions like a coronation, national day or State Opening of Parliament, depending on local custom. They may assemble in the royal or presidential palace to give their own head of state's New Year greeting to the head of state of the country in which they are based; the term is sometimes confused with the collective body of diplomats from a particular country—the proper term for, diplomatic service. The diplomatic corps is not always given any formal recognition by its host country, but can be referenced by official orders of precedence. In many countries, in Africa, the heads and the foreign members of the country offices of major international organizations are considered members—and granted the rights and privileges—of the diplomatic corps.
Diplomatic vehicles in most countries have distinctive diplomatic license plates with the prefix or suffix CD, the abbreviation for the French corps diplomatique. In most countries, the longest-serving ambassador to a country is given the title Dean of the Diplomatic Corps; the dean is accorded a high position in the order of precedence. In New Zealand, for example, the dean takes precedence over figures such as the deputy prime minister and former governors-general. In many countries that have Roman Catholicism as the official or dominant religion, the apostolic nuncio serves as Dean by virtue of his office, regardless of seniority; the Congress of Vienna and the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations provided that any country may choose to give nuncios a different precedence than other ambassadors. The diplomatic corps may cooperate amongst itself on a number of matters, including certain dealings with the host government. In practical terms, the dean of the diplomatic corps may have a role to play in negotiating with local authorities regarding the application of aspects of the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations and diplomatic immunity, such as the payment of certain fees or taxes, since the receiving country is required "not to discriminate between states".
In this sense, the dean has the role of representing the entire diplomatic corps for matters that affect the corps as a whole, although this function is formalized. Marshal of the Diplomatic Corps Consular corps United States' Deans of the Diplomatic Corps: 1893 To Present
A despatch rider is a military messenger, mounted on horse or motorcycle. In the UK'despatch rider' is a term used for a motorcycle courier. Despatch riders were used by armed forces to deliver urgent orders and messages between headquarters and military units, they had a vital role at a time when telecommunications were insecure. They were used to deliver carrier pigeons. In the British Army, motorcycle despatch riders were first used in the World War I by the Royal Engineers Signal Service; when the War Department called for motorcyclists to volunteer with their machines for despatch work at the start of August 1914, the response was huge. The London office had 2000 more applicants than places, a similar response was reported in regional centres around the country. If a rider and machine were approved £10 was paid £5 to be paid on discharge, pay was 35s per week; the motor cycle would be taken over at valuation price, or will be replaced with a new one at the close of operations. Enlistment was for one year or as long.
The preference was for the horizontally-opposed twin cylinder. All machines had to have a "change speed gear"; the following list of spares was required to be carried: One valve complete with spring and cotter One sparking plug One piston ring A tyre repair outfit including spares for valve A spare tube A spare belt and fastener Spare link and a spare chain Complete set of spares for the magneto Selection of nuts and washers Two valve cap washers Complete set of tools Two gaiters for tyre repairs A spare'cover' to be carried by signal units for each machine Recruitment was not just for the army. These bikes carried a plate on the front with the lettering "O. H. M. S.". As the war progressed the wide variety of volunteered machinery presented maintenance and spares problems, so were progressively replaced by a limited range of military models, in specific regions of the world or parts of the service only one of these models might be found, for example the RAF used P&M motorcycles by the stages of the war.
In August 1914 it was reported that the despatch riders for the Belgian and Russian armies were equipped with F. N. motor cycles. However, one month the Belgian government ordered 50 3 hp Enfield motorcycles for despatch riders. At this time the French Army were still mobilising, but it was reported they had a squad of Triumphs as well as a variety of French makes. Douglas supplied 100 machines to the Italian Government for despatch purposes in 1916, by this time the French despatch riders were using BSAs and Triumphs; the US Army entered the war in 1917, their messengers were equipped principally with Indian and Harley-Davidson motorcycles. In a September 1914 account it is stated that the French despatch riders, like the British, are equipped with a revolver, whereas their German counterparts are equipped with Mausers. During World War II despatch riders were referred to as Don Rs in Commonwealth forces. In World War II, Royal Corps of Signals soldiers carried out the role and the Royal Signals Motorcycle Display Team was formed from their number.
They were used by the Royal Air Force and the Royal Navy, where they maintained contact with land bases and some of the riders were members of the Women's Royal Naval Service. In the UK Bletchley Park used to receive transmissions from the listening stations by despatch riders, although this was switched to teleprinter transmission; the British military used Triumph, Norton, BSA, Matchless and Ariel for despatch riders, although radio communications were much more advanced during WW II than WW I - huge numbers were produced. Charles Kingsford Smith - Aviator Charles Symonds - Neurologist W. H. L. Watson. Adventures of a Motorcycle Despatch Rider During the First World War: ISBN 978-1-84685-046-2 Raymond Mitchell Commando Despatch Rider: ISBN 0-85052-797-X Carragher, Michael. San Fairy Ann? Motorcycles and British Victory 1914–1918. Brighton: FireStep Press. ISBN 978-1-908487-38-4
Cultural diplomacy is a type of public diplomacy and soft power that includes the "exchange of ideas, art and other aspects of culture among nations and their peoples in order to foster mutual understanding". The purpose of cultural diplomacy is for the people of a foreign nation to develop an understanding of the nation's ideals and institutions in an effort to build broad support for economic and political goals. In essence "cultural diplomacy reveals the soul of a nation", which in turn creates influence. Though overlooked, cultural diplomacy can and does play an important role in achieving national security efforts. Culture is a set of practices that create meaning for society; this includes popular culture. This is, it is a type of soft power, the "ability to get what you want through attraction rather than coercion or payments. It arises from a country's culture, political ideals and policies." This indicates. Cultural diplomacy is a component of public diplomacy. Public diplomacy is enhanced by a larger society and culture, but public diplomacy helps to "amplify and advertise that society and culture to the world at large".
It could be argued that the information component of public diplomacy can only be effective where there is a relationship that gives credibility to the information being relayed. This comes from knowledge of the other's culture." Cultural diplomacy has been called the "linchpin of public diplomacy" because cultural activities have the possibility to demonstrate the best of a nation. In this way, cultural diplomacy and public diplomacy are intimately linked. Richard T. Arndt, a former State Department cultural diplomacy practitioner, said "Cultural relations grow and organically, without government intervention – the transactions of trade and tourism, student flows, book circulation, media access, inter-marriage – millions of daily cross-cultural encounters. If, correct, cultural diplomacy can only be said to take place when formal diplomats, serving national governments, try to shape and channel this natural flow to advance national interests." It is important to note that, while cultural diplomacy is, as indicated above, a government activity, the private sector has a real role to play because the government does not create culture, therefore, it can only attempt to make a culture known and define the impact this organic growth will have on national policies.
Cultural diplomacy attempts to manage the international environment by utilizing these sources and achievements and making them known abroad. An important aspect of this is listening- cultural diplomacy is meant to be a two-way exchange; this exchange is intended to foster a mutual understanding and thereby win influence within the target nation. Cultural diplomacy derives its credibility not from being close to government institutions, but from its proximity to cultural authorities, it is seen as a silent weapon in gaining control over another nation with the use of non-violent methods to perpetrate a relationship of mutual understanding and support among the countries involved. The goal of cultural diplomacy is to influence a foreign audience and use that influence, built up over the long term, as a sort of good will reserve to win support for policies, it seeks to harness the elements of culture to induce foreigners to: have a positive view of the country's people and policies, induce greater cooperation between the two nations, aid in changing the policies or political environment of the target nation, prevent and mitigate conflict with the target nation.
In turn, cultural diplomacy can help a nation better understand the foreign nation it is engaged with and it fosters mutual understanding. Cultural diplomacy is a way of conducting international relations without expecting anything in return in the way that traditional diplomacy expects. Cultural exchange programs work as a medium to relay a favourable impression of the foreign country in order to gain outsiders' understanding and approval in their cultural practices and naturalize their social norms among other cultures. Cultural diplomacy is more focused on the longer term and less on specific policy matters; the intent is to build up influence over the long term for when it is needed by engaging people directly. This influence has implications ranging from national security to increasing tourism and commercial opportunities, it allows the government to create a "foundation of trust" and a mutual understanding, neutral and built on people-to-people contact. Another unique and important element of cultural diplomacy is its ability to reach youth, non-elites and other audiences outside of the traditional embassy circuit.
In short, cultural diplomacy plants the seeds of ideals, political arguments, spiritual perceptions and a general view point of the world that may or may not flourish in a foreign nation. Therefore, ideologies spread by cultural diplomacy about the values that American people believe in enables those that seek a better life to look towards the Western world where happiness and freedom are portrayed as desirable and achievable goals. First and foremost, cultural diplomacy is a demonstration of national power because it demonstrates to foreign audiences every aspect of culture, including wealth and technological advances, competitiveness in everything from sports and industry to military power, a nation's overall confidence. The
A congress is a formal meeting of the representatives of different countries, constituent states, trade unions, political parties or other groups. The term denoting a parley during battle in the Late Middle Ages, is derived from the Latin congressus. In the mid-1770s, the term was chosen by the 13 British colonies for the Continental Congress to emphasize the status of each colony represented there as a self-governing entity. Subsequent to the use of congress as the name for the legislature of the U. S. federal government, the term has been adopted by many nations to refer to their national legislatures. The following congresses were formal meetings of representatives of different nations: The Congress of Aix-la-Chapelle, which ended the War of Devolution The Congress of Aix-la-Chapelle, which ended the War of the Austrian Succession The Congress of Aix-la-Chapelle The Congress of Berlin, which settled the Eastern Question after the Russo-Turkish War The Congress of Gniezno The Congress of Laibach The Congress of Panama, an 1826 meeting organized by Simon Bolivar.
The Congress of Paris, which ended the Crimean War The Congress of Troppau The Congress of Tucumán The Congress of Utrecht The Congress of Verona The Congress of Vienna, which settled the shape of Europe after the Napoleonic Wars The Congress of the Council of Europe. Countries with Congresses and presidential systems: The Congress of Guatemala is the unicameral legislature of Guatemala; the National Congress of Honduras is the legislative branch of the government of Honduras. The Congress of Mexico is the legislative branch of Mexican government; the Congress of Paraguay is the bicameral legislature of Paraguay. The Congress of the Argentine Nation is the legislative branch of the government of Argentina; the Congress of the Dominican Republic is the bicameral legislature of the Dominican Republic. The Palau National Congress is the bicameral legislative branch of the Republic of Palau; the Congress of the Federated States of Micronesia is the unicameral legislature of the Federated States of Micronesia.
The Congress of the Philippines is the legislative branch of the Philippine government. The Congress of the Republic of Peru is the unicameral legislature of Peru; the Congress of Colombia is the bicameral legislature of Colombia. The United States Congress is the bicameral legislative branch of the United States federal government; the National Congress of Bolivia was the national legislature of Bolivia before being replaced by the Plurinational Legislative Assembly. The National Congress of Brazil is Brazil's bicameral legislature; the National Congress of Chile is the legislative branch of the government of Chile. The National Congress of Ecuador was the unicameral legislature of Ecuador before being replaced by the National Assembly; the Congress of Mauritania France: Although France has a Parliament, the term Congress is used on two circumstances: the Congress of the French Parliament, name used when both houses sit together as a single body at the Palace of Versailles, to vote on revisions to the Constitution, to listen to an address by the President of the French Republic, and, in the past, to elect the President of the Republic the Congress of New Caledonia, a territorial assembly ICCA Congress & Exhibition The Continental Congress was a convention of delegates from the Thirteen Colonies that became the governing body of the United States during the American Revolution.
The Congress of the Confederation was the legislature of the United States under the Articles of Confederation. The National Congress of Belgium was a temporary legislative assembly in 1830, which created a constitution for the new state. In France, the Congress of France denotes a formal and convened joint session of both houses of Parliament to ratify an amendment to the Constitution or to listen to a speech by the President of the French Republic. Spanish Congress of Deputies, the lower house of the Cortes Generales, Spain's legislative branch; the legislature of the People's Republic of China is known in English as the National People's Congress. The Congress of People's Deputies of the Soviet Union was the legislature and nominal supreme institution of state power in the Soviet Union from 1989 to 1991. Congress of People's Deputies of Russia, a Russian institution modeled after USSR one, existed in 1990—1993. Congress is included in the name of several political parties those in former British colonies: Guyana People's National Congress India Indian National Congress All India Trinamool Congress Kerala Congress Nationalist Congress Party Tamil Maanila Congress YSR Congress BSR Congress All India N.
R. Congress Lesotho Basotho Congress Party Lesotho Congress for Democracy Lesotho People's Congress Malawi Malawi Congress Party Malaysia Malaysian Indian Congress Namibia Congress of Democrats Pakistan Peoples Revolutionary Congress Pakistan Sudan National Congress Fiji National Congress of Fiji Canary Islands National Congress of the Canaries Nepal Nepali Congress Sierra Leone All People's Congress South Africa African National Congress Congress of the People Pan-Africanist Congress Sri Lanka All Ceylon Tamil Congress Sri Lanka Muslim Congress Swaziland Ngwane National Liberatory Congress Trinidad and
A diplomat is a person appointed by a state to conduct diplomacy with one or more other states or international organizations. The main functions of diplomats are: representation and protection of the interests and nationals of the sending state. Seasoned diplomats of international repute are used in international organizations as well as multinational companies for their experience in management and negotiating skills. Diplomats are diplomatic corps of various nations of the world. Diplomats are the oldest form of any of the foreign policy institutions of the state, predating by centuries foreign ministers and ministerial offices, they have diplomatic immunity. The regular use of permanent diplomatic representation began between the states of fifteenth century Italy; however the terms ‘diplomacy’ and ‘diplomat’ appeared in the French Revolution. Diplomat is derived from the Greek διπλωμάτης, the holder of a diploma, referring to diplomats' documents of accreditation from their sovereign. Diplomats themselves and historians refer to the foreign ministry by its address: the Ballhausplatz, the Quai d’Orsay, the Wilhelmstraße.
For imperial Russia to 1917 it was the Choristers’ Bridge. The Italian ministry was called "the Consulta." Though any person can be appointed by the state's national government to conduct said state's relations with other states or international organisations, a number of states maintain an institutionalised group of career diplomats—that is, public servants with a steady professional connection to the country's foreign ministry. The term career diplomat is used worldwide in opposition to political appointees. While posted to an embassy or delegation in a foreign country or accredited to an international organisation, both career diplomats and political appointees enjoy the same diplomatic immunities. Ceremonial heads of state act as diplomats on behalf of their nation following instructions from their head of Government. Whether being a career diplomat or a political appointee, every diplomat, while posted abroad, will be classified in one of the ranks of diplomats as regulated by international law.
Diplomats can be contrasted with consuls and attachés, who represent their state in a number of administrative ways, but who don't have the diplomat's political functions. Diplomats in posts collect and report information that could affect national interests with advice about how the home-country government should respond. Once any policy response has been decided in the home country's capital, posts bear major responsibility for implementing it. Diplomats have the job of conveying, in the most persuasive way possible, the views of the home government to the governments to which they are accredited and, in doing so, of trying to convince those governments to act in ways that suit home-country interests. In this way, diplomats are part of the beginning and the end of each loop in the continuous process through which foreign policy develops. In general, it has become harder for diplomats to act autonomously. Diplomats have to seize secure communication systems and mobile telephones can be tracked down and instruct the most reclusive head of mission.
The same technology in reverse gives diplomats the capacity for more immediate input about the policy-making processes in the home capital. Secure email has transformed the contact between the ministry, it is less to leak, enables more personal contact than the formal cablegram, with its wide distribution and impersonal style. The home country will send instructions to a diplomatic post on what foreign policy goals to pursue, but decisions on tactics – who needs to be influenced, what will best persuade them, who are potential allies and adversaries, how it can be done - are for the diplomats overseas to make. In this operation, the intelligence, cultural understanding, energy of individual diplomats become critical. If competent, they will have developed relationships grounded in trust and mutual understanding with influential members of the country in which they are accredited, they will have worked hard to understand the motives, thought patterns and culture of the other side. The diplomat should be an excellent negotiator but, above all, a catalyst for peace and understanding between peoples.
The diplomat's principal role is to foster peaceful relations between states. This role takes on heightened importance. Negotiation must continue – but within altered contexts. Most career diplomats have university degrees in international relations, political science, economics, or law. Diplomats have been considered members of an exclusive and prestigious profession; the public image of diplomats has been described as "a caricature of pinstriped men gliding their way around a never-ending global cocktail party". J. W. Burton has noted that "despite the absence of any specific professional training, diplomacy has a high professional status, due to a degree of secrecy and mystery that its practitioners self-consciously promote." The state supports the high status and self-esteem of its diplomats in order to