There have been several meetings referred to as a Parliament of the World's Religions, the first being the World's Parliament of Religions of 1893, an attempt to create a global dialogue of faiths. The event was celebrated by another conference on its centenary in 1993; this led to a new series of conferences under the official title Parliament of the World's Religions with the same goal of trying to create a global dialogue of faiths. An organization was incorporated in 1988 to carry out the tradition of the Parliament of the World's Religions by marking the centennial of the first Parliament; the Council for a Parliament of the World's Religions is headquartered in Chicago. Its board of trustees are elected from various faith communities. In 1893, the city of Chicago hosted an early world's fair. So many people were coming to Chicago from all over the world that many smaller conferences, called Congresses and Parliaments, were scheduled to take advantage of this unprecedented gathering. One of these was the World's Parliament of Religions, an initiative of the Swedenborgian layman Charles Carroll Bonney.
The Parliament of Religions was by far the largest of the congresses held in conjunction with the Exposition. John Henry Barrows, a clergyman, was appointed as the first chairman of the General Committee of the 1893 Parliament by Charles Bonney; the Parliament of Religions opened on 11 September 1893 at the World's Congress Auxiliary Building, now The Art Institute of Chicago, ran from 11 to 27 September, making it the first organized interfaith gathering. Today it is recognized as the occasion of the birth of formal interreligious dialogue worldwide, with representatives of a wide variety of religions and new religious movements, including: The Jain preacher Virchand Gandhi was invited as a representative of Jainism; the Buddhist preacher Anagarika Dharmapala was invited as a representative of "Southern Buddhism", the term applied at that time to the Theravada. Soyen Shaku, the "First American Ancestor" of Zen, made the trip. An essay by the Japanese Pure Land master Kiyozawa Manshi, "Skeleton of the philosophy of religion" was read in his absence.
Swami Vivekananda, a Bengali Kayastha caste Indian monk, represented Hinduism as a delegate, introducing Hinduism at the opening session of the Parliament on 11 September. Though nervous, he bowed to Saraswati began his speech with salutation, "Sisters and brothers of America!". To these words he got a standing ovation from a crowd of thousands; when silence was restored he began his address. He greeted the youngest of the nations on behalf of "the most ancient order of monks in the world, the Vedic order of sannyasins, a religion which has taught the world both tolerance and universal acceptance!" Christianity was represented by G. Bonet Maury, a protestant historian invited by Swami Vivekananda Islam was represented by Mohammed Alexander Russell Webb, an Anglo-American convert to Islam and the former US ambassador to the Philippines. Rev. Henry Jessup addressing the World Parliament of Religions was the first to publicly discuss the Bahá'í Faith in the United States. Since Bahá'ís have become active participants.
Theism or the Brahmo Samaj was represented by Pratap Chandra Majumdar. The Theosophical Society was represented by the Vice-President of the society, William Quan Judge and by activist Annie Besant. New religious movements of the time, such as Spiritualism and Christian Science; the latter was represented by Septimus J. Hanna, who read an address written by its founder Mary Baker Eddy. Absent from this event were Native American religious figures and other Indigenous and Earth-centered religionists. In 1993, the Parliament convened at the Palmer House hotel in Chicago. Over 8,000 people from all over the world, from many diverse religions, gathered to celebrate and explore how religious traditions can work together on the critical issues which confront the world. A document, "Towards a Global Ethic: An Initial Declaration" drafted by Hans Küng, set the tone for the subsequent ten days of discussion; this global ethic was endorsed by many of the attending religious and spiritual leaders who were part of the parliament assembly.
Created for the 1993 parliament was a book, A Sourcebook for the Community of Religions, by the late Joel Beversluis, which has become a standard textbook in religion classes. Unlike most textbooks of religion, each entry was written by members of the religion in question; the keynote address was given by the Dalai Lama on the closing day of the assembly. Cardinal Joseph Bernardin participated. More than 7,000 individuals from over 80 countries attended 1999 Parliament in Cape Town, South Africa; the Parliament began with a showing of the international AIDS Memorial Quilt to highlight the epidemic of AIDS in South Africa, of the role that religious and spiritual traditions play in facing the critical issues that face the world. The event continued with hundreds of panels and workshops, offerings of prayer and meditation and performances; the programs emphasized issues of religious and cultural identity, approaches to interreligious dialogue, the role of religion in response to the critical issues facing the world today.
The Parliament Assembly considered a document called A Call to Our Guiding Institutions, addressed to religion, business and media inviting these institutions to reflect on and transform their roles at the threshold of the next century. In addition to the Call, the Parliament staff had created a book, Gifts of Service to the World, showcas
US Foods is an American foodservice distributor. With $24 billion in annual revenue, US Foods was the 10th largest private company in America until its IPO. Many of the entities that make up US Foods were founded in the 19th century, including one that sold provisions to travelers heading west during the 1850s gold rush; the company used the name U. S. Foodservice until 1993. US Foods offers more than 350,000 national brand products and its own “exclusive brand” items, ranging from fresh meats and produce to prepackaged and frozen foods; the company employs 25,200 people in more than 60 locations nationwide, provides food and related products to more than 250,000 customers, including independent and multi-unit restaurants and hospitality entities and educational institutions. The company is headquartered in Rosemont, is a publicly held company trading under the ticker symbol USFD on the New York Stock Exchange. On 9th December, 2013, Sysco Corp announced it would buy US Foods for $8.2 billion, but in June 24, 2015, US Federal Judge Amit Mehta ruled that the combined Sysco-US Foods would control 75% of the U.
S. foodservice industry and that would stifle competition. On June 29, 2015, Sysco terminated its merger with US Foods. Several of the entities that comprised what is now US Foods started in the 19th century. Monarch Foods, for example, traced its roots to Reid-Murdoch Co. a Dubuque, company founded in 1853 to provision wagon trains heading west. Reid-Murdoch was a major sponsor of The Teenie Weenies comic strip. John Sexton & Company began as a retail tea and coffee merchant in Chicago, Illinois in 1883. John Sexton soon discovered restaurants were his biggest customers. By 1887, Sexton closed his four Chicago retail locations to focus on his institutional customers. By 1891, Sexton began manufacturing private label pickles, salad dressings and jellies as well as roasting coffee in downtown Chicago. In addition, Sexton established a food testing laboratory to guarantee that his products had a uniform high level of quality, he developed an extensive national institutional sales force in all major metropolitan areas, a catalog mail order grocery business.
All national orders were shipped via parcel post from Sexton's Chicago warehouse. Chicago deliveries were by Sexton horse and wagon fleet, after 1924, Sexton electric and diesel truck fleets. By 1930, Sexton dropped the catalog mail order business and concentrated on the institutional customers throughout the United States. In 1933, Sexton opened a warehouse and truck fleet in Brooklyn, New York to support the New York Sexton sales force. By 1949, John Sexton & Co. was operating branch warehouses and truck fleets in Atlanta, Dallas, Long Island City and Pittsburgh to support the Sexton national salesforce. In 1962, John Sexton & Co. was listed as a public company on the Over the Counter Stock Market with $79 million in sales and $2 million in profits. In 1968, John Sexton & Co. had $90 million in sales, which represented 5% of the total institutional foodservice industry. In 1968, Sexton warehouses and truck fleets were located in Atlanta, Chicago, Dallas, Los Angeles, New York, Philadelphia, St. Louis and San Francisco with a regional salesforce covering the majority of the United States.
This gave Sexton a coast to coast distribution and sales network. In late 1968, John Sexton & Co. was purchased by Beatrice Foods for $37.5 million in Beatrice preferred shares and assumption of Sexton debt.. Beatrice Foods operated Sexton as an independent division until 1983, when Beatrice sold Sexton to S. E. Rykoff & Co of Los Angeles, CA for $84.5 million. L. H. Parke Company started in 1889 as a partnership of William P. M. Irwin; the partnership took over the small provision-pushcart business of Samuel Irwin, a civil war vet. who had lost his arm in the Battle of Winchester, Virginia. Parke started as a seller of coffee and spices; the company grew to be a major institutional wholesale seller of canned goods and had five locations by the time it sold out to Consolidated Foods in 1962. Donald Irwin Jr. President of Parke, became the first president of Monarch Institutional Foods at that time. Los Angeles-based S. E. Rykoff & Co. was established in 1911, the Mazo and Lerch families started their business in Northern Virginia in 1927.
Most of these wholesalers tended selling items to local grocery stores. In the early 1930s, including Mazo-Lerch Company, began offering frozen foods frozen french fries and orange juice. Foodservice distributors served institutional clients that provided food away from home, unlike retail distributors, who sold to grocery stores; the first distinction between the two groups came about in 1951, with the formation of the Association of Institutional Distributors. With fighting going on in Korea, the federal government reinstituted price controls, including a 16 percent ceiling on food distributors' gross profits. About a dozen companies met in Chicago to respond to that action; because it cost more to distribute to their institutional customers than to grocery stores, the distributors wanted to be considered separately from grocery wholesalers and to have their ceiling raised to at least 21 percent. They were successful in their lobbying efforts; the federal government helped open up foodservice markets.
Rear Admiral Edward A. Wilkinson of United States Navy was the Director Defense Mapping Agency from July 1983 to July 1985, he was the Deputy Director of Defense Mapping Agency from July 1979 to May 1981. Rear Admiral Edward A. Wilkinson graduated from the United States Naval Academy in 1955 and earned his wings as a naval aviator the following year, he received an MS in engineering from George Washington University in 1963, graduated from the Armed Forces Staff College in 1969, National War College in 1973. Some highlights of Rear Admiral Wilkinson's early career include: His first duty was a three-year tour in hurricane reconnaissance aircraft, he served as Project Mercury recovery officer with Patrol Squadron 5 and as an aide to the commander of Fleet Air in Hawaii. After a tour at the Potomac River Command in Washington, DC, he served as an instructor in thermodynamics at the U. S. Naval Academy. After duty with Patrol Squadron 30 and Patrol Squadron 24, he became commanding officer of Patrol Squadron 8 in March 1971 and special projects officer for Commander Fleet Air Wing Atlantic.
Following a tour as commanding officer Patrol Squadron 30, he spent two years as P-3 program coordinator in the office of the Deputy Chief of Naval Operations for Air Warfare. For the next two years, he commanded Patrol Wing 5 and served as deputy and acting director of the Anti-Submarine Warfare Systems Project at the Naval Material Command until 1980. From 1981 to 1983, he served as commander of Atlantic Fleet patrol aircraft. Rear Admiral Edward A. Wilkinson was Deputy Director of Defense Mapping Agency from July 1979 to May 1981; as DMA director between 1983 and 1985, under his leadership the agency implemented the Digital Production System, an ambitious modernization program which sought to redesign and retool its MC&G production systems and processes. During Wilkinson's tenure, DMA – a heritage organization of the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency – implemented Phase I of the program on time and in budget. Mark 85 improved and enhanced hardcopy production methods, improved production management and database management, provided an initial softcopy production capability.
Mark 85 capability allowed DMA to continue to produce critical geographic products to U. S. military forces from new digital national reconnaissance imagery. Rear Admiral Wilkinson's military decorations and awards include: Defense Distinguished Service Medal Defense Superior Service Medal Legion of Merit with one gold star in lieu of second award Navy Commendation Medal with one gold star in lieu of second award Three awards of the Meritorious Unit Commendation: Patrol Squadron 24, Patrol Squadron 30, Patrol Squadron 8. Citations Sources