Parliamentary sovereignty is a concept in the constitutional law of some parliamentary democracies. It holds that the legislative body has absolute sovereignty and is supreme over all other government institutions, including executive or judicial bodies, it holds that the legislative body may change or repeal any previous legislation and so it is not bound by written law or by precedent. In some countries, parliamentary sovereignty may be contrasted with separation of powers, which limits the legislature's scope to general law-making, judicial review, where laws passed by the legislature may be declared invalid in certain circumstances. Many states have sovereign legislatures, including the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Iceland, Jamaica, Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands. Parliament means, in the mouth of a lawyer the King, the House of Lords, the House of Commons: these three bodies acting together may be aptly described as the "King in Parliament", constitute Parliament.
The principle of Parliamentary sovereignty means neither more nor less than this, namely that Parliament thus defined has, under the English constitution, the right to make or unmake any law whatever: and, that no person or body is recognised by the law of England as having a right to override or set aside the legislation of Parliament. During the 17th century in England, a notion developed that Parliament shared in sovereignty with the King, based on an erroneous notion of the history of Parliament, it was not until the changing of the Coronation Oath in the Coronation Oath Act 1688 as part of the Glorious Revolution that Parliament was recognised as part of the constitutional structure, with laws being considered to emanate from Parliament and not just the King. The Bill of Rights 1689 and Claim of Right Act 1689 were passed the following year which asserted certain rights of the parliaments of England and Scotland and limited the powers of the monarch. Furthermore, in 1698 Parliament created the Civil List, a financial arrangement that left the monarch reliant on Parliament for income.
After 1689 English parliamentary supremacy became evident in the relation of the English parliament to those of Scotland and Ireland. The Act of Settlement 1701 made a presumption upon Scotland: the Scots retaliated with the Act of Security 1704, countered by the Alien Act 1705: the issue was settled by the Union of the parliaments of England and Scotland in 1707 which created a new British parliament, though "in essence it was just an extension of the English parliament"; however the truth of that comment legally under the Treaty of Union as implemented by the Acts of Union of 1706/7, the English and Scottish Parliaments had given up their rights and sovereignty to the new, Union Parliament. It is more correct to say that they had “pooled” their sovereignty, it is arguable whether the concept of parliamentary supremacy arose from the Acts of Union 1707 or was a doctrine that evolved thereafter. The autonomy of the Parliament of Ireland came under attack and the Declaratory Act 1720 made the Irish parliament a dependency.
The so-called Constitution of 1782 removed British parliamentary supremacy over Ireland for a short period but the Irish parliament was merged with Britain's in the Acts of Union 1800. The doctrine of parliamentary supremacy may be summarized in three points: Parliament can make laws concerning anything. No Parliament can bind a future parliament. A valid Act of Parliament cannot be questioned by the court. Parliament is the supreme lawmaker; some scholars and judges have questioned the traditional view that Parliament cannot bind itself, arguing that it can impose procedural restrictions on itself, since the legislature must be constituted and regulated by legal rules. The notion of parliamentary sovereignty began to be challenged with the Parliament Act 1911 which changed the nature of what was meant by parliament, as Dicey regretfully noted in the Introduction to the 8th edition of his Introduction to the Study of the Law of the Constitution, but that while the reality was now Cabinet and political party were supreme, in law Parliament was still sovereign albeit that "the share of sovereignty" of the Commons had increased.
European law does not recognize the British concept of parliamentary supremacy. The UK courts recognize the supremacy of EU law on those subjects where the EU can legislate. However, this supremacy derives from its successors; the European Union Act 2011 declared that EU law is directly applicable only through the European Communities Act or another act fulfilling the same role. Parliament legislated in 2018 to repeal the 1972 Act, in 2020 the United Kingdom ceased to be a member of the EU, demonstrating that the previous Parliament had not bound its successor. Parliamentary supremacy is cited by contemporary American legal historians as the reason English law did not develop due process in the American sense, it is argued to be integral to the way in which England's approach to rights and liberties evolved. The doctrine of parliamentary supremacy was demonstrated in, for example, the War Damage Act 1965. In English Law, it was upheld in 2005 by Lord Bingham in the case of R v Attorney General: The bedrock of the British Constitution is … the Supremacy of the Crown in Parliamen
Torture Chamber is a 2013 horror film written and directed by Dante Tomaselli. The movie first released on October 10, 2013 at the Sitges Film Festival and was released onto DVD on January 28, 2014; the film stars Vincent Pastore, Christie Sanford, Lynn Lowry, follows a family trying to save a teen boy from demonic possession. This marks a change from Tomaselli's usual horror formula, as prior films showed adults in the role of monster. 13-year-old burn victim Jimmy Morgan isn't happy. When he starts exhibiting strange powers, he begins to use them on all of the people that he believes has looked down upon him or did him wrong, his brother Mark tries to use his skills as a Catholic priest to save Jimmy, but is wildly unsuccessful. Not only does Jimmy manage to escape, but he transforms the town's children into a bloodthirsty army that drags its prey to an abandoned castle. There Jimmy and the children torture their captives in disturbing and horrific ways. Vincent Pastore as Dr. Fiore Christie Sanford as Mrs. Morgan Lynn Lowry as Lisa Marino Carmen LoPorto as Jimmy Morgan Ron Millkie as Dr. Thompson Richard D. Busser as Father Mark Morgan Ellie Pettit as Heather Steven Lobman as Andy Raine Brown as Hope Danny Lopes as Ralph Critical reception for Torture Chamber has been positive, with many reviewers stating that the film would have a limited appeal to viewers expecting a more mainstream horror film.
Fearnet and Ain't It Cool News both criticized the film's acting but praised the film overall, with Fearnet calling it "a messy, sometimes silly horror film that taps into something old-school scary." In contrast, Fangoria's Chris Alexander and AV Maniacs both praised the film's acting, with Alexander stating that the movie "traps its audience in an environment and won’t let them go until it’s finished with them." Official website Torture Chamber on IMDb
Tiffany Granath is an American actress and satellite radio personality. Following graduation from high school, Granath moved to Los Angeles, California to pursue a career in dance and wound up touring with both The Beach Boys and Bette Midler. Tiffany subsequently went on to act in a handful of films and TV shows as well as appear in assorted Playboy videos. Granath was the former host of the Tiffany Granath Show on Playboy Radio; the show was abruptly cancelled in 2013. Tiffany can now be heard via Mobile App Spreaker live Mondays and Wednesdays 11am west 2pm east. Fridays the show broadcasts via the web from California at the TradioV studios along with producers Marie "The Dirt" Lanza and Barry Funkhouser. Replays of the show may be heard anytime on iHeartRadio. Tiffany Granath's official website Tiffany on Twitter Spreaker Mobile app Tiffany Granath's MySpace Place Tiffany Granath on IMDb
The Montmorency series, or Montmorency, is a series of five young adult historical crime novels written by Eleanor Updale and first published from 2003 to 2013. It features Montmorency, an English ex-convict turned gentleman detective and spy, for whom both the first book and the series are named; the first book is set in London in its sewers, London remains a primary setting. The latest novel was released in 2013 after a six-year break. Montmorency, an ex-convict-turned-gentleman, works for the British government as a spy Scarper, Montmorency's thief alter-ego Lord George Fox-Selwyn Dr Robert Farcett Cissie Mr Longman Lady B Mrs Evans Vi Evans Freakshow, publicly known as'The Hopping Horror' London, England, 1875; the main character falls through a glass roof onto a grinding machine below while fleeing from the police. Doctor Robert Farcett, hoping to prove himself an accomplished doctor by working on the criminal's complex wounds, saves the thief's life by performing surgery on him. Farcett continues to work on the thief after he is imprisoned and given the temporary name "Prisoner 493".
The prisoner has no name other than "Montmorency", the name on the bag he had when he was captured. He adopts this name and begins to craft a persona to match. During his sentence, Montmorency becomes a chief exhibit at the Scientific Society, it is at one of these gatherings that Montmorency comes across Sir Joseph Bazalgette, the planner and supervisor of the ongoing London sewer project. Montmorency realises, he has high hopes for living as a gentlemen by selling the expensive items he could steal via the sewers. Montmorency realises that rich people do not smell like sewer water or wear ratty clothes, he finds himself in need of an accomplice—a fellow thief with knowledge and secrecy to perform the robberies, he develops a second identity—Scarper—to mask his true identity. Scarper, the thief, poses as a servant to the wealthy Montmorency. Montmorency is released after three years in prison. At this point, all communications between Dr Farcett and Montmorency cease. Scarper accomplishes many robberies, is never caught.
During this time, Scarper rents a room in the slums to stash the valuable goods. The place he stays is run by Vi Evans, who becomes one of Montmorency's close friends. Meanwhile, Montmorency rents a room out at the Marimion Hotel; the robberies committed by Scarper make the papers. The police pick up a man named "Freakshow", a friend of Montmorency's from his prison days, pin Scarper's robberies on him, he is hanged for Scarper's crimes. The hanging becomes a great source of guilt for Montmorency/Scarper. Outside the Marimion, Montmorency saves George Fox-Selwyn from a carriage accident, he and Fox-Selwyn hit it off and they become friends, after a bet forces him to put all of his criminal skills to good use breaking into the Mauramanian Embassy to spy for information, Fox-Selwyn gives Montmorency a job as a spy for the British government. His first assignment is to break into the Mauramanian embassy and listen for information that could prevent European war, which earns him a permanent position in the British government.
Montmorency sheds the Scarper persona and returns all the stolen goods that remain in his possession, resolving to be an honest man. Five years after the first book ended, the ex-thief and liar, Lord George Fox-Selwyn have long become established as undercover agents for the British Crown. Through their numerous dangerous exploits in the far reaches of war-torn Europe, the two men have come to depend on each other for their sacred lives; the book begins in the aftermath of dangerous intelligence gathering trip in Turkey, where George Fox-Selwyn has come to note that among fine art pieces and Turkish rugs, Montmorency has picked up a strange Turkish drug. By the time the agents return to London, Montmorency is addicted to the drug; the drug has affected his character and influenced his judgment landing Fox-Selwyn and himself in danger as well as leaking state secrets. Meanwhile, Dr Robert Farcett accidentally kills one of his patients in an unnecessary gall bladder removal, in front of a live audience in an operating amphitheatre.
Sickened that his ethics have been overshadowed by his ambition, Farcett resolves to leave his practice. With Farcett about to give up medicine, Montmorency near death from his drug addiction, Fox-Selwyn decides that the only way to save them both is to reunite the two men. Fox-Selwyn invites his both Farcett and Montmorency to his family castle in Scotland, owned by his brother Augustus Fox-Selwyn. By bringing both men to the open air of Scotland, he hopes that Farcett will be able to cure Montmorency of his addiction, regain his own confidence in medicine. Arriving in Scotland's Glendarvie Castle, Montmorency suffers from severe drug withdrawal. Conscious, he is reintroduced to Farcett who helps rehabilitate him from the addiction. From Farcett's accounts on Prisoner 493 and Fox-Selwyn's portrayal of Montmorency, the men begin to gain a complete picture of Montmorency's bizarre past; as the three friends spend time in Scotland, the bombing of a London train station summons Fox-Selwyn back to England.
Too weak to travel, Montmorency joins Farcett in escorting a young maid named Morag from the castle to Tarimond, a remote island in the Scottish Isles, following the death of her younger brother. On the island Tarimond, of Doctor Farcett is mystified by an unknown agent, killing an entire generation of children. Working with Maggie Goudie, the island's school teacher and midwife he tries to get to the heart
The 2016–17 season is Eibar's 3rd consecutive season in La Liga after finishing in 14th place the previous season to ensure another year in the Spanish top flight. On 5 May, Eibar announced their first international tour with visits to Philadelphia and Las Vegas, Nevada in the United States; the tour objectives as stated by the club were, "to improve the brand image, the internationalization of the club, bring the club to shareholders and club members in this country and open up possibilities for sponsorship mediums in the United States." On 23 May, Eibar announced the election of Amaia Gorostiza as the new president and the first female to hold the post for the club. In the day, the first match of the US Tour was held at Richard Wackar Stadium at Rowan University in Glassboro, New Jersey, against the Philadelphia Fury of the American Soccer League; the match ended 1–1 with a goal from Borja Bastón in the 44th minute. The team played their next match at Sam Boyd Stadium in Las Vegas versus the New York Cosmos of the North American Soccer League.
The match ended 2 -- 2 with goals from Antonio Luna, respectively. On 20 July, Eibar announced a partnership agreement with current Segunda División B club UD Logroñés; the agreement will see Eibar send a minimum of three and a maximum of six players out on loan to Logroñés for the next three seasons. On 19 August, Eibar opened the league season against Deportivo La Coruña at the Estadio Riazor. After scoring first with a goal from Iván Ramis, the game ended 2–1 in favor of the hosts. On 27 August, Eibar earned its first league victory in the home opener, beating Valencia 1–0 with a goal from Pedro León. On 11 September, after the FIFA international break, Eibar defeated Granada at Los Cármenes 2–1 with goals from Pedro León and Sergi Enrich. On 17 September, Eibar claimed a 1–1 draw against Sevilla with nine men after goalkeeper Yoel Rodríguez and captain Dani García both saw red cards. On 20 September, down in La Rosaleda, Eibar lost 2–1 against Málaga with the lone goal coming from La Liga debutante Nano.
On 24 September, Eibar defeated Real Sociedad with a scoreline of 2–0, making it the third consecutive victory in Ipurua over their Basque neighbors in the Primera División. On 2 October, Eibar earned a historic point and a first goal at the Santiago Bernabéu Stadium when they earned a 1–1 draw against European Champions Real Madrid. Fran Rico opened the scoring in the sixth minute with a header in the box for the historic goal. On 17 October, Eibar loss their first home match 2–3 against Osasuna, with goals from Gonzalo Escalante and Sergi Enrich. On 30 October, Eibar fought back to earn all 3 points against Villarreal. After falling a goal back, the Armeros won 2 -- 1 with goals by Ramis and Pedro León. On 6 November, Eibar lost on the road in added time on a penalty to Las Palmas with a 0–1 scoreline. On 19 November, Eibar returned home to a 1–0 victory over Celta Vigo. Fran Rico scored Eibar's 100th goal in La Liga play. On 25 November, Eibar thumped Real Betis 3–1 to continue their hot home streak.
On 29 November, in the 2016–17 Copa del Rey Round of 32 first leg encounter, Eibar took a 2–1 advantage back home over Sporting Gijon with goals from Bebé and Rubén Peña. Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Kickoff times are in CEST or CET. Win Draw Loss Kickoff times are in CEST or CET. Win Draw Loss Kickoff times are in CET or CEST. Win Draw Loss Club's official website
Anthony Ian Clark is an English badminton player. Clark competed in badminton at the 2004 Summer Olympics in men's doubles with partner Nathan Robertson, they defeated Sudket Prapakamol and Patapol Ngernsrisuk of Thailand in the first round were defeated in the round of 16 by Eng Hian and Flandy Limpele of Indonesia. Clark reached the mixed doubles final at the 2006 IBF World Championships together with Donna Kellogg, losing the final against Gail Emms and Nathan Robertson, he lost the men's doubles final in the same event together with Robert Blair. Living in Coalville, Clark represented Great Britain at the 2008 Summer Olympics in the mixed doubles badminton event. Anthony Clark at BWF.tournamentsoftware.com Badminton England Profile