Visa policy of Eswatini
A foreign national wishing to enter Eswatini must obtain a visa unless they are a citizen of one of the eligible visa exempt countries. Holders of passports of the following 93 jurisdictions do not require a visa to enter Eswatini for visits up to 30 days: Most visitors arriving to Eswatini were from the following countries of nationality: Visa requirements for Swazi citizens Foreign relations of Eswatini Immigrants requiring visa to enter Eswatini Swazi missions abroad
Ndlovukati is the Siswati title for the female head of state of Eswatini and is equivalent to a Queen Mother or Senior Queen in other countries. The title is given preferentially to the mother of the reigning King, or to another female royal of high status if the King's mother has died. Indlovukati rules alongside the Ngwenyama, when there is no King, she rules as a Queen Regent; the current Ndlovukati is Queen Ntombi Tfwala, the mother of Ngwenyama Mswati III and wife of Sobhuza II. She has been Queen Regent from 1983 until 1986 when Mswati became King; the most notable Queen Regent was Ndlovukati Labotsibeni Mdluli who ruled Swaziland from 1899 until 1921 when she abdicated for Sobhuza II. The Ndlovukati is formally joint ruler of Eswatini with the King; the king is seen as the administrative head of state, while she is seen as the spiritual and national head of state. Several of the Ndlovukati's functions are to control important ritual substances and knowledge necessary for inaugurating of the rule of a Ngwenyama and the annual renewal of national and kingly strength in the incwala rites.
The Ndlovukati leads the nation as Queen Regent following a King's death and during the youth of a crown prince. Other notable Tindlovukati are Tsandzile Ndwandwe, Lojiba Simelane, Tibati Nkambule, Labotsibeni Mdluli from nineteenth century Swaziland. There have been a number of Ndlovukati with great substantial power as well as influence in periods of regency; the power of the Ndlovukati was explicitly understood as a counterweight to that of the Ngwenyama and to rival royal princes. This was the case during the reign of Mswati II and Tsandzile Ndwandwe. Like royal governors who were not from the royal Dlamini dynasty, the Ndlovukati could not accede to the throne, thus offering an alternative source of power to rein in overweaning Tingwenyama who could not challenge directly to be the Ngwenyama. During the long reign of Sobhuza II, his grandmother Ndlovukati Labotsibeni Mdluli was the last great bearer of the title, being the primary Swazi political power from Sobhuza's accession as an infant in 1899 until his accession to full power in 1922.
However, over the following 60 years the practical power and influence of the office of ndlovukati became overshadowed, in part because the British chose to recognize the powers of the king over those of the senior, in part because of the force of Sobhuza's personality in contrast to the tindlovukati who succeeded his own mother after she died in 1938, in part because of conservative aristocratic Swazi male reactions to colonialism, which created a new and more rigid form of patriarchy now called and argued by some to be mischaracterised as "traditional". The office of Ndlovukati suffered a further blow after the death of Sobhuza II, when a holder of the office was implicated in the political machinations of Prince Mfanasibili aimed at usurping the kingship, thus the political-cultural ideals and historical meanings of the office expressed above do not characterise the Ndlovukati today, whose position has become much weaker than that of the Ngwenyama. At any time where there is both an Ingwenyama and an Indlovukati, most of the time, there are two royal headquarters villages.
During a regency when the king is a minor, a proto-form of his headquarters is prepared. The King's headquarters is; the king resides at his own royal kraal called lilawu. The present umphakatsi is at Ludzidzini Royal Kraal and lilawu is at Ngabezweni Royal Kraal. LaYaka Ndwandwe, 1745–1780 Lomvula Mndzebele, 1780–1815 Lojiba Simelane, 1815-1840 Tsandzile Ndwandwe, 1840–1875 Sisile Khumalo, 1875 Tibati Nkambule, 1875–1894 Labotsibeni Mdluli, 1894–1925 Lomawa Ndwandwe, 1925–1938 Nukwase Ndwandwe, 1938–1957 Zihlathi Ndwandwe/Mkhatjwa, 1957–1975 Seneleleni Ndwandwe, 1975–1980 Dzeliwe Shongwe, 1982–1983 Ntfombi Tfwala, 1983–present
Wildlife of Eswatini
The wildlife of Eswatini is composed of its flora and fauna. The country has 107 species of 507 species of birds. Wilson, Don E.. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. Johns Hopkins University Press. Retrieved 3 August 2009. "Animal Diversity Web". University of Michigan Museum of Zoology. 1995–2006. Retrieved 22 May 2007
Eswatini the Kingdom of Eswatini and known as Swaziland, is a landlocked country in Southern Africa. It is bordered by Mozambique to its northeast and South Africa to its north and south. At no more than 200 kilometres north to south and 130 kilometres east to west, Eswatini is one of the smallest countries in Africa; the population is ethnic Swazis. The language is Swazi; the Swazis established their kingdom in the mid-18th century under the leadership of Ngwane III. The country and the Swazi take their names from Mswati II, the 19th-century king under whose rule Swazi territory was expanded and unified. After the Second Boer War, the kingdom, under the name of Swaziland, was a British protectorate from 1903 until it regained its independence on 6 September 1968. In April 2018 the official name was changed from Kingdom of Swaziland to Kingdom of Eswatini, mirroring the name used in Swazi; the government is an absolute diarchy, ruled jointly by Ngwenyama Mswati III and Ndlovukati Ntfombi Tfwala since 1986.
The former is the administrative head of state and appoints the country's prime ministers and a number of representatives of both chambers in the country's parliament, while the latter is the national head of state, serving as keeper of the ritual fetishes of the nation and presiding during the annual Umhlanga rite. Elections are held every five years to determine the House of the Senate majority; the current constitution was adopted in 2005. Umhlanga, held in August/September, incwala, the kingship dance held in December/January, are the nation's most important events. Eswatini is a developing country with a small economy. With a GDP per capita of $9,714, it is classified as a country with a lower-middle income; as a member of the Southern African Customs Union and the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa, its main local trading partner is South Africa. Eswatini's major overseas trading partners are the European Union; the majority of the country's employment is provided by manufacturing sectors.
Eswatini is a member of the Southern African Development Community, the African Union, the Commonwealth of Nations and the United Nations. The Swazi population faces major health issues: HIV/AIDS and, to a lesser extent, tuberculosis are widespread, it is estimated. As of 2018, Eswatini has the 12th lowest life expectancy at 58 years; the population of Eswatini is young, with a median age of 20.5 years and people aged 14 years or younger constituting 37.5% of the country's total population. The present population growth rate is 1.2%. Artifacts indicating human activity dating back to the early Stone Age, around 200,000 years ago, have been found in Eswatini. Prehistoric rock art paintings dating from as far back as c. 27,000 years ago, to as recent as the 19th century, can be found in various places around the country. The earliest known inhabitants of the region were Khoisan hunter-gatherers, they were replaced by the Nguni during the great Bantu migrations. These peoples originated from the Great Lakes regions of central Africa.
Evidence of agriculture and iron use dates from about the 4th century. People speaking languages ancestral to the current Sotho and Nguni languages began settling no than the 11th century; the Swazi settlers known as the Ngwane before entering Eswatini, had been settled on the banks of the Pongola River. Before that, they were settled in the area of the Tembe River near Mozambique. Continuing conflict with the Ndwandwe people pushed them further north, with Ngwane III establishing his capital at Shiselweni at the foot of the Mhlosheni hills. Under Sobhuza I, the Ngwane people established their capital at Zombodze in the heartland of present-day Eswatini. In this process, they conquered and incorporated the long-established clans of the country known to the Swazi as Emakhandzambili. Eswatini derives its name from a king named Mswati II. KaNgwane, named for Ngwane III, is an alternative name for Eswatini the surname of whose royal house remains Nkhosi Dlamini. Nkhosi means "king". Mswati II was the greatest of the fighting kings of Eswatini, he extended the area of the country to twice its current size.
The Emakhandzambili clans were incorporated into the kingdom with wide autonomy including grants of special ritual and political status. The extent of their autonomy, was drastically curtailed by Mswati, who attacked and subdued some of them in the 1850s. With his power, Mswati reduced the influence of the Emakhandzambili while incorporating more people into his kingdom either through conquest or by giving them refuge; these arrivals became known to the Swazis as Emafikamuva. The clans who accompanied the Dlamini kings were known as the true Swazi; the autonomy of the Swazi nation was influenced by British and Dutch rule of southern Africa in the 19th and early 20th centuries. In 1881 the British government signed a convention recognizing Swazi independence despite the Scramble for Africa, taking place at the time; this independence was recognized in the convention of 1884. Because of controversial land/mineral rights and ot
A bicameral legislature divides the legislators into two separate assemblies, chambers, or houses. Bicameralism is distinguished from unicameralism, in which all members deliberate and vote as a single group, from some legislatures that have three or more separate assemblies, chambers, or houses; as of 2015, fewer than half the world's national legislatures. The members of the two chambers are elected or selected by different methods, which vary from country to country; this can lead to the two chambers having different compositions of members. Enactment of primary legislation requires a concurrent majority – the approval of a majority of members in each of the chambers of the legislature; when this is the case, the legislature may be called an example of perfect bicameralism. However, in many Westminster system parliaments, the house to which the executive is responsible can overrule the other house and may be regarded as an example of imperfect bicameralism; some legislatures lie in between these two positions, with one house only able to overrule the other under certain circumstances.
The Founding Fathers of the United States favoured a bicameral legislature. The idea was to have the Senate be wiser. Benjamin Rush saw this though, noted that "this type of dominion is always connected with opulence"; the Senate was created to be a stabilising force, elected not by mass electors, but selected by the State legislators. Senators would be more knowledgeable and more deliberate—a sort of republican nobility—and a counter to what Madison saw as the "fickleness and passion" that could absorb the House, he noted further that "The use of the Senate is to consist in its proceeding with more coolness, with more system and with more wisdom, than the popular branch." Madison's argument led the Framers to grant the Senate prerogatives in foreign policy, an area where steadiness and caution were deemed important. State legislators chose the Senate, senators had to possess significant property to be deemed worthy and sensible enough for the position. In 1913, the 17th Amendment passed, which mandated choosing Senators by popular vote rather than State legislatures.
As part of the Great Compromise, the Founding Fathers invented a new rationale for bicameralism in which the Senate had states represented and the House had them represented by population. The British Parliament is referred to as the Mother of Parliaments because the British Parliament has been the model for most other parliamentary systems, its Acts have created many other parliaments. Many nations with parliaments have to some degree emulated the British "three-tier" model. Most countries in Europe and the Commonwealth have organised parliaments with a ceremonial head of state who formally opens and closes parliament, a large elected lower house, a smaller upper house. A formidable sinister interest may always obtain the complete command of a dominant assembly by some chance and for a moment, it is therefore of great use to have a second chamber of an opposite sort, differently composed, in which that interest in all likelihood will not rule. There have been a number of rationales put forward in favour of bicameralism, federal states have adopted it, the solution remains popular when regional differences or sensitivities require more explicit representation, with the second chamber representing the constituent states.
The older justification for second chambers—providing opportunities for second thoughts about legislation—has survived. Growing awareness of the complexity of the notion of representation and the multifunctional nature of modern legislatures may be affording incipient new rationales for second chambers, though these do remain contested institutions in ways that first chambers are not. An example of political controversy regarding a second chamber has been the debate over the powers of the Senate of Canada or the election of the Senate of France; the relationship between the two chambers varies. The first tends to be those with presidential governments; the latter tends to be the case in unitary states with parliamentary systems. There are two streams of thought: Critics believe bicameralism makes meaningful political reforms more difficult to achieve and increases the risk of gridlock—particularly in cases where both chambers have similar powers—while proponents argue the merits of the "checks and balances" provided by the bicameral model, which they believe help prevent the passage into law of ill-considered legislation.
Formal communication between houses is by various methods, including: Sending messages Formal notices, such as of resolutions or the passing of bills done in writing, via the clerk and speaker of each house Transmission of bills or amendment to bills requiring agreement from the other house Joint session a plenary session of both houses at the same time and place. Joint committees which may be formed by committees of each house agreeing to join, or by joint resolution of each house Conferences Conferences of the Houses of the English Parliament met in the Painted Chamber of the Palace of Westminster. There were a distinction between an "ordinary conference" and a "free conference". A "free conference" meets in private to resolve a dispute; the last fr
Mswati III is the King of Eswatini and head of the Swazi Royal Family. He was born in Eswatini, to King Sobhuza II and one of his younger wives, Ntfombi Tfwala, he was Tfwala’s only child. He attended primary school at Masundvwini Primary School and secondary school at Lozitha Palace School. From 1983 to 1986, he attended Sherborne School in England, he was crowned as Mswati III, Ingwenyama and King of Swaziland, on 25 April 1986 at the age of 18, thus becoming the youngest ruling monarch in the world at that time. Together with his mother, Ntfombi Tfwala, now Queen Mother, he rules the country as an absolute monarch. Mswati III is known for his practice of polygamy and has 15 wives. Although he is respected and popular in Eswatini, his policies and lavish lifestyle have led to local protests and international criticism. Mswati III is one of many sons fathered by the previous king, Sobhuza II, the only child of Ntfombi Tfwala known as Inkhosikati LaTfwala, one of Sobhuza's younger wives, he was born at the Raleigh Fitkin Memorial Hospital in Manzini, four months before Eswatini attained independence from the United Kingdom.
When he and his mother were discharged from the hospital, they went to live at one of Sobhuza's residences, near the Masundwini royal residence. His birth name was Makhosetive; as a young prince, Makhosetive attended Masundwini Primary School and Lozitha Palace School. He sat for the Swaziland Primary Certificate examination in December 1982 at Phondo Royal Residence and received First Class with merit in Mathematics and English, he developed a great interest in the royal guard, becoming the first young cadet to join the Umbutfo Swaziland Defence Force. When King Sobhuza II died on 21 August 1982, the Great Council of State selected the 14-year-old prince Makhosetive to be the next king. For the next four years two wives of Sobhuza II, Queen Dzeliwe Shongwe and Queen Ntfombi Tfwala, served as regent while he continued his education in the United Kingdom, attending Sherborne School, before he was called back to ascend to the throne. Mswati was introduced as Crown Prince in September 1983 and was crowned king on 25 April 1986, aged 18 years and 6 days, thus making him the youngest reigning monarch until the ascension of King Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuck of Bhutan on 14 December 2006.
The king and his mother, whose title is Indlovukati, rule jointly. Today King Mswati III is Africa's last absolute monarch in the sense that he has the power to choose the prime minister, other top government posts and top traditional posts. Though he makes the appointments, he still has to get special advice from the queen mother and council, for example when he chooses the prime minister. In matters of cabinet appointments, he gets advice from the prime minister, he ruled by decree, but did restore the nation's Parliament, dissolved by his father in order to ensure concentration of power remained with the king. In 2004, Mswati promulgated a new constitution that allows freedom of speech and assembly for the media and public, while retaining the traditional Tinkhundla system. Amnesty International has criticized the new constitution as inadequate in some respects. In an attempt to mitigate the HIV and AIDS pandemic in 2001, the king used his traditional powers to invoke a time-honoured chastity rite under the patronage of a princess, which encouraged all Swazi maidens to abstain from sexual relations for five years.
This was last done under Sobhuza II in 1971. This rite banned sexual relations for Swazis under 18 years of age from 9 September 2001 and 19 August 2005, but just two months after imposing the ban, he violated this decree when a 17-year-old liphovela was chosen, who became his 13th wife; as per custom, he was fined a cow by members of her regiment. Mswati has visited Taiwan seventeen times as of June 2018, has promised to continue recognizing the Republic of China instead of the People's Republic of China; the king has 15 wives and 23 children. A Swazi king's first two wives are chosen for him by the national councillors. There are complex rules on succession. Traditionally the king is chosen through his mother as represented in the Swazi saying Inkhosi, yinkhosi ngenina, meaning "a king is king through his mother". According to tradition, he can marry his fiancées only after they have fallen pregnant, proving they can bear heirs; until they are termed liphovela, or "brides". Mswati's reign has brought some changes in the political transformation.
However, critics such as the People's United Democratic Movement believe that these changes are aimed at strengthening and perpetuating the traditional order. His attendance at the May 2012 Sovereign Monarchs lunch, to celebrate the Diamond Jubilee of Queen Elizabeth II, caused some controversy, given criticisms of his regime’s human rights record. Eswatini has been described as having been gripped by years of fiscal indiscipline, government corruption, lavish lifestyles of the royal family; the nation has been described as being on the brink of economic disaster due to these factors. Under Swazi law and custom, the king is vested with all powers of the state. Despite Eswatini having a prime minister, Mswati holds supreme executive authority over the legisl
Geography of Eswatini
Eswatini is a country in Southern Africa, lying between Mozambique and South Africa. The country is located at the geographic coordinates 26°30′S 31°30′E. Eswatini has an area of 17,363 square kilometres; the major regions of the country are Lowveld and Highveld. The climate of Eswatini varies from tropical to near temperate; the seasons are the reverse of those in the Northern Hemisphere with December being mid-summer and June mid-winter. Speaking, rain falls during the summer months in the form of thunderstorms. Winter is the dry season. Annual rainfall is highest on the Highveld in the West, between 1,000 and 2,000 mm depending on the year; the further East, the less rain, with the Lowveld recording 500 to 900 mm per annum. Variations in temperature are related to the altitude of the different regions; the Highveld temperature is temperate and uncomfortably hot while the Lowveld may record temperatures around 40 °C in summer. The average temperatures at Mbabane, according to seasons: The terrain consists of mountains and hills, with some moderately sloping plains.
The lowest point is the Great Usutu River, at 21 metres, the highest is Emlembe, at 1,862 m. As a landlocked country, Eswatini has neither maritime claims. In terms of land boundaries, Eswatini borders Mozambique for 105 kilometres, South Africa for 430, giving a total land boundary length of 535 km. Eswatini possesses the following natural resources: asbestos, clay, hydropower, small gold and diamond deposits, quarry stone, talc. 670 km² of the country's land is irrigated. The following table describes. Soil erosion as a result of overgrazing is a growing problem. Eswatini is part of the following international agreements: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Nuclear Test Ban and Ozone Layer Protection; the country has signed, but not ratified the agreement on desertification, the law of the sea. This is a list of the extreme points of Eswatini, the points that are farther north, east or west than any other location. Northernmost point - unnamed location of the border with South Africa north of the village of Horo, Hhohho District Easternmost point - the tripoint with South Africa and Mozambique, Lubombo District Southernmost point - unnamed location on the border with South Africa, Shiselweni District Westernmost point - a longitudinal segment of the border with South Africa, Manzini District European Digital Archive on the Soil Maps of the world - soil maps of Swaziland