South Africa the Republic of South Africa, is the southernmost country in Africa. It is bounded to the south by 2,798 kilometres of coastline of Southern Africa stretching along the South Atlantic and Indian Oceans. South Africa is the largest country in Southern Africa and the 25th-largest country in the world by land area and, with over 57 million people, is the world's 24th-most populous nation, it is the southernmost country on the mainland of the Eastern Hemisphere. About 80 percent of South Africans are of Sub-Saharan African ancestry, divided among a variety of ethnic groups speaking different African languages, nine of which have official status; the remaining population consists of Africa's largest communities of European and multiracial ancestry. South Africa is a multiethnic society encompassing a wide variety of cultures and religions, its pluralistic makeup is reflected in the constitution's recognition of 11 official languages, the fourth highest number in the world. Two of these languages are of European origin: Afrikaans developed from Dutch and serves as the first language of most coloured and white South Africans.
The country is one of the few in Africa never to have had a coup d'état, regular elections have been held for a century. However, the vast majority of black South Africans were not enfranchised until 1994. During the 20th century, the black majority sought to recover its rights from the dominant white minority, with this struggle playing a large role in the country's recent history and politics; the National Party imposed apartheid in 1948. After a long and sometimes violent struggle by the African National Congress and other anti-apartheid activists both inside and outside the country, the repeal of discriminatory laws began in 1990. Since 1994, all ethnic and linguistic groups have held political representation in the country's liberal democracy, which comprises a parliamentary republic and nine provinces. South Africa is referred to as the "rainbow nation" to describe the country's multicultural diversity in the wake of apartheid; the World Bank classifies South Africa as an upper-middle-income economy, a newly industrialised country.
Its economy is the second-largest in Africa, the 34th-largest in the world. In terms of purchasing power parity, South Africa has the seventh-highest per capita income in Africa; however and inequality remain widespread, with about a quarter of the population unemployed and living on less than US$1.25 a day. South Africa has been identified as a middle power in international affairs, maintains significant regional influence; the name "South Africa" is derived from the country's geographic location at the southern tip of Africa. Upon formation, the country was named the Union of South Africa in English, reflecting its origin from the unification of four separate British colonies. Since 1961, the long form name in English has been the "Republic of South Africa". In Dutch, the country was named Republiek van Zuid-Afrika, replaced in 1983 by the Afrikaans Republiek van Suid-Afrika. Since 1994, the Republic has had an official name in each of its 11 official languages. Mzansi, derived from the Xhosa noun umzantsi meaning "south", is a colloquial name for South Africa, while some Pan-Africanist political parties prefer the term "Azania".
South Africa contains human-fossil sites in the world. Archaeologists have recovered extensive fossil remains from a series of caves in Gauteng Province; the area, a UNESCO World Heritage site, has been branded "the Cradle of Humankind". The sites include one of the richest sites for hominin fossils in the world. Other sites include Gondolin Cave Kromdraai, Coopers Cave and Malapa. Raymond Dart identified the first hominin fossil discovered in Africa, the Taung Child in 1924. Further hominin remains have come from the sites of Makapansgat in Limpopo Province and Florisbad in the Free State Province, Border Cave in KwaZulu-Natal Province, Klasies River Mouth in Eastern Cape Province and Pinnacle Point and Die Kelders Cave in Western Cape Province; these finds suggest that various hominid species existed in South Africa from about three million years ago, starting with Australopithecus africanus. There followed species including Australopithecus sediba, Homo ergaster, Homo erectus, Homo rhodesiensis, Homo helmei, Homo naledi and modern humans.
Modern humans have inhabited Southern Africa for at least 170,000 years. Various researchers have located pebble tools within the Vaal River valley. Settlements of Bantu-speaking peoples, who were iron-using agriculturists and herdsmen, were present south of the Limpopo River by the 4th or 5th century CE, they displaced and absorbed the original Khoisan speakers, the Khoikhoi and San peoples. The Bantu moved south; the earliest ironworks in modern-day KwaZulu-Natal Province are believed to date from around 1050. The southernmost group was the Xhosa people, whose language incorporates certain linguistic traits from the earlier Khoisan people; the Xhosa reached the Great Fish River, in today's Eastern Cape Province. As they migrated, these larger Iron Age populations
A political party is an organized group of people with common views, who come together to contest elections and hold power in the government. The party agrees on some proposed policies and programmes, with a view to promoting the collective good or furthering their supporters' interests. While there is some international commonality in the way political parties are recognized and in how they operate, there are many differences, some are significant. Many political parties have an ideological core, but some do not, many represent ideologies different from their ideology at the time the party was founded. Many countries, such as Germany and India, have several significant political parties, some nations have one-party systems, such as China and Cuba; the United States is in practice a two-party system but with many smaller parties participating and a high degree of autonomy for individual candidates. Political factions have existed in democratic societies since ancient times. Plato writes in his Republic on the formation of political cliques in Classical Athens, the tendency of Athenian citizens to vote according to factional loyalty rather than for the public good.
In the Roman Republic, Polybius coined the term ochlocracy to describe the tendency of politicians to mobilise popular factionalist sentiment against their political rivals. Factional politics remained a part of Roman political life through the Imperial period and beyond, the poet Juvenal coined the phrase "bread and circuses" to describe the political class pandering to the citizenry through diversionary entertainments rather than through arguments about policy. "Bread and circuses" survived as part of Byzantine political life - for example, the Nika revolt during the reign of Justinian was a riot between the "Blues" and the "Greens"—two chariot racing factions at the Hippodrome, who received patronage from different Senatorial factions and religious sects. The patricians who sponsored the Blues and the Greens competed with each other to hold grander games and public entertainments during electoral campaigns, in order to appeal to the citizenry of Constantinople; the first modern political factions, can be said to have originated in early modern Britain.
The first political factions, cohering around a basic, if fluid, set of principles, emerged from the Exclusion Crisis and Glorious Revolution in late 17th century England. The Whigs supported Protestant constitutional monarchy against absolute rule, they were interested in the citizens of United Kingdom being free from the aristocracy and opposed to any tyranny, however they supported the constitutional aristocracy and does not consider the British nobility abusive because of its limits; the leader of the Whigs was Robert Walpole, who maintained control of the government in the period 1721–1742. As the century wore on, the factions began to adopt more coherent political tendencies as the interests of their power bases began to diverge; the Whig party's initial base of support from the great aristocratic families widened to include the emerging industrial interests and wealthy merchants. As well as championing constitutional monarchy with strict limits on the monarch's power, the Whigs adamantly opposed a Catholic king as a threat to liberty, believed in extending toleration to nonconformist Protestants, or dissenters.
A major influence on the Whigs were the liberal political ideas of John Locke, the concepts of universal rights employed by Locke and Algernon Sidney. Although the Tories were out of office for half a century, for most of this period the Tories retained party cohesion, with occasional hopes of regaining office at the accession of George II and the downfall of the ministry of Sir Robert Walpole in 1742, they acted as a united, though unavailing, opposition to Whig corruption and scandals. At times they cooperated with the "Opposition Whigs", Whigs who were in opposition to the Whig government, they regained power with the accession of George III in 1760 under Lord Bute. When they lost power, the old Whig leadership dissolved into a decade of factional chaos with distinct "Grenvillite", "Bedfordite", "Rockinghamite", "Chathamite" factions successively in power, all referring to themselves as "Whigs". Out of this chaos, the first distinctive parties emerged; the first such party was the Rockingham Whigs under the leadership of Charles Watson-Wentworth and the intellectual guidance of the political philosopher Edmund Burke.
Burke laid out a philosophy that described the basic framework of the political party as "a body of men united for promoting by their joint endeavours the national interest, upon some particular principle in which they are all agreed". As opposed to the instability of the earlier factions, which were tied to a particular leader and could disintegrate if removed from power, the party was centred around a set of core principles and remained out of power as a united opposition to government. A coalition including the Rockingham Whigs, led by the Earl of She
A debate chamber is a room for people to discuss and debate. Debate chambers are used in governmental and educational bodies, such as a parliament, city council, or a university, either for formal proceedings or for informal discourse, such as a deliberative assembly; when used for legislative purposes, a debate chamber may be known as a council chamber, legislative chamber, or similar term. Some countries, such as New Zealand, use the term debating chamber as a formal name for the room that houses the national legislature. Debating can happen anywhere. Whether informal or structured as a discourse between select individuals or small groups with an audience, debates occur with an audience; the debate does not directly involve the audience as they are not participants - they may be remote, watching on television. The debating chamber is where the debate participants engage: the stage, panel or council table, or the presentation station; the audience is separate if the lines between participants and audience are not always distinct.
The positioning of the debating participants is oppositional or side-by-side in a fan-shape with the focus being the moderator's table. If there is an audience present, the moderator is positioned to the side or with their back to the audience. For this style of debate there are more than 2 and more than 15 participants. More than this involves a formally debating body or organization, such as a legislative body, which meets in a designated place or chamber purpose-built for this function; the configuration of seating affects interpersonal communication on conscious and subconscious levels. For example, negotiations over the shape of a negotiation table delayed the Vietnam War peace talks for a year. Interpersonal communication involves both aural senses. Our eyes and ears need to face our focus of interest. Our faces are important senders of information. We confront and communication directly through "face to face" interaction with our facial sensors and projector "tools" aimed at our communication partner, whether friend or foe.
The geometry of position can support or influence a position of opposition/confrontation, hierarchy/dominance, or collaboration/equality. Position can be locational or attitudinal, be supportive or a determining factor of the other; the more direct this is, the more oppositional the position. The less direct, the more "shoulder to shoulder" the position. A two-person meeting can be face-to-face, side-by-side, or between the two. Geometry dictates that a circular gathering with three participants provides the only non-oppositional configuration of more than two persons that allows equal sightlines; the more participants, the greater disparity of sightlines between those sitting adjacent and those more directly across, whose position in turn becomes more oppositional. This can be observed in debate chambers, meeting rooms, at dining room or restaurant tables. With a long rectangular table, those seated at the "head" or "end" of the tables are in a position of dominance. Circular, square, or elliptical shaped tables allow for more equal status and equality of line of sight.
The smaller the group and setting, the more equality of participants and sight lines. Winston Churchill recognized this when as prime minister he insisted the British House of Commons be rebuilt in a similar size and configuration to maintain the intimate form of debate and its adversarial nature which he believed was responsible for the creating the British form of government, the two-party, government-opposition system. Whether outdoors or in an enclosed space or chamber, such as a cave, it is that the earliest designated places for group discourse or debate occurred around a fire, for light, heat, or protection from predators. Throughout recorded history there have been a variety of places and spaces designated for similar purposes. An early gathering for assembly purposes was the Ecclesia of ancient Athens, a popular assembly open to all male citizens with two years of military service; this was held in an Ekklesiasterion, which varied from small amphitheaters to a variety of buildings, including ones that could accommodate over 5,000 people.
These assemblies were held in amphitheater-like, open air theaters. Bouleuterions translated as council house, assembly house, senate house, was a building in ancient Greece which housed the council of citizens of a democratic city state. In Ancient Rome, the earliest recorded debating chamber was for the deliberative body of the Roman Senate; the first official debating model that emerged after the fall of the Roman Empire was the Magnum Concilium, or Great Council, after the Norman Conquest of England in 1066. These were convened at certain times of the year when church leaders and wealthy landowners were invited to discuss the affairs of the country with the king. In the 13th century this developed into the Parliament of England. Similar models emerged at the same time with the Parliament of Scotland and Parliament of Ireland; these were consolidated into the Parliament of Britain and the current Parliament of the United Kingdom. The system of
In Croatia, the Opposition comprises all political parties represented in the Croatian Parliament that are not part of the Government, supported by the parliamentary majority. The Leader of the Opposition is the unofficial title held by the leader of the largest party with no representatives within the government. Where one party wins outright this is the leader of the second largest political party in the Parliament; the current Leader of the Opposition is Davor Bernardić, leader of the Social Democratic Party, elected to the party leadership on 26 November 2016. In the Sixth assembly of the Croatian Parliament, the parties in Sabor that included the opposition were: Social Democratic Party Croatian People's Party – Liberal Democrats Istrian Democratic Assembly Croatian Democratic Assembly of Slavonia and Baranja Croatian Party of Pensioners Croatian Party of Rights Croatian Labourists – Labour PartyThe leader of the opposition was Zoran Milanović, leader of the Social Democratic Party of Croatia.
In the Seventh assembly of the Croatian Parliament, the parties in Sabor that include the opposition were: Croatian Democratic Union Croatian Labourists – Labour Party Croatian Democratic Assembly of Slavonia and Baranja Independent list of Ivan Grubišić Croatian Citizen Party Croatian Party of Rights dr. Ante Starčević Croatian Peasant Party Democratic Centre In the Eight assembly of the Croatian Parliament, the parties in Sabor that include the opposition are: Social Democratic Party Croatian People's Party – Liberal Democrats Croatian Labourists – Labour Party Istrian Democratic Assembly Croatian Party of Pensioners Croatian Democratic Alliance of Slavonia and Baranja People's Party - Reformists Human Blockade In the Ninth assembly of the Croatian Parliament, the parties in Sabor that include the opposition are: Social Democratic Party Istrian Democratic Assembly Human Blockade Croatian Party of Pensioners Croatian Democratic Alliance of Slavonia and Baranja Bridge of Independent ListsThe leader of the opposition from 14 October 2016 until 26 November 2016 was Zoran Milanović and since 26 November 2016 it has been Davor Bernardić, the leader of the Social Democratic Party.
Social Democratic Party of Croatia Croatian Social Liberal Party Croatian Democratic Union 1. Dražen Budiša 7 years, 167 days 2. Zoran Milanović 5 years, 148 days 3. Ivica Račan 4 years, 157 days 4. Tomislav Karamarko 3 years, 246 days 5. Ivo Sanader 3 years, 237 days 6. Davor Bernardić 2 years, 136 days 7. Jadranka Kosor 150 days 8. Vladimir Šeks 93 days 9. Željka Antunović 52 days Politics of Croatia
Singapore the Republic of Singapore, is an island city-state in Southeast Asia. It lies one degree north of the equator, at the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, with Indonesia's Riau Islands to the south and Peninsular Malaysia to the north. Singapore's territory consists of one main island along with 62 other islets. Since independence, extensive land reclamation has increased its total size by 23%; the country is known for its transition from a developing to a developed one in a single generation under the leadership of its founder Lee Kuan Yew. In 1819, Sir Stamford Raffles founded colonial Singapore as a trading post of the British East India Company. After the company's collapse in 1858, the islands were ceded to the British Raj as a crown colony. During the Second World War, Singapore was occupied by Japan, it gained independence from the British Empire in 1963 by joining Malaysia along with other former British territories, but separated two years over ideological differences, becoming a sovereign nation in 1965.
After early years of turbulence and despite lacking natural resources and a hinterland, the nation developed as an Asian Tiger economy, based on external trade and its workforce. Singapore is a global hub for education, finance, human capital, logistics, technology, tourism and transport; the city ranks in numerous international rankings, has been recognised as the most "technology-ready" nation, top International-meetings city, city with "best investment potential", world's smartest city, world's safest country, second-most competitive country, third least-corrupt country, third-largest foreign exchange market, third-largest financial centre, third-largest oil refining and trading centre, fifth-most innovative country, the second-busiest container port. The Economist has ranked Singapore as the most expensive city to live in, since 2013, it is identified as a tax haven. Singapore is the only country in Asia with an AAA sovereign rating from all major rating agencies, one of 11 worldwide. Globally, the Port of Singapore and Changi Airport have held the titles of leading "Maritime Capital" and "Best Airport" for consecutive years, while Singapore Airlines is the 2018 "World's Best Airline".
Singapore ranks 9th on the UN Human Development Index with the 3rd highest GDP per capita. It is placed in key social indicators: education, life expectancy, quality of life, personal safety and housing. Although income inequality is high, 90% of homes are owner-occupied. According to the Democracy Index, the country is described as a "flawed democracy"; the city-state is home to 5.6 million residents, 39% of whom are foreign nationals, including permanent residents. There are four official languages: English, Mandarin Chinese, Tamil, its cultural diversity is reflected in major festivals. Pew Research has found. Multiracialism has been enshrined in its constitution since independence, continues to shape national policies in education, politics, among others. Singapore is a unitary parliamentary republic with a Westminster system of unicameral parliamentary government; the People's Action Party has won every election since self-government began in 1959. As one of the five founding members of ASEAN, Singapore is the host of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Secretariat and Pacific Economic Cooperation Council Secretariat, as well as many international conferences and events.
It is a member of the East Asia Summit, Non-Aligned Movement and the Commonwealth of Nations. The English name of Singapore is an anglicisation of the native Malay name for the country, in turn derived from Sanskrit, hence the customary reference to the nation as the Lion City, its inclusion in many of the nation's symbols. However, it is unlikely that lions lived on the island. There are however other suggestions for the origin of the name and scholars do not believe that the origin of the name is established; the central island has been called Pulau Ujong as far back as the third century CE "island at the end" in Malay. Singapore is referred to as the Garden City for its tree-lined streets and greening efforts since independence, the Little Red Dot for how the island-nation is depicted on many maps of the world and Asia, as a red dot. Singapore is referred to as the "Switzerland of Asia" in 2017 due to its neutrality on international and regional issues; the Greco-Roman astronomer Ptolemy identified a place called Sabana in the general area in the second century, the earliest written record of Singapore occurs in a Chinese account from the third century, describing the island of Pu Luo Chung.
This was itself a transliteration from the Malay name "Pulau Ujong", or "island at the end". The Nagarakretagama, a Javanese epic poem written in 1365, referred to a settlement on the island called Tumasik. In 1299, according to the Malay Annals, the Kingdom of Singapura was founded on the island by Sang Nila Utama. Although the historicity
The Westminster system is a parliamentary system of government developed in the United Kingdom. This term comes from the Palace of the seat of the British Parliament; the system is a series of procedures for operating a legislature. It is used, or was once used, in the national and subnational legislatures of most former British Empire colonies upon gaining responsible government, beginning with the first of the Canadian provinces in 1848 and the six Australian colonies between 1855 and 1890. However, some former colonies have since adopted either the presidential system or a hybrid system as their form of government; the Westminster system of government is contrasted with the presidential system that originated in the United States, or with the semi-presidential system, based on the government of France. A Westminster system of government may include some of the following features: A sovereign or head of state who functions as the nominal or legal and constitutional holder of executive power, holds numerous reserve powers, but whose daily duties consist of performing ceremonial functions.
Examples include Queen Elizabeth II, the Governors-General in Commonwealth realms, or the presidents of many countries, state or provincial governors in federal systems. Exceptions to this are Ireland and Israel, whose presidents are de jure and de facto ceremonial, the latter possesses no reserve powers whatsoever. A head of government, known as the Prime Minister, Chief minister, First Minister or Chancellor. While the head of state appoints the head of government, constitutional convention suggests that a majority of elected Members of Parliament must support the person appointed. If more than half of elected parliamentarians belong to the same political party the parliamentary leader of that party is appointed. An exception to this was Israel, in which direct prime-ministerial elections were made in 1996, 1999 and 2001. An executive branch led by the head of government made up of members of the legislature with the senior members of the executive in a cabinet adhering to the principle of cabinet collective responsibility.
An independent, non-partisan civil service which advises on, implements, decisions of those ministers. Civil servants hold permanent appointments and can expect merit-based selection processes and continuity of employment when governments change. A parliamentary opposition with an official Leader of the Opposition. A legislature bicameral, with at least one elected house – although unicameral systems exist. Exceptions to this include New Zealand, which changed in 1993 to use mixed-member proportional representation. A lower house of parliament with an ability to dismiss a government by "withholding supply", passing a motion of no confidence, or defeating a confidence motion. A parliament which can be dissolved and snap elections called at any time. Parliamentary privilege, which allows the legislature to discuss any issue it deems relevant, without fear of consequences stemming from defamatory statements or records thereof. Minutes of meetings known as Hansard, including an ability for the legislature to strike discussion from these minutes.
The ability of courts to address silence or ambiguity in the parliament's statutory law through the development of common law. Another parallel system of legal principles exists known as equity. Exceptions to this include India, Quebec in Canada, Scotland in the UK amongst others which mix common law with other legal systems. Most of the procedures of the Westminster system originated with the conventions and precedents of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which form a part of what is known as the Constitution of the United Kingdom. Unlike the uncodified British constitution, most countries that use the Westminster system have codified the system, at least in part, in a written constitution. However, uncodified conventions and precedents continue to play a significant role in most countries, as many constitutions do not specify important elements of procedure: for example, some older constitutions using the Westminster system do not mention the existence of the cabinet or the prime minister, because these offices were taken for granted by the authors of these constitutions.
Sometimes these conventions, reserve powers, other influences collide in times of crisis and in such times the weaknesses of the unwritten aspects of the Westminster system, as well as the strengths of the Westminster system's flexibility, are put to the test. As an illustrative example, in the Australian constitutional crises of 1975 the Governor-General of Australia, Sir John Kerr, dismissed Prime Minister Gough Whitlam and replaced him with opposition leader Malcolm Fraser. Summary of the Typical Structure of The Westminster Model: Type: Bicameral Upper House Lower House Leadership of Parliament: Head of State: Monarch or Ceremonial President Head of Government: Prime Minister Premier/Chief Minister Other titles include, First Minister, Chief Exec