Lake Toba is a large natural lake in Indonesia occupying the caldera of a supervolcano. The lake is about 100 kilometres long, 30 kilometres wide, up to 505 metres deep. Located in the middle of the northern part of the Indonesian island of Sumatra, with a surface elevation of about 900 metres, the lake stretches from 2.88°N 98.52°E / 2.88. It is the largest volcanic lake in the world. Lake Toba is the site of a massive supervolcanic eruption estimated at VEI 8 that occurred 69,000 to 77,000 years ago, representing a climate-changing event. Recent advances in dating methods suggest a more accurate identification of 74,000 years ago as the date, it is the largest-known explosive eruption on Earth in the last 25 million years. According to the Toba catastrophe theory, it had global consequences for human populations, it has been accepted that the eruption of Toba led to a volcanic winter with a worldwide decrease in temperature between 3 to 5 °C, up to 15 °C in higher latitudes. Additional studies in Lake Malawi in East Africa show significant amounts of ash being deposited from the Toba eruptions at that great distance, but little indication of a significant climatic effect in East Africa.
On 18 June 2018, Lake Toba was the scene of a ferry disaster. The Toba caldera complex in North Sumatra comprises four overlapping volcanic craters that adjoin the Sumatran "volcanic front". With 100 by 30 km it is the world's largest Quaternary caldera, the fourth and youngest caldera, it intersects the three older calderas. An estimated 2,800 km3 of dense-rock equivalent pyroclastic material, known as the youngest Toba tuff, was released during one of the largest explosive volcanic eruptions in recent geological history. Following this eruption, a resurgent dome formed within the new caldera, joining two half-domes separated by a longitudinal graben. At least four cones, four stratovolcanoes, three craters are visible in the lake; the Tandukbenua cone on the northwestern edge of the caldera has only sparse vegetation, suggesting a young age of several hundred years. The Pusubukit volcano on the south edge of the caldera is solfatarically active; the Toba eruption occurred at. It was the last in a series of at least four caldera-forming eruptions at this location, with earlier calderas having formed around 788,000±2,200 years ago.
This last eruption had an estimated VEI=8, making it the largest-known explosive volcanic eruption within the last 25 million years. Bill Rose and Craig Chesner of Michigan Technological University have estimated that the total amount of material released in the eruption was about 2,800 km3 —about 2,000 km3 of ignimbrite that flowed over the ground, 800 km3 that fell as ash to the west. However, based on the new method, Toba erupted 3,200 km3 of ignimbrite and co-ignimbrite; the pyroclastic flows of the eruption destroyed an area of least 20,000 km2, with ash deposits as thick as 600 m by the main vent. The eruption was large enough to have deposited an ash layer 15 cm thick over all of South Asia. In addition it has been variously calculated that 10,000 million tonnes of sulfurous acid or 6,000 million tonnes of sulfur dioxide were ejected into the atmosphere by the event; the subsequent collapse formed a caldera that filled with water. The island in the center of the lake is formed by a resurgent dome.
The exact year of the eruption is unknown, but the pattern of ash deposits suggests that it occurred during the northern summer because only the summer monsoon could have deposited Toba ashfall in the South China Sea. The eruption lasted two weeks, the ensuing volcanic winter resulted in a decrease in average global temperatures by 3.0 to 3.5 °C for several years. Ice cores from Greenland record a pulse of starkly reduced levels of organic carbon sequestration. Few plants or animals in southeast Asia would have survived, it is possible that the eruption caused a planet-wide die-off. However, the global cooling has been discussed by Self, their conclusion is that the cooling had started before Toba's eruption. This conclusion was supported by Lane and Zielinski who studied the lake-core from Africa and GISP2, they concluded that there was no volcanic winter after Toba eruption and that high H2SO4 deposits do not cause long-term effects. Evidence from studies of mitochondrial DNA suggests that humans may have passed through a genetic bottleneck around this time that reduced genetic diversity below what would be expected given the age of the species.
According to the Toba catastrophe theory, proposed by Stanley H. Ambrose of the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign in 1998, the effects of the Toba eruption may have decreased the size of human populations to only a few tens of thousands of individuals. However, this hypothesis is not accepted because similar effects on other animal species have not been observed, paleoanthropology suggests there was no population bottleneck
Batak is a collective term used to identify a number of related Austronesian ethnic groups predominantly found in North Sumatra, Indonesia who speak Batak languages. The term is used to include the Karo, Simalungun, Toba and Mandailing which are related groups with distinct languages and customs. Linguistic and archaeological evidence indicates that Austronesian speakers first reached Sumatra from Taiwan and the Philippines through Borneo or Java about 2,500 years ago, the Batak descended from these settlers. While the archaeology of southern Sumatra testifies to the existence of neolithic settlers, it seems that the northern part of Sumatra was settled by agriculturalists at a later stage. Although the Batak are considered to be isolated peoples thanks to their location inland, away from the influence of seafaring European colonials, there is evidence that they have been involved in trade with other neighbouring kingdoms for a millennium or more; the Bataks practiced a syncretic religion of Tamil Shaivism and local culture for thousands of years.
The last Batak king who fought valiantly against Dutch imperialists till 1905 was an Indonesian Shaivite king. The Batak may be mentioned in Zhao Rugua's 13th-century Description of the Barbarous People, which refers to a'Ba-ta' dependency of Srivijaya; the Suma Oriental, of the 15th century refers to the kingdom of Bata, bounded by Pasai and the Aru kingdom. Based on this evidence, the Batak may have been involved in procuring important commodities for trade with China from the 8th or 9th centuries and continuing for the next thousand years, with Batak men carrying the products on their backs for sale at ports, it has been suggested that the important port of Barus in Tapanuli was populated by Batak people. A Tamil inscription has been found in Barus, dated to 1088, while contact with Chinese and Tamil traders took place at Kota Cina, a trading town located in what is now northern Medan, established in the 11th century, comprising 10,000 people by the 12th century. Tamil remains have been found on key trade routes to the Batak lands.
These trading opportunities may have caused migration of Batak from Pakpak and Toba to the present-day Karo and Simalungun'frontier' lands, where they were exposed to greater influence from visiting Tamil traders, while the migration of Batak to the Angkola-Mandailing lands may have been prompted by 8th-century Srivijayan demand for camphor. The Karo marga or tribe Sembiring "black one" is believed to originate from their ties with Tamil traders, with specific Sembiring sub-marga, namely Brahmana, Pandia, Meliala, Muham and Tekan all of Indian origin. Tamil influence on Karo religious practices are noted, with the pekualuh secondary cremation ritual being specific to the Karo and Dairi people. Moreover the Pustaka Kembaren, an origin story of the Sembiring Kembaren suggests linkages with Pagarruyung in Minangkabau Highlands. From the 16th century onward, Aceh increased the production of pepper, an important export commodity, in exchange for rice, which grew well in the Batak wetlands. Batak people in different areas cultivated either sawah or ladang, the Toba Batak, most expert in agriculture, must have migrated to meet demand in new areas.
The increasing importance of rice had religious significance, which increased the power of the Batak high priests, who had responsibility for ensuring agricultural success. The Batak speak a variety of related languages, all members of the Austronesian language family. There are two major branches, a northern branch comprising the Pakpak-Dairi, Alas-Kluet and Karo languages, which are similar to each other, a distinct southern branch, comprising three mutually intelligible dialects: Toba and Mandailing. Simalungun is an early offspring of the southern branch; some Simalungun dialects can be understood by speakers of Batak Karo, whereas other dialects of Simalungun can be understood by speakers of Toba. This is due to the existence of a linguistic continuum that blurs the lines between the Batak dialects. Batak dialect still influences the dialects in Medan city today; the Batak possess their own script known as the Surat Batak. The writing has chiefly ceremonial importance within traditional religious ceremonies, was subject to little change for this reason.
It is that the Batak people received their writing system from southern Sumatra. The traditional occupation of the Batak was agriculture and farming; the great lake of Toba provided vast opportunity for freshwater aquaculture since ancient times. Interior rural Batak communities relied on rice farming and other plant and commercial crops, to some extent, acquiring forest products, such as hard wood, plant resin, wild animals; the port of Barus on the western coast of Batak lands has become famous as the source of kapur barus. In ancient times, Batak warriors were recruited by neighboring Malay courts as mercenaries. In the colonial era, the Dutch introduced commercial cash crops, such as coffee, sawit palm oil, rubber, converting some parts of the Batak land into plantations. Throughout the history of modern Indonesia, the Batak community has been a significant contributor. Batak people have filled a wide range of occupations, from running modest tire service workshops to serving as state ministers.
The modern Batak have gravitated towards professions such as attorneys and taxi drivers, engineers and musicians, writers and journalists, economists and military officers. Though the Batak are a minority among the Indonesian population (3.58 %.
Indonesia the Republic of Indonesia, is a country in Southeast Asia, between the Indian and Pacific oceans. It is the world's largest island country, with more than seventeen thousand islands, at 1,904,569 square kilometres, the 14th largest by land area and the 7th largest in combined sea and land area. With over 261 million people, it is the world's 4th most populous country as well as the most populous Muslim-majority country. Java, the world's most populous island, is home to more than half of the country's population; the sovereign state is a constitutional republic with an elected parliament. It has 34 provinces. Jakarta, the country's capital, is the second most populous urban area in the world; the country shares land borders with Papua New Guinea, East Timor, the eastern part of Malaysia. Other neighbouring countries include Singapore, the Philippines, Australia and India's Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Despite its large population and densely populated regions, Indonesia has vast areas of wilderness that support a high level of biodiversity.
The country has abundant natural resources like oil and natural gas, tin and gold. Agriculture produces rice, palm oil, coffee, medicinal plants and rubber. Indonesia's major trading partners are China, United States, Japan and India. History of the Indonesian archipelago has been influenced by foreign powers drawn to its natural resources, it has been an important region for trade since at least the 7th century, when Srivijaya and later Majapahit traded with entities from mainland China and the Indian subcontinent. Local rulers absorbed foreign cultural and political models from the early centuries and Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms flourished. Muslim traders and Sufi scholars brought Islam, while European powers brought Christianity and fought one another to monopolise trade in the Spice Islands of Maluku during the Age of Discovery. Although sometimes interrupted by the Portuguese and British, the Dutch were the foremost European power for much of its 350-year presence in the archipelago. In early 20th century, the concept of "Indonesia" as a nation state emerged, independence movements began to take shape.
During the decolonisation of Asia after World War II, Indonesia achieved independence in 1949 following an armed and diplomatic conflict with the Netherlands. Indonesia consists of hundreds of distinct native ethnic and linguistic groups, with the largest—and politically dominant—ethnic group being the Javanese. A shared identity has developed, defined by a national language, ethnic diversity, religious pluralism within a Muslim-majority population, a history of colonialism and rebellion against it. Indonesia's national motto, "Bhinneka Tunggal Ika", articulates the diversity that shapes the country. Indonesia's economy is the world's 16th largest by nominal GDP and the 7th largest by GDP at PPP. Indonesia is a member of several multilateral organisations, including the UN, WTO, IMF and G20, it is a founding member of Non-Aligned Movement, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, East Asia Summit, Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank and Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.
The name Indonesia derives from the Greek name of the Indos and the word nesos, meaning "Indian islands". The name dates to the 18th century, far predating the formation of independent Indonesia. In 1850, George Windsor Earl, an English ethnologist, proposed the terms Indunesians—and, his preference, Malayunesians—for the inhabitants of the "Indian Archipelago or Malayan Archipelago". In the same publication, one of his students, James Richardson Logan, used Indonesia as a synonym for Indian Archipelago. However, Dutch academics writing in East Indies publications were reluctant to use Indonesia. After 1900, Indonesia became more common in academic circles outside the Netherlands, native nationalist groups adopted it for political expression. Adolf Bastian, of the University of Berlin, popularised the name through his book Indonesien oder die Inseln des Malayischen Archipels, 1884–1894; the first native scholar to use the name was Ki Hajar Dewantara, when in 1913 he established a press bureau in the Netherlands, Indonesisch Pers-bureau.
Fossils and the remains of tools show that the Indonesian archipelago was inhabited by Homo erectus, known as "Java Man", between 1.5 million years ago and 35,000 years ago. Homo sapiens reached the region around 45,000 years ago. Austronesian peoples, who form the majority of the modern population, migrated to Southeast Asia from what is now Taiwan, they arrived around 4,000 years ago, as they spread through the archipelago, confined the indigenous Melanesians to the far eastern regions. Ideal agricultural conditions and the mastering of wet-field rice cultivation as early as the 8th century BCE allowed villages and small kingdoms to flourish by the first century CE; the archipelago's strategic sea-lane position fostered inter-island and international trade, including links with Indian kingdoms and Chinese dynasties, which were established several centuries BCE. Trade has since fundamentally shaped Indonesian history. From the 7th century CE, the powerful Srivijaya naval kingdom flourished as a result of trade and the influences of Hinduism and Buddhism that were imported with it.
Between the 8th and 10th century CE, the agricultural Buddhist Saile
Batak mythology is the original belief, once adopted by the Batak people of North Sumatra, namely before the arrival of Protestant, Catholic, or Islamic religions. There are various tarombo versions written on pustaha which historians study, but refer to the figures below. In this belief, the highest god who made the universe and everything in it was Debata Mulajadi na Bolon, who reigned in the sky. Apart from being the ruler of the upper world, Debata Mulajadi na Bolon was the ruler of the middle world, the underworld of the spirits, but there he was called by other names; as the ruler of the middle world, he was called Silaon na Bolon, as the ruler of the world of the spirits, he was called Pane na Bolon. The first creation of Debata Mulajadi na Bolon was Manukmanuk Hulambujati, a magical chicken with an iron-beaked and shinny braceleted-claws. Manukmanuk Hulambujati laid three eggs, each egg gave rise to gods named Debata Batara Guru, Debata Sorisohaliapan, Debata Balabulan, who were summoned together as Debata na Tolu.
Si Boru Deak Parujar, the daughter of Debata Batara Guru, was the first heavenly creature that descended to earth, namely in a mountain called Pusuk Buhit. On earth, Si Boru Deak Parujar married Raja Odapodap, which came from one of Manukmanuk Hulambujati eggs, their first child was shaped round like an egg, not similar at all to humans Debata Mulajadi na Bolon told them to bury it, where out of it came plants that spread on the surface of the earth. Therefore, the plants were seen as the older sibling of humans in the Batak myth. Next, male -- female twins were born, called Boru Ihat Manisia. After Raja Ihat Manisia and Boru Ihat Manisia became adults, the two got married and gave rise to all other humans, including the eponymous ancestor of the Batak people named Si Raja Batak. Si Boru Deak Parujar and Raja Odapodap returned to the sky after their two children got married, since the connection between heaven and earth has been broken off, unlike before. Batak Mythology of Indonesia
Patuan Besar Ompu Pulo Batu, better known as Si Singamangaraja XII, was the last priest-king of the Batak peoples of north Sumatra. In the course of fighting a lengthy guerrilla war against the Dutch colonisation of Sumatra from 1878 onwards, he was killed in a skirmish with Dutch troops in 1907, he was declared a National Hero of Indonesia in 1961 for his resistance to Dutch colonialism. Sisingamangaraja XII was born Patuan Besar Ompu Pulo Batu in Bakkara, Tapanuli, in 1849, he was the successor to his father Sisingamangaraja XI, who died in 1867. The title Si Singamangarajah, used by the family dynasty of Marga Sinambela means "The Great Lion King": the Great King, Lion. Since the Batak see themselves in their mythology as descendents of divine blood, no feudalism structure could develop in that parmalim faith based concept of ethnic exceptionalism throughout Batak history; the king was seen as a ruler among equals and the South East Asian aristocratic lords, the Datuk, did justify their leadership role within society by fulfilling their secular and religious tasks.
They had for example to preside over courtship trials in cases of broken law, organize administrative affairs and oversee in the function as a priest class all religious ceremonies within the village or territory of rulership. Si Singamangaraja XII was the last in a line of figures known as parmalim who were regarded as divine kings and incarnations of Batara Guru, the Javanese version of the god Shiva; the Sisingamangaraja was believed to have powers such as the ability to drive away evil spirits, call forth the rain and control rice-growing. He was not seen as a political figure, but when Dutch colonists and missionaries began penetrating north Sumatra from the 1850s onwards both Sisingamangaraja XI and XII became the focus of Batak resistance to colonial rule. Although they were not anti-Christian, the two Sisingamangarajas faced pressure to act from traditional list Batak chiefs and the neighbouring Sultanate of Aceh, at war with the Dutch from 1873. In February 1878, Sisingamangaraja XII held a religious ceremony to rally the Bataks behind him in a war of resistance against the Dutch.
His forces attacked Dutch outposts in Bakal Batu, but were defeated. He regrouped and launched a fresh offensive in 1883–84 with Acehnese aid, attacking the Dutch at Uluan and Balige in May 1883 and in Tangga Batu in 1884; the Dutch mounted a harsh response and killing Bataks suspected of being followers of Sisingamangaraja XII, as well as burning houses and imposing punitive taxes. They were unable to capture him. In 1904, Dutch forces under Lt Col Gotfried Coenraad Ernst van Daalen attacked Tanah Gayo and some areas around Lake Toba in order to break the Batak resistance. Sisingamangaraja XII's forces evaded the Dutch troops; the Dutch reinforced their troops and weapons before launching another offensive in 1907 against the remainder of Sisingamangaraja XII's forces in the Toba region. A battle was fought at Pak-pak between the Dutch, led by Captain Hans Christoffel, Sisingamangaraja's troops. On 17 June 1907 Sisingamangaraja XII was killed in a clash at Dairi along with his daughter Lopian and his sons, Patuan Nagari and Patuan Anggi.
He was buried in Tarutung moved to Balige, moved to Samosir Island. In 1961 Sisingamangaraja XII was declared a "National Hero of Indonesia" – a "Hero of the Struggle for Freedom" – by the Indonesian government under Presidential Decree number 590. Ajisaka, Arya. Mengenal Pahlawan Indonesia. Jakarta: Kawan Pustaka. ISBN 978-979-757-278-5. Anshoriy Ch, M. Nasruddin. Bangsa Gagal: Mencari Identitas Kebangsaan. Seri Satu Abad Kebangkitan Nasional. Bantul: LKiS. ISBN 978-979-1283-65-6. Leeming, David. Creation Myths of the World, An Encyclopedia, Volume 1. ABC-CLIO, Santa Barbara, California, USA. ISBN 978-1-59884-174-9. Aritonang, Jan. Mission Schools in Batakland, 1861-1940. E. J. Brill, Netherlands. ISBN 90-04-09967-0. Cunningham, Clark E.. "Celebrating a Toba Batak National Hero: An Indonesian Rite of Identity". In Cunningham, Clark E.. Changing Lives, Changing Rites: Ritual and Social Dynamics in Philippine and Indonesian Uplands. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan. ISBN 978-0-89148-058-7. Komandoko, Gamal. Kisah 124 Pahlawan & Pejuang Nusantara.
Sleman: Pustaka Widyatama. ISBN 978-979-661-090-7. Reed, Jane Levy. Toward Independence: A Century of Indonesia Photographed. San Francisco: Friends of Photography. ISBN 978-0-933286-58-0. Tarling, Nicholas; the Cambridge History of Southeast Asia, Volume 2, Part 1. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-66371-7
Toba Batak people
Toba people are the most numerous of the Batak people of North Sumatra and considered the classical'Batak', most to willingly self-identify as Batak. The Toba people are found in Toba Samosir Regency, Humbang Hasundutan Regency, Samosir Regency, North Tapanuli Regency, part of Dairi Regency, Central Tapanuli Regency and its surrounding regions; the Batak Toba people speak in the Toba Batak language and are centered on Lake Toba and Samosir Island within the lake. Batak Toba people build in traditional Batak architecture styles which are common on Samosir. Cultural demonstrations and festivities such as Sigale Gale are held for tourists. Paleontological research done in Humbang region of the west side of Toba Lake suggests that human activity had existed 6,500 years ago, much earlier than the 800 years existence of King of Batak; this discovery led to the theory of the possibility that the King of Toba could have originated from south India, South China and so on as far as the Ten Lost Tribes of Israel.
During the time when the Batak kingdom was based in Bakara, the Sisingamangaraja dynasty of the Batak kingdom divided their kingdom into four regions by the name of Raja Maropat, which are:- Raja Maropat Silindung Raja Maropat Samosir Raja Maropat Humbang Raja Maropat Toba During the Dutch colonization, the Dutch formed Tapanuli Residency in 1910. The Tapanuli Residency is divided into four regions, called afdeling. Afdeling Nias, which became Nias Regency and South Nias Regency. Afdeling Sibolga and Ommnenlanden, today it is Central Tapanuli Regency and Sibolga. Afdeling Bataklanden, which became North Tapanuli Regency, Humbang Hasundutan Regency, Toba Samosir Regency, Samosir Regency, Dairi Regency and Pakpak Bharat Regency. During the Japanese occupation of the Dutch East Indies, the administration of the Tapanuli Residency had little changes. After the independence, the government of Indonesia retain Tapanuli as Residency. Dr. Ferdinand Lumban Tobing became the first Tapanuli Resident. Although there were changes made to the name.
For example, the name of Afdeling Bataklanden was changed to Luhak Tanah Batak and the first luhak appointed was Cornelius Sihonbing. The title Onderafdeling is changed to urung, demangs that surpervises onderafdeling are promoted as kepala urung. Onderdistrik became urung kecil, is supervised by kepala urung kecil. Just as it was in the past, the government of the Tapanuli Residency were divided into four districts, namely:- Silindung Regency Samosir Regency Humbang Regency Toba Regency During the transfer of sovereignty in early 1950s, the Tapanuli Residency, unified into North Sumatra province were divided into four new regencies, namely:- North Tapanuli Regency Central Tapanuli Regency South Tapanuli Regency Nias Regency In December 2008, the Tapanuli Residency was unified under North Sumatra province. At the moment, Toba is under the Toba Samosir Regency's region with Balige as its capital; the Toba people practices a distinct culture. It is not a. Just as it is with other ethnicities, the Toba people have migrated to other places to look for better life.
For example, majority of the Silindung natives are the Hutabarat, Simorangkir, Hutagalung and Lumbantobing clans. Instead all those six clans are descendants of Guru Mangaloksa, one of Raja Hasibuan's sons from Toba region. So it is with the Nasution clan where most of them live in Padangsidimpuan share a common ancestor with their relative, the Siahaan clan in Balige, it is certain that the Toba people as a distinct culture can be found beyond the boundaries of their geographical origins. The region of Toba, known as "the king of Batak" is Sianjur village situated on the slopes of Mount Pusuk Buhit, about 45 minutes drive from Pangururan, the capital of Samosir Regency today. Surname or family name is part of a Toba person's name; the Batak people always have a family name. The surname or family name is obtained from the father's lineage which would be passed on to the offspring continuously. Pardede, Panggabean, Sihombing, Pandjaitan, Lumban Tobing and Simatupang are popular surnames; the traditional house of the Toba people is called Rumah Bolon.
It is a rectangular building that can house up to six families. One can enter a Rumah Bolon through a staircase in the middle of the house with odd numbers of steps; when a person enters the house, one must bow in order to avoid one's head from knocking the transverse beam at the entrance of the traditional house. The interpretation of this is; the Batak Toba are known throughout Indonesia as capable musicians, are perceived as confident, out