SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Parliamentary republic

A parliamentary republic is a republic that operates under a parliamentary system of government where the executive branch derives its legitimacy from and is accountable to the legislature. There are a number of variations of parliamentary republics. Most have a clear differentiation between the head of government and the head of state, with the head of government holding real power, much like constitutional monarchies; some have combined the roles of head of state and head of government, much like presidential systems, but with a dependency upon parliamentary power. For the first case mentioned above, the form of executive-branch arrangement is distinct from most other governments and semi-presidential republics that separate the head of state from the head of government and subject the latter to the confidence of parliament and a lenient tenure in office while the head of state lacks dependency and investing either office with the majority of executive power. In contrast to republics operating under either the presidential system or the semi-presidential system, the head of state does not have executive powers as an executive president would, because many of those powers have been granted to a head of government.

However, in a parliamentary republic with a head of state whose tenure is dependent on parliament, the head of government and head of state can form one office, but the president is still selected in much the same way as the prime minister is in most Westminster systems. This means that they are the leader of the largest party or coalition of parties in parliament. In some cases, the president can have executive powers granted to them to undertake the day-to-day running of government but by convention they either do not use these powers or they use them only to give effect to the advice of the parliament or head of government; some parliamentary republics could therefore be seen as following the semi-presidential system but operating under a parliamentary system. Parliamentary republics are states that were constitutional monarchies with a parliamentary system, with the position of head of state given to a monarch. Following the defeat of Napoleon III in the Franco-Prussian War, France once again became a republic – the French Third Republic – in 1870.

The President of the Third Republic had less executive powers than those of the previous two republics had. The Third Republic lasted until the invasion of France by Nazi Germany in 1940. Following the end of the war, the French Fourth Republic was constituted along similar lines in 1946; the Fourth Republic saw an era of great economic growth in France and the rebuilding of the nation's social institutions and industry after the war, played an important part in the development of the process of European integration, which changed the continent permanently. Some attempts were made to strengthen the executive branch of government to prevent the unstable situation that had existed before the war, but the instability remained and the Fourth Republic saw frequent changes in government – there were 20 governments in ten years. Additionally, the government proved unable to make effective decisions regarding decolonization; as a result, the Fourth Republic collapsed and what some critics considered to be a de facto coup d'état, subsequently legitimized by a referendum on 5 October 1958, led to the establishment of the French Fifth Republic in 1959.

Chile became the first parliamentary republic in South America following a civil war in 1891. However, following a coup in 1925 this system was replaced by a Presidential one. Since the London Declaration of 29 April 1949 republics have been admitted as members of the Commonwealth of Nations. In the case of many republics in the Commonwealth of Nations, it was common for the Sovereign represented by a Governor-General, to be replaced by an elected non-executive head of state; this was the case in South Africa, Malta and Tobago, India and Vanuatu. In many of these examples, the last Governor-General became the first president; such was the case with Sri Pakistan. Other states became parliamentary republics upon gaining independence. List of countries by system of government Parliamentary system Republic Republicanism Semi-presidential system Semi-parliamentary system

Foreign worker

A foreign worker or guest worker is a human who works in a country other than the one of which he or she is a citizen. Some foreign workers are using a guest worker program in a country with more preferred job prospects than their home country. Guest workers are either sent or invited to work outside their home country, or have acquired a job before they left their home country, whereas migrant workers leave their home country without having a specific job at hand. Tens of millions of people around the world live their lives as foreign workers. An estimated 14 million foreign workers live in the United States, which draws most of its immigrants from Mexico, including 4 or 5 million undocumented workers, it is estimated that around 5 million foreign workers live in Northwestern Europe, half a million in Japan, around 5 million in Saudi Arabia. A comparable number of dependents are accompanying international workers. Foreign nationals are accepted into Canada on a temporary basis if they have a student visa, are seeking asylum, or under special permits.

The largest category however is called the Temporary Foreign Worker Program, under which workers are brought to Canada by their employers for specific jobs. In 2006, there were a total of 265,000 foreign workers in Canada. Amongst those of working age, there was a 118% increase from 1996. By 2008, the intake of non-permanent immigrants, had overtaken the intake of permanent immigrants. In order to hire foreign workers, Canadian employers must acquire a Labour Market Impact Assessment administered by Employment and Social Development Canada.. Green card workers are individuals who have requested and received legal permanent residence in the United States from the government and who intend to work in the United States on a permanent basis; the United States’ Diversity Immigrant Visa Lottery program authorizes up to 50,000 immigrant visas to be granted each year. This help facilitate foreign nationals with low rates of immigration to the United States a chance to participate in a random drawing for the possibility of obtaining an immigration visa.

In Nazi Germany, from 1940–42, Organization Todt began its reliance on guest workers, military internees, Zivilarbeiter and Hilfswillige POW workers. The great migration phase of labor migrants in the 20th century began in Germany during the 1950s, as the sovereign Germany since 1955 due to repeated pressure from NATO partners yielded to the request for closure of the so-called'Anwerbe' Agreement; the initial plan was a rotation principle: a temporary stay, followed by a return to their homeland. The rotation principle proved inefficient for the industry, because the experienced workers were replaced by inexperienced ones; the companies asked for legislation to extend the residence permits. Many of these foreign workers were followed by their families in the following period and stayed forever; until the 1970s, more than four million migrant workers and their families came to Germany like this from the Mediterranean countries of Italy, the former Yugoslavia and Turkey. Since about 1990, came for the disintegration of the Soviet bloc and the enlargement of the European Union and guest workers from Eastern Europe to Western Europe Sometimes, a host country sets up a program in order to invite guest workers, as did the Federal Republic of Germany from 1955 until 1973, when over one million guest workers arrived from Italy and Turkey.

The underestimation of the required integration services by the state and the society of the host countries, but by the migrants themselves. Switzerland's transformation into a country of immigration was not until after the accelerated industrialization in the second half of the 19th century. Switzerland was no longer a purely rural Alpine area but became a European vanguard in various industries at that time, first of textile also the mechanical and chemical industries. Since the middle of the 19th century German academics, self-employed and craftsmen, but Italians, who found a job in science, industry and infrastructure construction migrated to Switzerland. In Asia, some countries in East and Southeast Asia offer workers, their destinations include Japan, South Korea, Hong Kong, Singapore and Malaysia. In 1973, an oil boom in the Persian Gulf region, created an unprecedented demand for labor in the oil and industrial sectors. Development demanded a labor force; this demand was met by foreign workers those from the Arab states, with a shift to those from Asia-Pacific countries.

A rise in the standards of living for citizens of Middle Eastern countries created a demand for domestic workers in the home. Since the 1970s, foreign workers have become a large percentage of the population in most nations in the Persian Gulf region. Growing competition with nationals in the job sector, along with complaints regarding treatment of foreign workers, have led to rising tensions between the national and foreign populations in these nations. Remittances are becoming a prominent source of external funding for countries that contribute foreign workers to the countries of the GCC. On average, the top recipients globally are India, the Philippines, Bangladesh. In 2001, $72.3 billion was returned as remittances to the countries of origin of foreign workers, equivalent to 1.3% of the world GDP. The source of income remains beneficial as remittances are more stable that private capital flows. Despite fluctuations in the

Yang Jih-sung

Yang Jih-sung was a Taiwanese forensic scientist who became known as "Taiwan's Sherlock Holmes" for a career that spanned nearly five decades. Born in Miaoli County to a family of Hakka descent on 23 November 1927, Yang earned a degree from the National Taiwan University College of Medicine. At his graduation, Yang was the only member of his class to have been trained in forensics, a field he sought to pursue after seeing his brother jailed due to a coerced confession and a friend's subsequent wrongful conviction on charges of theft. Yang solved his first case while still a student in 1949. Due to Yang's efforts, the survivor of a suspected double suicide by hanging admitted to murdering his girlfriend and forging a suicide note, he assisted in solving the 1977 death of Chang Ming-fong. Suspect Lin Hsien-kun sexually assaulted Chang before killing and dismembering the victim, resulting in Taiwan's first homicide involving dismemberment; the 1990 death of Iguchi Mariko remained unsolved until the next year, when the body was discovered and Yang joined the case.

For his work, the University of Tokyo granted Yang an honorary doctorate. In 1993, Yang found that Republic of China Marine Corps Captain Yin Ching-feng had been killed before an unknown suspect attempted to cover up Yin's death by throwing the body into the ocean; the investigation launched by Yin's murder subsequently uncovered the La Fayette-class frigate scandal which dated back to 1991. One of Yang's children, Yang Wen-hsien participated in a new investigation into the Yin murder. Yang Jih-sung was called to investigate the 1997 murder of Pai Hsiao-yen, retired the next year. Over the course of his career, Yang Jih-sung handled over 30,000 bodies and was compared to Sherlock Holmes and Bao Zheng, he was known for his refusal to wear protective gear on the job. In retirement, Yang became a consultant for the Institute of Forensic Medicine. In 2004, he was named to a commission convened to investigate the 3-19 shooting incident. Yang died of colon cancer at Cathay General Hospital in Taipei on his 84th birthday in 2011