Mahamudu Bawumia is a Ghanaian economist and banker and the current Vice President of Ghana. He assumed office on 7 January 2017, his close friend is Paa Kwesi Appau Bawumia was a Deputy Governor of the Bank of Ghana until his nomination as the vice presidential candidate of the New Patriotic Party in 2008, standing alongside presidential candidate Nana Akufo-Addo. He ran as the NPP vice-presidential candidate in the 2012 general elections and was the lead witness for the petitioners in the 2012/2013 Presidential Election Petition which challenged the declaration of John Mahama as winner of the election, he has four children. Bawumia was born on October 1963, in Tamale to Alhaji Mumuni Bawumia and Hajia Mariama Bawumia. Bawumia's father, Alhaji Mumuni Bawumia was a teacher and politician, a Mamprugu Royal and Chief of the Kpariga Traditional Area at the time of his death in September 2002, he was a founding member of the Northern Peoples' Party alongside Chief S. D. Dombo, Chief Abeifa Karbo, Yakubu Tali, the Tolon Naa, J. A. Braimah, Kabachewura.
He served as Chairman of the Council of State from 1992 to 2000. The Northern Peoples Party, together with the National Liberation Movement and other opposition political parties merged into the United Party, the forebearer of the current New Patriotic Party. Alhaji Bawumia served under various Ghanaian governments in various capacities, including member of the Northern Territories Council, the Gold Coast Legislative Assembly, a Member of Parliament of the First Republic, Northern Regional Minister, Ambassador to Saudi Arabia. Alhaji Bawumia was awarded the highest national honour, membership of the Order of the Star of Ghana in March 1999, he served as the Chairman of the council of State under the NDC government during the 4th republic under President J. J. Rawlings. Born into a large family, Mahamudu Bawumia was the twelfth of his father's 18 children and the second of his mother's five. Mahamudu Bawumia attended the Sakasaka Primary school in Tamale, gained admission to Tamale Secondary School in 1975.
After graduating from Tamale Secondary School, he went to the United Kingdom where he studied banking and obtained the Chartered Institute of Bankers Diploma. He was President of the Ghana United Nations Students’ Association for 1981, he took a First Class Honours Degree in Economics at Buckingham University in 1987. He obtained a master's degree in Economics at Lincoln College and obtained a Ph. D. in Economics at the Simon Fraser University, British Columbia, Canada in 1995. His areas of specialization include Macroeconomics, International Economics, Development Economics and Monetary Policy, he has numerous publications. From 1988 to 1990, Bawumia worked as a lecturer in Monetary Economics, International Finance at the Emile Woolf College of Accountancy in London, England, he served as an economist at the Research Department of the International Monetary Fund in Washington, DC, USA. Between 1996 and 2000, Bawumia served as an Assistant Professor of Economics in the Hankamer School of Business at Baylor University in Waco, Texas, USA, where he received the Young Researcher Award in 1998.
He was listed in "Who is Who Among America's Teachers' in 1999. Bawumia returned to Ghana in 2000 to work as an economist at the Bank of Ghana, he rose from Senior Economist to Head of Department, subsequently as Special Assistant to the Governor of the Bank. President John Kufuor appointed Bawumia as Deputy Governor of the Bank of Ghana in June 2006. At the Bank of Ghana Bawumia: As Head of the Monetary Policy and Financial Stability Department, he was part of the team that designed and implemented the inflation-targeting framework that continues to guide monetary policy and the workings of the Monetary Policy Committee at the Bank of Ghana; the inflation-targeting framework established reduced inflation from over 40% in 2000 to 10.2% by 2007 while maintaining relative exchange rate stability. Was part of the team, instrumental in designing and implementing policy initiatives such as the abolition of the secondary reserve requirements and the opening up of the banking sector to competition.
This resulted in a major increase in the availability of credit to the private sector from 12.5% of GDP in 2001 to 28.5% of GDP by 2008. Led Bank of Ghana's technical negotiation team and was on the government team that negotiated with the World Bank and International Monetary Fund since 2001 through HIPC and PRGF; as a result of these negotiations, Ghana by 2007 ended its dependence on IMF assistance. Served as a member of the Government technical negotiating team on HIPC Paris Club and Completion Point Negotiations. Ghana completed the HIPC process with significant debt relief of close to $4 billion. Was a member of the Government Team to Negotiate the Millennium Challenge Account Compact with the US Government; the MCA resulted in many significant projects such as the inaugurated George Bush Highway. Was a member of the Government Technical Team on the Deregulation of Ghana's Petroleum Sector; as Chairman of the Capital Markets Committee, was responsible for the strategy for accessing the international capital markets with a debut US$750 million, four times oversubscribed.
Was part of the team that designed and implemented the successful redenomination of the cedi. Through this process, the cedi was strengthened. Significant savings were made by the Bank of Ghana in currency printing costs. Was involved in the design and implementation of the e-zwich common platform for all banks and loans companies and rural banks, offering interoperability across different financial institutions
2008 Ghanaian general election
General elections were held in Ghana on 7 December 2008. Since no candidate received more than 50% of the votes, a run-off election was held on 28 December 2008 between the two candidates who received the most votes, Nana Akufo-Addo and John Atta Mills. Mills was certified as the victor in the run-off election on January 3, 2009, by a margin of less than one percent, it is to date the closest election in Ghanaian history. On 21 December 2006, former Vice-President John Atta Mills, who unsuccessfully ran as the National Democratic Congress presidential candidate in 2000 and 2004, was overwhelmingly elected by NDC as its candidate for the 2008 presidential election. Former Foreign Minister Nana Akufo-Addo was elected as the 2008 presidential candidate of the governing New Patriotic Party at a party congress on 23 December 2007. Although he fell short of the required 50%, the second-place candidate, John Alan Kyeremanten, conceded defeat and backed Akufo-Addo; the stakes of the election were raised by the discovery of oil in Ghana and an expectation for incoming oil revenues to begin in 2010.
Additionally, allegations of electoral fraud that resulted in violence following elections in Kenya and Zimbabwe and military coups d'état in Mauritania and Guinea caused international election monitors to hope the Ghanaian elections would refurbish the image of constitutional democracy in Africa. The following eight candidates formally registered with the Electoral Commission of Ghana. Kwabena Adjei – A managing director of a timber company representing the Reformed Patriotic Democrats Nana Akufo-Addo – The former Attorney General and Minister for Justice, Minister for Foreign Affairs, a current member of Parliament representing the New Patriotic Party Kwasi Amoafo-Yeboah – An independent candidate Emmanuel Ansah-Antwi – Representing the Democratic Freedom Party Edward Nasigri Mahama – Representing the People's National Convention John Atta Mills – The former Vice-President representing the National Democratic Congress Paa Kwesi Nduom – The former Minister for Economic Planning & Regional Cooperation, Minister for Energy, Minister for Public Sector Reform, a current member of Parliament representing the Convention People's Party Thomas Nuako Ward-Brew – Representing the Democratic People's Party A poll conducted in April 2008 showed Mills ahead of Akufo-Addo.
The National Commission for Civic Education conducted the poll which sampled 5,327 people. The poll predicted a high voter turnout of 96.9%. Respondents came from coastal and northern areas of the country. Another poll conducted in October 2008 by the Angus Reid Global Monitor saw Akufo-Addo leading; the poll was conducted by interviewing 3,000 adults in all the regions of the country. Turnout on election day was high. Since few votes were expected for other candidates than those of the two largest parties, a first-round victory for Akufo-Addo or Mills was seen as possible, but Nduom stated he wished to "surprise" the other parties by gaining enough votes to force a run-off between the two others. With 40% of the vote counted, Akufo-Addo was leading with 49.5% to Mills's 47.6%. While Mills pulled ahead afterwards, Akufo-Addo again led by a slim margin with over 70% of the votes counted; the second round was rerun on 28 December 2008 but due to logistics problems, the Tain District alone had its run-off election on 2 January 2009 due to problems with distributing ballots.
Following the voting on 28 December, Mills led by a slim margin, causing the Election Commission to state it would not announce Mills as the winner until after the election rerun in Tain. Prior to the announcement hundreds of NDC supporters converged on the election headquarters demanding that Mills be declared the victor, but were kept at bay by riot police and armed soldiers. Fear of election day violence caused the NPP to file a lawsuit seeking to delay voting in Tain as it claimed that "the atmosphere in the rural district was not conducive to a free and fair election"; the court denied the NPP's injunction request and said it would only hear the case on 5 January 2009. In response, the NPP called its supporters to boycott the vote, for which it was criticised by civil groups; the effective management of the 2008 election by the Electoral Commission of Ghana, raised interest for African and international election reformers. In November 2009, a conference was held to analyze the 2008 election, try to establish new standards and practices for African election commissions.
Held in Accra, the conference was titled Colloquium on African Elections:Best Practices and Cross-Sectoral Collaboration. The conference was organized by a number of international election reform organizations including the National Democratic Institute, the Africa Center for Strategic Studies, the International Foundation for Electoral Systems, the Netherlands Institute for Multiparty Democracy, the Open Society Initiative for West Africa and UNDP. Conference participants agreed to a communique that makes recommendations directed at African governments, civil society organizations, election management bodies, political parties, election monitoring and observer groups, security services, the media to improve the credibility of elections in Africa. MPs elected in the Ghanaian parliamentary election, 2008
Politics of Ghana
Politics of Ghana takes place in a framework of a presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the President of Ghana is both head of state and head of government, of a multi-party system. The seat of government is at Golden Jubilee House. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in Parliament; the Judiciary is independent of the legislature. The constitution that established the Fourth Republic provided a basic charter for republican democratic government, it declares Ghana to be a unitary republic with sovereignty residing in the Ghanaian people. Intended to prevent future coups, dictatorial government, one-party states, it is designed to establish the concept of powersharing; the document reflects lessons learned from the abrogated constitutions of 1957, 1960,69, 1979, incorporates provisions and institutions drawn from British and American constitutional models. One controversial provision of the Constitution indemnifies members and appointees of the Provisional National Defence Council from liability for any official act or omission during the years of PNDC rule.
The Constitution calls for a system of checks and balances, with power shared between a president, a unicameral parliament, a council of state, an independent judiciary. Executive authority is established in the Office of the Presidency, together with his Council of State; the president is head of state, head of government, commander in chief of the armed forces. He appoints the vice president. According to the Constitution, more than half of the presidentially appointed ministers of state must be appointed from among members of Parliament; the outcome of the December 2012 elections, in which John Dramani Mahama was declared President by the Ghana Electoral Commission, was challenged by Nana Akuffo-Addo, Mahmoud Bawumia and Jake Obetsebi-Lamptey at the Supreme Court of Ghana, which came out with the verdict that Mahama won the 2012 presidential election. Legislative functions are vested in Parliament, which consists of a unicameral 275-member body plus the Speaker. To become law, legislation must have the assent of the president, who has a qualified veto over all bills except those to which a vote of urgency is attached.
The members are elected for a four-year term in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote. As it is predicted by Duverger's law, the voting system has encouraged Ghanaian politics into a two-party system, which means that there are two dominant political parties, with extreme difficulty for anybody to achieve electoral success under the banner of any other party. Elections have been held every four years since 1992. Presidential and parliamentary elections are held alongside each other on 7 December; the structure and the power of the judiciary are independent of the two other branches of government. The Supreme Court of Ghana has broad powers of judicial review, it is authorized by the Constitution to rule on the constitutionality of any legislation or executive action at the request of any aggrieved citizen. The hierarchy of courts derives from British juridical forms; the courts have jurisdiction over all criminal matters. They include the Superior Courts of Judicature, established under the 1992 Constitution, the Inferior Courts, established by Parliament.
The Superior Courts are, from highest to lowest, the Supreme Court of Ghana, the Court of Appeal, the High Court of Justice, the ten Regional Tribunals. The Inferior Courts, since the Courts Act 2002, include the Circuit Courts, the Magistrate Courts, special courts such as the Juvenile Courts. In 2007, Georgina Wood became the first female chief justice of the Ghanaian Supreme Court. Ghana is divided into ten regions: Ashanti, Brong-Ahafo, Eastern, Greater Accra, Upper East, Upper West and Western. Ghana is member of ACP, AfDB, AU, C, ECOWAS, FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MIGA, MINURSO, MONUC, NAM, OAS, ONUB, OPCW, UN, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNITAR, UNMEE, UNMIK, UNMIL, UNOCI, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO Government of Ghana Global Integrity Report: Ghana has information on Ghana's anti-corruption efforts*Ghana Government at Curlie Latest Political News From Ghana
Ghanaian nationality law
Ghana amended its nationality law in 2000, to the 2000 Ghana Citizen Act Dual Citizenship Scheme, which came into effect from Friday, 1 November 2002, in accordance with the provisions of the Citizenship Act 2002. Applicants eligible for dual citizenship are those who hold citizenship of any country in addition to the citizenship of Ghana. In these instances, all applicants are required by law to provide evidence of their Ghanaian nationality or their country of birth, its intention was to increase immigration of skilled labour, but the law has been criticised for not giving full citizens rights as native-born citizens. In 2000 Citizen Act Dual Citizenship Scheme with effect from Friday, 1 November 2002 in accordance with the provisions of the Citizenship Act 2002: People who have been convicted of criminal acts are ineligible for Ghanaian nationality; the 2000 Citizen Act has been criticized for being inflexible and not allowing full citizenship rights to people of dual nationality. Persons born before 6/3/57 A person born before 6 March 1957 is a citizen of Ghana by birth if— He/She was born in Ghana and at least one of his/her parents or grandparents was born in Ghana.
Persons born on or after 6/3/57 but before 22/8/69 A person born on or after 6 March 1957 and before 22 August 1969 is a citizen of Ghana by birth if— He/She was born in or outside Ghana and either of his/her parents, one at least of his/her grandparents or great-grandparents, was born in Ghana. A person is not a citizen of Ghana for the purposes of subsection of this section if at the time of his/her birth the parent, grandparent or great-grandparent through whom the citizenship is claimed has lost his/her citizenship of Ghana. A person born on or after 6 March 1957 and before 22 August 1969 is a citizen of Ghana by birth if— He/She was born in Ghana and at the time of his/her birth either of his/her parents was a citizen of Ghana by registration or naturalisation. Persons born on or after 22/8/69—Constitution 1969A person is a citizen of Ghana by birth if he/she was born in or outside Ghana on or after 22 August 1969 and before 24 September 1979 and at the date of his birth either of his/her parents was a citizen of Ghana.
Persons born on or after 24/9/79—Constitution 1979A person born on or after 24 September 1979 and before 7 January 1993 is a citizen of Ghana by birth if— He/She was born in Ghana and at the date of his/her birth either of his/her parents or one grandparent was a citizen of Ghana. Persons born on or after 7/1/93—Constitution 1992A person is a citizen of Ghana by birth if he/she was born on 7 January 1993 or born after that date in or outside Ghana at the date of his/her birth only if either of his/her parents or one grandparent was or is a citizen of Ghana. A child of not more than 16 years of age neither of whose parents is a citizen of Ghana, adopted by a citizen of Ghana shall, by virtue of the adoption, be a citizen of Ghana. A citizen of age and capacity of any approved country may upon an application, with the approval of the President, be registered as a citizen of Ghana if he/she satisfies the President that— He/She is of good character. Where upon an application for registration after five years of marriage it appears to the Minister that the marriage had been entered into for the purpose of obtaining the registration, the Minister shall request the applicant to establish that the marriage was entered into in good faith.
The President shall register as a citizen of Ghana a child of any person who becomes a citizen of Ghana by registration or naturalisation upon application of the parent or guardian of the child. A person registered under section 1 or 2 is a citizen by registration from the date stated on the certificate of registration; the date stated on the certificate of registration shall be the date of the taking of the Ghana oath of allegiance. With the approval of the President. A person to whom a certificate of naturalisation is granted under subsection shall take the oath of allegiance and become a citizen by naturalisation from the date on which the oath of allegiance is taken. Subject to subsection of this section, a person qualifies for naturalisation if— He/She has resided in Ghana throughout the period of seven years with a valid residence permit and twelve months preceding the date of the application for naturalisation.
Parliament House of Ghana
The Parliament House of Ghana is the official seat of the Speaker of Parliament of the country and serves as Parliament of Ghana. It has offices which serve temporal offices of certain members of parliament, it was designed by the first president of Ghana. The building was built by Kwame Nkrumah, the first president of Ghana. In 2011 Alfred Kwame Agbeshie, Member of Parliament for Ashaiman called for the building of a new parliament house to accommodate the increasing number of parliamentarians in the country, his assertion was based on the fact that members of parliament sat at distances away from the Speaker, making it difficult for some members to be recognized and allowed to contribute to debates. Job 600 Parliament of Ghana Official website
Vice-President of Ghana
The Vice-President of the Republic of Ghana is the second-highest executive official in Ghana. The vice-president, together with the President of Ghana, is directly elected by the people through popular vote to serve a four-year term of office; the vice-president is the first person in the presidential line of succession, would ascend to the presidency upon the death, resignation, or removal of the president. The current vice-president is Mahamudu Bawumia, who took office on 7 January 2017, under President Nana Akufo-Addo; the provisions of article 62 of the 1992 Constitution apply to a candidate for election as Vice-President: he/she is a citizen of Ghana by birth he/she has attained the age of thirty-five years. The Vice-President of Ghana must be sworn in by the Chief Justice before the citizens of Ghana at the Independence square in Accra; the Vice-President-elect must repeat the following: "I, having been elected to the office of Vice-President of the Republic of Ghana, do that I will be faithful and true to the Republic of Ghana.
I further that should I at any time break this oath of office, I shall submit myself to the laws of the Republic of Ghana and suffer the penalty for it.." The duties of the vice-president of Ghana are: presiding of various meetings in absence of the President acting President when the president is out of the countryThe Vice-President is a member of The National Security Council The Armed Forces Council The Police Service Council The Prisons Service Council
Ghana the Republic of Ghana, is a country located along the Gulf of Guinea and Atlantic Ocean, in the subregion of West Africa. Spanning a land mass of 238,535 km2, Ghana is bordered by the Ivory Coast in the west, Burkina Faso in the north, Togo in the east and the Gulf of Guinea and Atlantic Ocean in the south. Ghana means "Warrior King" in the Soninke language; the first permanent state in the territory of present-day Ghana dates back to the 11th century. Numerous kingdoms and empires emerged over the centuries, of which the most powerful was the Kingdom of Ashanti. Beginning in the 15th century, numerous European powers contested the area for trading rights, with the British establishing control of the coast by the late 19th century. Following over a century of native resistance, Ghana's current borders were established by the 1900s as the British Gold Coast, it became independent of the United Kingdom on 6 March 1957. Ghana's population of 30 million spans a variety of ethnic and religious groups.
According to the 2010 census, 71.2% of the population was Christian, 17.6% was Muslim, 5.2% practised traditional faiths. Its diverse geography and ecology ranges from coastal savannahs to tropical rain forests. Ghana is a unitary constitutional democracy led by a president, both head of state and head of the government. Ghana's growing economic prosperity and democratic political system have made it a regional power in West Africa, it is a member of the Non-Aligned Movement, the African Union, the Economic Community of West African States, Group of 24 and the Commonwealth of Nations. The etymology of the word Ghana means "warrior king" and was the title accorded to the kings of the medieval Ghana Empire in West Africa, but the empire was further north than the modern country of Ghana, in the region of Guinea. Ghana was recognized as one of the great kingdoms in Bilad el-Sudan by the ninth century. Ghana was inhabited in the Middle Ages and the Age of Discovery by a number of ancient predominantly Akan kingdoms in the Southern and Central territories.
This included the Ashanti Empire, the Akwamu, the Bonoman, the Denkyira, the Mankessim Kingdom. Although the area of present-day Ghana in West Africa has experienced many population movements, the Akans were settled by the 5th century BC. By the early 11th century, the Akans were established in the Akan state called Bonoman, for which the Brong-Ahafo Region is named. From the 13th century, Akans emerged from what is believed to have been the Bonoman area, to create several Akan states of Ghana based on gold trading; these states included Bonoman, Denkyira, Mankessim Kingdom, Akwamu Eastern region. By the 19th century, the territory of the southern part of Ghana was included in the Kingdom of Ashanti, one of the most influential states in sub-saharan Africa prior to the onset of colonialism; the Kingdom of Ashanti government operated first as a loose network, as a centralised kingdom with an advanced specialised bureaucracy centred in the capital city of Kumasi. Prior to Akan contact with Europeans, the Akan people created an advanced economy based on principally gold and gold bar commodities traded with the states of Africa.
The earliest known kingdoms to emerge in modern Ghana were the Mole-Dagbani states. The Mole-Dagomba came on horseback from present-day Burkina Faso under Naa Gbewaa. With their advanced weapons and based on a central authority, they invaded and occupied the lands of the local people ruled by the Tendamba, established themselves as the rulers over the locals, made Gambaga their capital; the death of Naa Gbewaa caused civil war among his children, some of whom broke off and founded separate states including Dagbon, Mossi and Wala. Akan trade with European states began after contact with Portuguese in the 15th century. Early European contact by the Portuguese people, who came to the Gold Coast region in the 15th century to trade and established the Portuguese Gold Coast, focused on the extensive availability of gold; the Portuguese built a trading lodge at a coastal settlement called Anomansah which they renamed São Jorge da Mina. In 1481, King John II of Portugal commissioned Diogo d'Azambuja to build the Elmina Castle, completed in three years.
By 1598, the Dutch had joined the Portuguese in the gold trade, establishing the Dutch Gold Coast and building forts at Fort Komenda and Kormantsi. In 1617, the Dutch captured the Olnini Castle from the Portuguese, Axim in 1642. Other European traders had joined in gold trading by the mid-17th century, most notably the Swedes, establishing the Swedish Gold Coast, Denmark-Norway, establishing the Danish Gold Coast. Portuguese merchants, impressed with the gold resources in the area, named it Costa do Ouro or Gold Coast. Beginning in the 17th century — in addition to the gold trade — Portuguese, Dutch and French traders participated in the Atlantic slave trade in this area. More than thirty forts and castles were built by the Portuguese, Dano-Norwegians and German merchants. In 1874 Great Britain established control over some parts of the country, assigning these areas the status of British Gold Coast. Many military engagements occurred between the British colonial powers and the various Akan nation-states.
The Akan Kingdom of Ashanti defeated the British a few times i