Stripped Classicism is primarily a 20th-century classicist architectural style stripped of most or all ornamentation, frequently employed by governments while designing official buildings. It was adapted by both totalitarian and democratic regimes, the style embraces a simplified but recognizable classicism in its overall massing and scale while eliminating traditional decorative detailing. The orders of architecture are only hinted at or are indirectly implicated in the form, at other times the terms stripped and starved are used interchangeably. Between the World Wars, a stripped-down classicism became the de facto standard for many monumental and institutional governmental buildings all over the world, governments used this architectural méthode to straddle modernism and classicism, an ideal political response to a modernizing world. In part, this movement was said to have origins in the need to save money in governmental works by eschewing the expense of hand-worked classical detail, the style found adherents in the Fascist regimes of Germany and Italy as well as in the Soviet Union during Stalins regime.
The Casa del Fascio in Como has aligned with the movement. In the USSR some of the proposals for the unbuilt Palace of the Soviets had characteristics of the style, among American architects, the work of Paul Philippe Cret exemplifies the style. His Château-Thierry American Monument built in 1928 has been identified as an early example and it is sometimes evident in buildings that were constructed by the Works Projects Administration during the Great Depression, albeit with a mix of Art Deco architecture or its elements. Related styles have been described as PWA Moderne and Greco Deco, the movement was widespread, and transcended national boundaries. Architects who at least notably experimented in Stripped Classicism included John James Burnet, Giorgio Grassi, Léon Krier, Aldo Rossi, Albert Speer, Robert A. M. Stern and Paul Troost. Despite its popularity with totalitarian regimes, it has adapted by many English-speaking democratic governments. In any event, presumed fascist underpinnings have hampered acceptance into mainstream architectural thought, there is no evidence that architects who favored this style had a particular right-wing political disposition.
Nevertheless, both Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini were fans, on the other hand, Stripped Classicism was favored by Joseph Stalin and various regional Communist regimes. After the fall of the Third Reich and end of World War II, however, it was somewhat revived in designs in the 1960s. Included was Philip Johnsons New York Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts, Canberra, Australia saw the Law Courts of the ACT and the National Library of Australia resurrect grand Stripped Classical designs. Boris Iofan Constructivist architecture Dulwich Picture Gallery and Mausoleum Futurist architecture Giuseppe Terragni Nazi architecture Stalinist architecture Bryant, reassessing Stripped Classicism within the Narrative of International Modernism in the 1920s-1930s. Thesis — Savannah College of Art and Design
Uspenski Cathedral, Helsinki
Uspenski Cathedral is an Eastern Orthodox cathedral in Helsinki, dedicated to the Dormition of the Theotokos. Its name comes from the Old Church Slavonic word uspenie, which denotes the Dormition, designed by the Russian architect Aleksey Gornostayev. The cathedral was built after his death in 1862–1868, the crypt chapel of the cathedral is named after the holy Alexander Hotovitzky, who served as vicar of the Orthodox parish of Helsinki 1914–1917. The Cathedral is set upon a hillside on the Katajanokka peninsula overlooking the city, on the back of the cathedral, there is a plaque commemorating Russian Emperor Alexander II, who was the sovereign of the Grand Duchy of Finland during the cathedrals construction. Main cathedral of the Finnish Orthodox Church in the diocese of Helsinki, Uspenski Cathedral is claimed to be the largest orthodox church in Western Europe, in 2006, about 516,500 tourists visited the church. Admission to the Cathedral is free of charge, in winter, the Cathedral is closed on Mondays.
The icon is from the 19th century and is of a rare variant, originally it was given to the Orthodox Cathedral of Vyborg, from where it was moved to Helsinki during the Second World War. No further details of its origin are known, the icon, being 45 by 35 centimetres, was placed in a kiota and weighs a couple of kilograms. It was on display on a lectern, the icon is now being searched for in Finland as well as abroad. Another icon, Theotokos of Kozeltshan was stolen in June 2010, panorama picture of the Uspenski Cathedral Helsingin ortodoksinen seurakunta
The Hietaniemi cemetery is located mainly in the Lapinlahti quarter and partly in the Etu-Töölö district of Helsinki, the capital of Finland. It is the location for Finnish state funeral services, in the centre of the military cemetery are the tombs of the unknown soldier and Marshal C. G. E. Other notable sections of the cemetery are the cemetery of the Finnish Guard, the Artists Hill, there are two Lutheran funerary chapels and crematorium at the area. Hietaniemi means sand cape and is a headland located centrally in Helsinki, the cemetery is partly located at a promontory, and partly directly adjacent to the Hietaniemi Beach. Nightly parties, flirting and more, are recurrent concerns in letters to the editor alarmed by alleged dishonourable conduct at the gravestones. The cemetery is a popular tourist attraction, especially amongst Finns visiting the graves of fallen in wars or the graves of the many famous Finns buried there. Carl Ludvig Engel Georg August Wallin Zachris Topelius Fredrik Pacius Lorenz Leonard Lindelöf Paavo Cajander Janis Rozentāls Verna Erikson Toivo Kuula Oskar Merikanto Usko Nyström I
Helsinki Senate Square
The Senate Square presents Carl Ludvig Engels architecture as a unique allegory of political, religious and commercial powers in the centre of Helsinki, Finland. Senate Square and its surroundings make up the oldest part of central Helsinki, the Palace of the Council of State was completed on the eastern side of the Senate Square in 1822. It served as the seat of the Senate of Finland until it was replaced by the Council of State in 1918, and now houses the offices of the Prime minister of Finland and the cabinet. The main University building, on the side of the Senate Square, was constructed in 1832. The Helsinki Cathedral on the edge of the Senate Square was Engels lengthiest architectural project. He was working on it from 1818 until his death in 1840, the Helsinki Cathedral — called the Church of St. Nicholas — dominates the Senate Square, and was finalized twelve years afters Engels death, in 1852. A statue of Emperor Alexander II is located in the center of the square, the statue, erected in 1894, was built to commemorate his re-establishment of the Diet of Finland in 1863 as well as his initiation of several reforms that increased Finlands autonomy from Russia.
The statue comprises Alexander on a pedestal surrounded by figures representing law, after Finlands independence in 1917, demands were made to remove the statue. Later, it was suggested to replace it with the statue of Mannerheim currently located on Mannerheimintie in front of the Kiasma museum. Nothing came of either of these suggestions, and today the statue is one of the major tourist landmarks of the city, the Senate Square is one of the main tourist attractions of Helsinki. Various art happenings, ranging from concerts to snow buildings to controversial snow board happenings, have set up on the Senate Square. The United Buddy Bears exhibition, which was displayed in autumn of 2010 on the square, was the largest open air art show ever held in Finland. Digital carillon music is played daily at 17,49 at the Senate Square, the sound installation was composed by Harri Viitanen and organist of Helsinki Cathedral, and Jyrki Alakuijala, Doctor of Technology. The optimal listening position is at the proximity of the Squares central monument, locals even refer to the point as the cliff edge.
Several buildings near the Senate Square are managed by the government real estate provider, american actor and film director Warren Beatty filmed scenes from his film Reds on the square — Helsinki playing the role of St. Peterburg — but without showing the Cathedral. The title sequence of John Hustons The Kremlin Letter was filmed over the square at night, snowy night scenes from Jim Jarmuschs film Night on Earth were filmed on the square, but given the impression that there is a traffic roundabout at the centre. The opening sequence of the video for Sandstorm by Darude was filmed on Senate Square. Media related to Helsinki Senate Square at Wikimedia Commons
The main Neoclassical movement coincided with the 18th-century Age of Enlightenment, and continued into the early 19th century, laterally competing with Romanticism. In architecture, the style continued throughout the 19th, 20th, European Neoclassicism in the visual arts began c.1760 in opposition to the then-dominant Baroque and Rococo styles. Each neo-classicism selects some models among the range of classics that are available to it. They ignored both Archaic Greek art and the works of Late Antiquity, the Rococo art of ancient Palmyra came as a revelation, through engravings in Woods The Ruins of Palmyra. While the movement is described as the opposed counterpart of Romanticism. The case of the main champion of late Neoclassicism, demonstrates this especially well. The revival can be traced to the establishment of formal archaeology, the writings of Johann Joachim Winckelmann were important in shaping this movement in both architecture and the visual arts. With the advent of the Grand Tour, a fad of collecting antiquities began that laid the foundations of many great collections spreading a Neoclassical revival throughout Europe, Neoclassicism in each art implies a particular canon of a classical model.
In English, the term Neoclassicism is used primarily of the arts, the similar movement in English literature. This, which had been dominant for decades, was beginning to decline by the time Neoclassicism in the visual arts became fashionable. Though terms differ, the situation in French literature was similar, in music, the period saw the rise of classical music, and Neoclassicism is used of 20th-century developments. Ingress coronation portrait of Napoleon even borrowed from Late Antique consular diptychs and their Carolingian revival, much Neoclassical painting is more classicizing in subject matter than in anything else. A fierce, but often very badly informed, dispute raged for decades over the merits of Greek and Roman art, with Winckelmann. The work of artists, who could not easily be described as insipid, combined aspects of Romanticism with a generally Neoclassical style. Unlike Carstens unrealized schemes, the etchings of Giovanni Battista Piranesi were numerous and profitable and his main subject matter was the buildings and ruins of Rome, and he was more stimulated by the ancient than the modern.
Neoclassicism in painting gained a new sense of direction with the success of Jacques-Louis Davids Oath of the Horatii at the Paris Salon of 1785. Despite its evocation of republican virtues, this was a commission by the royal government, David managed to combine an idealist style with drama and forcefulness. David rapidly became the leader of French art, and after the French Revolution became a politician with control of government patronage in art
Market Square, Helsinki
The Market Square is a central square in Helsinki and one of the most famous market places and tourist attractions in the city. The Market Square is located near the centre of Helsinki, at the end of Esplanadi and bordering the Baltic Sea to the south. From spring to autumn, the Market Square is bustling with activity with vendors selling fresh Finnish food, there are many outdoor cafés at the square. Some cafés provide meat pastries, and one advertises their pastries as being the best in the Market Square… in Helsinki… in Finland, the height of the squares popularity is in early October when the annual Helsinki herring market begins. A long tradition at the Market Square is a display of old American cars on the first Friday of every month, any motorist with an interest in old American cars can take part in this display. How the tradition started is unclear. Seagulls have become a menace in the Market Square, swooping down to snatch snacks
Temppeliaukio Church is a Lutheran church in the Töölö neighborhood of Helsinki. The church was designed by architects and brothers Timo and Tuomo Suomalainen, built directly into solid rock, it is known as the Church of the Rock and Rock Church. Plans for the Temppeliaukio/Tempelplatsen was started as early as the 1930s when a plot of land was selected for the building and a competition for the design was started. The plan by J. S. Siren, the winner of the competition to design the architecture of the church, was interrupted in its early stages when World War II began in 1939. After the war, there was another competition, which was won by Timo Suomalainen. For economic reasons, the plan was scaled back and the interior space of the church was reduced to about one-quarter of the original plan. Construction finally began in February 1968, and the rock-temple was completed for consecration in September 1969, the interior was excavated and built directly out of solid rock and is bathed in natural light which enters through the skylight surrounding the center copper dome.
The church is used frequently as a venue due to its excellent acoustics. The acoustic quality is created by the rough, virtually unworked rock surfaces, the Temppeliaukio church is one of the most popular tourist attractions in the city, half a million people visit it annually. The stone-hewn church is located in the heart of Helsinki, maintaining the original character of the square is the fundamental concept behind the building. The idiosyncratic choice of form has made it a favorite with professionals, the church furnishings were designed by the architects. Organ builder Veikko Virtanen manufactured the church organ, which has 43 stops and 3001 pipes, there are no bells at the church, a recording of bells composed by Taneli Kuusisto is played via loudspeakers on the exterior wall. The argument of the students - part of the 60s student revolutionary movement - was that the money spent on the new church could be better spent on aid to Biafra. Töölö Congregation, the congregation that uses Temppeliaukio Church Picture of Church and short history
Kaivopuisto, or in spoken language, Kaivari, is one of the oldest and best known parks in central Helsinki, and a neighbourhood of about 500 inhabitants where the park is located. To the south, Kaivopuisto borders the Gulf of Finland, Kaivopuisto offers several hectares of parks, both on flat ground, and on cliffs. The park includes traces of fortifications built in the 18th century. Every summer, thousands of Helsinkians come to Kaivopuisto to sunbathe, to have picnics, the largest hill in the park is a favoured slope for tobogganing during the winter. The height of Kaivopuistos popularity is on Vappu day, immediately after the preceding Walpurgis Night celebrations in the city centre, on Vappu, Kaivopuisto is packed with tens of thousands of Helsinkians, who come to have a picnic with their friends and families. Fanciful costumes, loud music, and excessive consumption of alcoholic beverages is the routine for a Vappu picnic and it is customary for all attendants who have graduated from the Finnish matriculation exam to wear their student caps at the picnic.
A yellowed student cap is taken as a sign of prestige, since the mid-1970s, it has been common to hold a few concerts in the park during the summer, with classical music, but more often pop and rock music, and usually featuring Finnish artists. Kaivopuisto includes Kaivohuone, a restaurant and nightclub dating from the 1830s. Media related to Kaivopuisto at Wikimedia Commons
Mannerheimintie, named after the Finnish military leader and statesman Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim, is the main street of Helsinki, Finland. It was originally named Heikinkatu, after Robert Henrik Rehbinder, but was renamed after the Winter War. The change of name was due to Mannerheim having paraded in along that road during the Finnish Civil War. That event is portrayed in the landmark statue of Mannerheim sitting horseback. The statue is located along the Mannerheimintie just outside the arts museum Kiasma. The street starts at Erottaja in the city centre, near the Swedish Theatre, many famous buildings are located at or near Mannerheimintie. There are many sculptures along the Mannerheimintie. There include the Three Smiths Statue and the Statue of Mannerheim near Kiasma, there are only two streets running across Mannerheimintie, Nordenskiöldinkatu overground, and Tilkanvierto below it as an underpass. There are very many other streets connecting with Mannerheimintie, but all of either end at Mannerheimintie or continue across it under a different name.
Media related to Mannerheimintie at Wikimedia Commons
St. John's Church, Helsinki
St. Johns Church in Helsinki, Finland is a Lutheran church designed by the Swedish architect Adolf Melander in the Gothic Revival style. It is the largest stone church in Finland by seating capacity, situated in the Ullanlinna district of Helsinki, the church was built between 1888 and 1891, the third Lutheran church in Helsinki, and still the biggest. The twin towers are 74 metres in height, and the church seats 2,600 people and has excellent acoustics, the altarpiece shows Sauls conversion and the painting, called A Divine Revelation, is by Eero Järnefelt, brother-in-law to Jean Sibelius. Johannes church stands on a hill that for centuries had been a place for Midsummer bonfires. The composer Oskar Merikanto was an organist here for a time, evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland St. Johns Church at the Parish Union of Helsinki official website