Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000
The soybean, or soya bean, is a species of legume native to East Asia grown for its edible bean, which has numerous uses. Fat-free soybean meal is a significant and cheap source of protein for animal feeds and many packaged meals. For example, soybean products, such as textured vegetable protein, are ingredients in many meat and dairy substitutes; the beans contain significant amounts of dietary minerals and B vitamins. Soy vegetable oil, used in food and industrial applications, is another product of processing the soybean crop. Traditional unfermented food uses of soybeans include soy milk, from which tofu and tofu skin are made. Fermented soy foods include soy sauce, fermented bean paste and tempeh. "Soy" originated as a corruption of the Japanese names for soy sauce. The etymology of the genus, comes from Linnaeus; when naming the genus, Linnaeus observed that one of the species within the species had a sweet root. Based on the sweetness, the Greek word for sweet, glykós, was Latinized; the genus name is not related to the amino acid glycine.
The genus Glycine Willd. is divided into two subgenera and Soja. The subgenus Soja F. J. Herm. Includes the cultivated soybean, Glycine max Merr. and the wild soybean, Glycine soja Sieb. & Zucc. Both species are annuals. Glycine soja is the wild ancestor of Glycine max, grows wild in China, Japan and Russia; the subgenus Glycine consists of at least 25 wild perennial species: for example, Glycine canescens F. J. Herm. and G. tomentella Hayata, both found in Australia and Papua New Guinea. Perennial soybean is now a widespread pasture crop in the tropics. Like some other crops of long domestication, the relationship of the modern soybean to wild-growing species can no longer be traced with any degree of certainty, it is a cultural variety with a large number of cultivars. Like most plants, soybeans grow in distinct morphological stages as they develop from seeds into mature plants; the first stage of growth is germination, a method which first becomes apparent as a seed's radicle emerges. This is the first stage of root growth and occurs within the first 48 hours under ideal growing conditions.
The first photosynthetic structures, the cotyledons, develop from the hypocotyl, the first plant structure to emerge from the soil. These cotyledons both act as leaves and as a source of nutrients for the immature plant, providing the seedling nutrition for its first 7 to 10 days; the first true leaves develop as a pair of single blades. Subsequent to this first pair, mature nodes form compound leaves with three blades. Mature trifoliolate leaves, having three to four leaflets per leaf, are between 6–15 cm long and 2–7 cm broad. Under ideal conditions, stem growth continues. Before flowering, roots can grow 1.9 cm per day. If rhizobia are present, root nodulation begins by the time. Nodulation continues for 8 weeks before the symbiotic infection process stabilizes; the final characteristics of a soybean plant are variable, with factors such as genetics, soil quality, climate affecting its form. Flowering is triggered by day length beginning once days become shorter than 12.8 hours. This trait is variable however, with different varieties reacting differently to changing day length.
Soybeans form inconspicuous, self-fertile flowers which are borne in the axil of the leaf and are white, pink or purple. Depending of the soybean variety, node growth may cease. Strains that continue nodal development after flowering are termed "indeterminates" and are best suited to climates with longer growing seasons. Soybeans drop their leaves before the seeds are mature; the fruit is a hairy pod that grows in clusters of three to five, each pod is 3–8 cm long and contains two to four seeds 5–11 mm in diameter. Soybean seeds come in a wide variety sizes and hull colors such as black, brown and green. Variegated and bicolored seed coats are common; the hull of the mature bean is hard, water-resistant, protects the cotyledon and hypocotyl from damage. If the seed coat is cracked, the seed will not germinate; the scar, visible on the seed coat, is called the hilum and at one end of the hilum is the micropyle, or small opening in the seed coat which can allow the absorption of water for sprouting.
Some seeds such as soybeans containing high levels of protein can undergo desiccation, yet survive and revive after water absorption. A. Carl Leopold began studying this capability at the Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research at Cornell University in the mid-1980s, he found soybeans and corn to have a range of soluble carbohydrates protecting the seed's cell viability. Patents were awarded to him in the early 1990s on techniques for protecting biological membranes and proteins in the dry state. Like many legumes, soybeans can fix atmospheric nitrogen, thanks to symbiotic bacteria from the Rhizobia group. Together and soybean oil content account for 56% of dry soybeans by weight; the remainder consists of 9 % water and 5 % ash. Soybeans comprise 8% seed coat or hull, 90% cotyledons and 2% hypocotyl axis or germ. 100 grams of raw soybeans supply 446 calories and are 9% water, 30% carbohydrates, 20% total fat and 36% p
Metro Inc. is a Canadian food retailer operating in the provinces of Quebec and Ontario. The company is based in Quebec. Metro is the third largest grocer in Canada, after Loblaw Companies Sobeys. There are 365 namesake locations in Quebec. Super C is the discount supermarket division operated in Quebec with 72 stores, averaging 4,000 m2; these stores contribute to C$1 billion of Metro's annual sales. In Ontario, Metro has 119 discount supermarkets under the Food Basics banner, which are similar to the Super C stores. Large Metro stores in Quebec operate under the Metro Plus name. Metro operates 142 small groceries under the Marché Richelieu banner. In November 2007, Metro reported a 9.3% increase in earnings for the fiscal year ending September 29, 2007, making $276.6 million in 2007 compared to $253 million in 2006. In 2011 Metro acquired a majority stake in Marché Adonis, one of Quebec's biggest ethnic food retailers specializing in Mediterranean food; the company was founded in 1947 in Quebec by Rolland Jeanneau.
Many independent grocery stores joined the company to form Magasins Lasalle Stores Ltée. In 1952, Magasins Lasalles Stores Ltée change its name to Épiceries Lasalle Groceteria; the company had 43 affiliated grocery stores at the time. In 1955, they were the company with a revenue of $2 million; the company gained fame in 1956 through an advertisement in La Presse which showed turkeys sold for 39 cents. That year, mayor Jean Drapeau was talking about implementing in Montreal a rapid transit system to be called the Montreal Metro; this inspired the company to create a division called Metro. Other grocery stores joined the company bringing its number of stores to 73 in 1957 with revenue of $10 million; because of the success of the Metro division, the company renamed itself Metro-Lasalle in 1963. In 1972, Metro-Lasalle changed its name to Metro-Ltée. Metro merged with the Marché Richelieu grocery chain in 1975 to become Groupe Metro-Richelieu Inc in 1976. In the early 1980s, Metro went through harder times due to fierce competition from Provigo and the recession.
Metro merged with Epiciers Unis Inc. and took on the name Metro-Richelieu Inc.. During the rest of the 1980s, it fared better and entered the Montreal Stock Exchange in 1986. Metro suffered from the early 1990s recession. A restructuring plan was established, a new logo was created and changes were brought in the management team. Metro acquired 48 of 112 Steinberg supermarkets when that company went bankrupt in 1992; these stores were rebranded as Super Metro stores. Metro entered the Toronto Stock Exchange in 1993, it acquired Loeb Stores from Loblaws in 1999. The Metro Plus banner was established in the early 2000s taking the former spaces of Canadian Tire, relocated to standalone locations; some of the stores were converted to Super C. The Super C stores in Ontario were converted to Food Basics. In 2009, the company converted all Loeb stores to Metro. On July 19, 2005, Inc. announced that it had reached an agreement with The Great Atlantic and Pacific Tea Company, Inc. and its subsidiary, A&P Luxembourg S.à.r.l. to acquire all of the issued and outstanding common shares of A&P Canada, for an acquisition price of $1.7 billion, consisting of $1.2 billion in cash and $500 million in the form of treasury shares of Metro.
The purchase was completed on August 15, 2005, after beating out Sobeys in a bidding war, Metro now has a network in Quebec and Ontario of 573 conventional and discount food stores, 256 pharmacies. On August 7, 2008, Metro announced it would invest $200 million consolidating the company's conventional food stores under the Metro banner. Over a period of 15 months, all Dominion, A&P, the Barn and Ultra Food & Drug banners were converted to the Metro name. Food Basics stores were not affected. Metro now holds the second largest market share in the food distribution and retailing business in Quebec and Ontario with nearly $11 billion in sales and more than 65,000 employees, its stores operate under the banners Metro, Metro Plus, Super C, Food Basics, Marché Ami, Les 5 Saisons and Marché Adonis. Its pharmacies operate under the banners Brunet, The Pharmacy, Clini-Plus, Drug Basics. In 2017, Metro acquired Miss Fresh. In May 2018, Metro closed a $4.5 billion acquisition of the Quebec drug chain Jean Coutu Group, making it one of Canada’s largest retailers and distributors of food and drugs.
Stores under the Metro and Metro Plus banners offer one of the following loyalty programs: Stores in Ontario, excluding those in Thunder Bay, participate in the Air Miles program. Customers earn 1 reward mile for every $20 spent cumulatively each week. Points may be redeemed for a variety including in-store grocery redemptions. Due to Metro's Ontario stores joining Air Miles after Safeway, which has locations in Thunder Bay, Metro's locations in that city have their own loyalty program called Thunder Bucks. Similar to Air Miles, customers earn 1 Thunder Point for every $20 spent, bonus-points promotions are equivalent to those offered for Air Miles in the rest of the province. However, points are automatically redeemed for gift certificates at the rate of 125 points per $20 gift certificate. For similar reasons, locations in Quebec have metro & moi. Customers earn 1 point for every $1 spent.
Costco Wholesale Corporation, doing business as Costco, is an American multinational corporation which operates a chain of membership-only warehouse clubs. As of 2015, Costco was the second largest retailer in the world after Walmart, as of 2016, Costco was the world's largest retailer of choice and prime beef, organic foods, rotisserie chicken, wine. Costco is ranked #15 on the Fortune 500 rankings of the largest United States corporations by total revenue; the company is planning to open a warehouse in China in 2019. Costco's worldwide headquarters are in Washington, a suburb east of Seattle. Through mergers, Costco's corporate history dates back to 1976, when its former competitor Price Club was founded in San Diego, California; as of March 7, 2019, Costco had a total of 770 warehouses: 531 in the United States and 4 in Puerto Rico, 100 in Canada, 39 in Mexico, 28 in the United Kingdom, 26 in Japan, 15 in South Korea, 13 in Taiwan, 10 in Australia, 2 in Spain, 1 in Iceland and France. Costco's history began with Sol Price and his son, opening the first Price Club warehouse on July 12, 1976, on Morena Boulevard in San Diego, thus giving birth to a new concept: a retail warehouse club.
The Price family placed Price Club Warehouse #1 inside a series of old airplane hangars owned by Howard Hughes. Costco opened its first warehouse in 1983 in Seattle on September 15, by James Sinegal and Jeffrey H. Brotman. Sinegal had started in wholesale distribution by working for Sol Price at FedMart and Brotman, an attorney from an old Seattle retailing family, had been involved in retail distribution from an early age, he began his retail involvement as a grocery bagger. A second store opened in Portland in October, a third in Spokane in December 1983. In 1993, Costco and Price Club agreed to merge operations themselves after Price declined an offer from Sam Walton and Walmart to merge Price Club with their warehouse store chain, Sam's Club. Costco's business model and size were similar to those of Price Club, which made the merger more natural for both companies; the combined company took the name PriceCostco, memberships became universal, meaning that a Price Club member could use their membership to shop at Costco and vice versa.
PriceCostco boasted 206 locations generating $16 billion in annual sales. PriceCostco was led by executives from both companies, but the Price brothers soon left the company in 1994 to form Price Enterprises, a warehouse club chain in Central America and the Caribbean unrelated to the current Costco. In 1997, the company changed its name to Costco Wholesale Corporation and all remaining Price Club locations were rebranded as Costco; as of November 2018 Costco has 768 warehouses worldwide as shown below: 533 in 44 U. S. States & Puerto Rico 100 in 9 Canadian provinces 39 in Mexico 28 in the United Kingdom 26 in Japan 15 in Korea 13 in Taiwan 10 in Australian states and the Australian Capital Territory 2 in Spain 1 in Iceland 1 in France On April 26, 2012, CNBC premiered its documentary, The Costco Craze: Inside the Warehouse Giant. In 2014, Costco was the third largest retailer in the United States; that year Costco announced plans to open an online store in China using Alibaba Group. In the United States, Costco's main competitors operating membership warehouses are Sam's Club and BJ's Wholesale Club.
Costco employs more than 205,000 part-time employees worldwide. In 2016, Costco had 85 million members. In 2017, Costco had 90.3 million members. Costco was the first company to grow from zero to $3 billion in sales in under six years. For the fiscal year ending on August 31, 2012, the company's sales totaled $97.062 billion, with $1.709 billion net profit. Costco is 18th on the 2015 Fortune 500; the ACSI named Costco number one in the specialty retail store industry with a score of 84 in 2014. From December 2013, Costco's board of directors was chaired by co-founder Jeffrey H. Brotman and included James Sinegal, co-founder and director, two officers of the company: president/CEO W. Craig Jelinek and CFO Richard A. Galanti. On August 1, 2017, Jeffrey Brotman died; as of August 2017, James Sinegal and W. Craig Jelinek remain on the board. For the fiscal year 2018, Costco reported earnings of US$3.134 billion, with an annual revenue of US$141.576 billion, an increase of 9.7% over the previous fiscal cycle.
Costco's shares traded at over $205 per share, its market capitalization was valued at over US$95.7 billion in October 2018. Costco focuses on selling products at low prices at high volume; these goods are bulk-packaged and marketed to large families and businesses. Furthermore, Costco does not carry multiple brands or varieties where the item is the same except when it has a house brand to sell under the Kirkland Signature label; this results in a high volume of sales for the brand in question, allowing further reductions in price and marketing costs. A typical Costco warehouse carries only 4,000 distinct products, while a typical Walmart Supercenter carries 140,000 products. If Costco feels the wholesale price of a product is too high, they will refuse to stock the product. For example, in November 2009, Costco announced that it would stop selling Coca-Cola products because the soft-drink maker refused to lower its wholesale prices. Costco resumed selling Coca-Cola products the following month.
Costco saves money by not stocking extra bags or packing materials.
Cheese is a dairy product derived from milk, produced in a wide range of flavors and forms by coagulation of the milk protein casein. It comprises proteins and fat from milk the milk of cows, goats, or sheep. During production, the milk is acidified, adding the enzyme rennet causes coagulation; the solids are pressed into final form. Some cheeses have molds throughout. Most cheeses melt at cooking temperature. Over a thousand types of cheese from various countries are produced, their styles and flavors depend on the origin of the milk, whether they have been pasteurized, the butterfat content, the bacteria and mold, the processing, aging. Herbs, spices, or wood smoke may be used as flavoring agents; the yellow to red color of many cheeses, such as Red Leicester, is produced by adding annatto. Other ingredients may be added to some cheeses, such as black pepper, chives or cranberries. For a few cheeses, the milk is curdled by adding acids such as lemon juice. Most cheeses are acidified to a lesser degree by bacteria, which turn milk sugars into lactic acid the addition of rennet completes the curdling.
Vegetarian alternatives to rennet are available. Cheesemakers near a dairy region may benefit from fresher, lower-priced milk, lower shipping costs. Cheese is valued for its portability, long life, high content of fat, protein and phosphorus. Cheese is more compact and has a longer shelf life than milk, although how long a cheese will keep depends on the type of cheese. Speaking, hard cheeses, such as Parmesan last longer than soft cheeses, such as Brie or goat's milk cheese; the long storage life of some cheeses when encased in a protective rind, allows selling when markets are favorable. There is some debate as to the best way to store cheese, but some experts say that wrapping it in cheese paper provides optimal results. Cheese paper is coated in a porous plastic on the inside, the outside has a layer of wax; this specific combination of plastic on the inside and wax on the outside protects the cheese by allowing condensation on the cheese to be wicked away while preventing moisture from within the cheese escaping.
A specialist seller of cheese is sometimes known as a cheesemonger. Becoming an expert in this field requires some formal education and years of tasting and hands-on experience, much like becoming an expert in wine or cuisine; the cheesemonger is responsible for all aspects of the cheese inventory: selecting the cheese menu, receiving and ripening. The word cheese comes from Latin caseus, from which the modern word casein is derived; the earliest source is from the proto-Indo-European root *kwat-, which means "to ferment, become sour". The word cheese comes from cīese or cēse. Similar words are shared by other West Germanic languages—West Frisian tsiis, Dutch kaas, German Käse, Old High German chāsi—all from the reconstructed West-Germanic form *kāsī, which in turn is an early borrowing from Latin; the Online Etymological Dictionary states that "cheese" comes from "Old English cyse, cese...from West Germanic *kasjus, from Latin caseus "cheese"." The Online Etymological Dictionary states. Compare fromage.
Old Norse ostr, Danish ost, Swedish ost are related to Latin ius "broth, juice.'"When the Romans began to make hard cheeses for their legionaries' supplies, a new word started to be used: formaticum, from caseus formatus, or "molded cheese". It is from this word that the French fromage, standard Italian formaggio, Catalan formatge, Breton fourmaj, Occitan fromatge are derived. Of the Romance languages, Portuguese, Romanian and Southern Italian dialects use words derived from caseus; the word cheese itself is employed in a sense that means "molded" or "formed". Head cheese uses the word in this sense; the term "cheese" is used as a noun and adjective in a number of figurative expressions. Cheese is an ancient food. There is no conclusive evidence indicating where cheesemaking originated, whether in Europe, Central Asia or the Middle East, but the practice had spread within Europe prior to Roman times and, according to Pliny the Elder, had become a sophisticated enterprise by the time the Roman Empire came into being.
Earliest proposed dates for the origin of cheesemaking range from around 8000 BCE, when sheep were first domesticated. Since animal skins and inflated internal organs have, since ancient times, provided storage vessels for a range of foodstuffs, it is probable that the process of cheese making was discovered accidentally by storing milk in a container made from the stomach of an animal, resulting in the milk being turned to curd and whey by the rennet from the stomach. There is a legend—wit
Sobeys Inc. is the second largest food retailer in Canada, with over 1,500 stores operating in Canada under a variety of banners. Headquartered in Stellarton, Nova Scotia, it operates stores in all ten provinces and accumulated sales of more than $24 billion CAD in the fiscal 2017 operating year, it is a wholly owned subsidiary of a Canadian conglomerate. Sobeys was founded in Nova Scotia by John W. Sobey in 1907 as a meat delivery business. In 1924, his son Frank H. Sobey convinced him to expand into a full grocery business, serving the industrial Pictou County region. From that point until his death, Frank was the driving force behind the business. Sobeys opened its first self-serve supermarket in 1949; the chain expanded throughout Atlantic Canada. During most of the second half of the 20th century, it was the region's dominant grocer. In the 1980s, Sobeys expanded into southern Ontario, challenging Loblaws on its "home turf", thereby igniting what came to be a nationwide battle for market supremacy.
Sobeys had significant stakes in New England grocer Hannaford and Quebec grocer Provigo until the 1990s. In 1998, Sobeys became the second-largest grocer in the country after purchasing the Oshawa Group, owners of the IGA franchise across Canada, along with several regional chains in Ontario, in addition to various food service and wholesale companies. In 2001, Sobeys abandoned a two-year $90 million investment in a Enterprise Resource Planning system because of failed project management. In 2002, Sobeys undertook major changes in its store design and customer service policies with the introduction of "Ready to serve"; this initiative was an attempt to emulate the successful moves of the Publix supermarket chain in the southern United States. In 2005, Sobeys lost a bidding war with Quebec-based Metro to acquire A&P Canada, operator of several Ontario supermarket chains; the all-cash offer made by Sobeys was the highest bid for the chain, but the U. S. parent, The Great Atlantic and Pacific Tea Company accepted Metro's $1.7 billion cash-and-stock offer.
It is suggested that the Sobey family was unwilling to cede any control to the Tengelmann Group, the ultimate parent company of A&P at the time. Though Sobeys remained the second largest grocery chain in Canada, it was the third place chain in most of the provinces outside the Atlantic region, the successful purchase of A&P Canada would have helped to bolster its position in Ontario. In 2007, Sobeys announced a $260 million takeover offer for the Thrifty Foods chain in British Columbia. In September 2011, Sobeys' wholesale division signed a long-term distribution agreement with American retailer Target for the supply of select food and grocery products to its Canadian stores. In March 2012, Sobeys acquired 236 Shell gas station locations in Atlantic Canada. In June 2013, Sobeys announced the purchase of Safeway's Canadian operations for $5.8 billion, subject to regulatory approval. The acquisition added Safeway's 214 locations located in Western Canada, to its portfolio; as a condition of the deal imposed by the Competition Bureau in October 2013, Sobeys was required to sell 23 of its retail locations to other companies.
Sobeys sold 29 of its locations. Fifteen were sold to Overwaitea Food Group, fourteen were sold to affiliates of Federated Co-operatives for $430 million in total. In June 2014, Sobeys announced that it would, in the wake of the Safeway purchase, close 60 of its "underperforming" locations; the stores affected were in Western Canada, although some in Ontario and the Atlantic region were affected. In 2015, Sobeys acquired the gas units of Co-op Atlantic. In July 2016, Empire Company CEO Marc Poulin abruptly left the company after Sobeys reported a $942.6 million loss, credited to difficulties in integrating the Safeway chain into Sobey's overall operations. The Financial Post reported that changes made by Sobeys, including the discontinuation of its popular loyalty program, the replacement of Safeway's house brands with Sobeys' brands, reports of poorly stocked inventories at Safeway locations, had impacted the chain's customer loyalty. In January 2018, Sobeys announced an agreement with Ocado to open an e-commerce grocery fulfillment centre in Toronto during late 2020.
In contrast, Sobeys-owned Thrifty Foods and IGA use their stores as fulfillment centres for online orders. In late January 2018, Sobeys announced that it would, in the wake of the Safeway purchase, close an additional 10 of its "underperforming" locations; the stores affected are in the Fraser Valley Area of British Columbia in Western Canada, Stores are scheduled to close on May 5 with the exception of one of the ten stores scheduled to close on July 28. Some of the stores affected may reopen as FreshCo; the Sobeys private label lineup has carried several names. Its private label products were introduced under the "Sobeys" name. After its purchase of Oshawa Group, Sobeys dropped'Our Best" in favour of Oshawa's "Our Compliments" brand. In 2005, Sobeys shortened the name to "Compliments". At the same time, it expanded the brand's product lineup to make it more comparable to competing private labels such as Loblaw's President's Choice brand. From 2007 to 2010, Sobeys offered "Compliments Junior", products aimed at children and co-branded with The Walt Disney Company.
In late 2009, lower-price store-brand products were transitioned from "Compliments Value" to the "Signal" brand, used by Sobeys in the 1990s for a similar range of products. After the Oshawa Group merger, Sobeys had dropped that name for to Oshawa's "Smar