India known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country as well as the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia; the Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE. In the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, Buddhism and Jainism arose. Early political consolidations took place under the Gupta empires. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, Sikhism emerged, all adding to the region's diverse culture.
Much of the north fell to the Delhi Sultanate. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal Empire. In the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, in the mid-19th under British Crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance and led to India's independence in 1947. In 2017, the Indian economy was the world's sixth largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption and inadequate public healthcare. A nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the second largest standing army in the world and ranks fifth in military expenditure among nations. India is a federal republic governed under a parliamentary system and consists of 29 states and 7 union territories.
A pluralistic and multi-ethnic society, it is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindush, equivalent to the Sanskrit word Sindhu, the historical local appellation for the Indus River; the ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as "The people of the Indus". The geographical term Bharat, recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations, it is a modernisation of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which traditionally referred to the Indian subcontinent and gained increasing currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India. Hindustan is a Middle Persian name for India, it was introduced into India by the Mughals and used since then. Its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety; the name may refer to either the northern part of India or the entire country.
The earliest known human remains in South Asia date to about 30,000 years ago. Nearly contemporaneous human rock art sites have been found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent, including at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh. After 6500 BCE, evidence for domestication of food crops and animals, construction of permanent structures, storage of agricultural surplus, appeared in Mehrgarh and other sites in what is now Balochistan; these developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, the first urban culture in South Asia, which flourished during 2500–1900 BCE in what is now Pakistan and western India. Centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Kalibangan, relying on varied forms of subsistence, the civilization engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade. During the period 2000–500 BCE, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic cultures to the Iron Age ones; the Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism, were composed during this period, historians have analysed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain.
Most historians consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west. The caste system, which created a hierarchy of priests and free peasants, but which excluded indigenous peoples by labeling their occupations impure, arose during this period. On the Deccan Plateau, archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation. In South India, a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period, as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, craft traditions. In the late Vedic period, around the 6th century BCE, the small states and chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas; the emerging urbanisation gave rise to non-Vedic religious movements, two of which became independent religions. Jainism came into prominence during the life of Mahavira.
Buddhism, based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle
Fiji the Republic of Fiji, is an island country in Melanesia, part of Oceania in the South Pacific Ocean about 1,100 nautical miles northeast of New Zealand's North Island. Its closest neighbours are Vanuatu to the west, New Caledonia to the southwest, New Zealand's Kermadec Islands to the southeast, Tonga to the east, the Samoas and France's Wallis and Futuna to the northeast, Tuvalu to the north. Fiji consists of an archipelago of more than 330 islands—of which 110 are permanently inhabited—and more than 500 islets, amounting to a total land area of about 18,300 square kilometres; the most outlying island is Ono-i-Lau. The two major islands, Viti Levu and Vanua Levu, account for 87% of the total population of 898,760; the capital, Suva, on Viti Levu, serves as the country's principal cruise-ship port. About three-quarters of Fijians live on Viti Levu's coasts, either in Suva or in smaller urban centres such as Nadi—where tourism is the major local industry—or Lautoka, where the sugar-cane industry is paramount.
Due to its terrain, the interior of Viti Levu is sparsely inhabited. The majority of Fiji's islands formed through volcanic activity starting around 150 million years ago; some geothermal activity still occurs today, on the islands of Vanua Taveuni. The geothermal systems on Viti Levu are non-volcanic in origin, with low-temperature surface discharges. Sabeto Hot Springs near Nadi is a good example. Humans have lived in Fiji since the second millennium BC—first Austronesians and Melanesians, with some Polynesian influences. Europeans visited Fiji from the 17th century onwards, after a brief period as an independent kingdom, the British established the Colony of Fiji in 1874. Fiji operated as a Crown colony until 1970. A military government declared a Republic in 1987 following a series of coups d'état. In a coup in 2006, Commodore Frank Bainimarama seized power; when the High Court ruled the military leadership unlawful in 2009, President Ratu Josefa Iloilo, whom the military had retained as the nominal Head of State, formally abrogated the 1997 Constitution and re-appointed Bainimarama as interim Prime Minister.
In 2009, Ratu Epeli Nailatikau succeeded Iloilo as President. After years of delays, a democratic election took place on 17 September 2014. Bainimarama's FijiFirst party won 59.2% of the vote, international observers deemed the election credible. Fiji has one of the most developed economies in the Pacific thanks to its abundant forest and fish resources, its currency is the Fijian dollar, its main sources of foreign exchange are its tourist industry, remittances from Fijians working, bottled water exports. The Ministry of Local Government and Urban Development supervises Fiji's local government, which takes the form of city and town councils. Fiji's main island is known as Viti Levu and it is from this that the name "Fiji" is derived, though the common English pronunciation is based on that of their island neighbours in Tonga, its emergence can be described as follows: Fijians first impressed themselves on European consciousness through the writings of the members of the expeditions of Cook who met them in Tonga.
They were described as formidable warriors and ferocious cannibals, builders of the finest vessels in the Pacific, but not great sailors. They inspired awe amongst the Tongans, all their Manufactures bark cloth and clubs, were valued and much in demand, they called their home Viti, but the Tongans called it Fisi, it was by this foreign pronunciation, first promulgated by Captain James Cook, that these islands are now known. "Feejee", the Anglicised spelling of the Tongan pronunciation, was used in accounts and other writings until the late 19th century, by missionaries and other travellers visiting Fiji. Located in the central Pacific Ocean, Fiji's geography has made it both a destination and a crossroads for migrations for many centuries. According to oral tradition, the indigenous Fijians of today are descendants of the chief Lutunasobasoba and those who arrived with him on the Kaunitoni canoe. Landing at what is now Vuda, the settlers moved inland to the Nakauvadra mountains. Though this oral tradition has not been independently substantiated, the Fijian government promotes it, many tribes today claim to be descended from the children of Lutunasobasoba.
Pottery art from Fijian towns shows that Fiji was settled by Austronesian peoples before or around 3500 to 1000 BC, with Melanesians following around a thousand years although the question of Pacific migration still lingers. It is believed that the Lapita people or the ancestors of the Polynesians settled the islands first but not much is known of what became of them after the Melanesians arrived. Archeological evidence shows signs of settlement on Moturiki Island from 600 BC and as far back as 900 BC. Aspects of Fijian culture are similar to the Melanesian culture of the western Pacific but have a stronger connection to the older Polynesian cultures. Trade between Fiji and neighbouring archipelagos long before European contact is testified by the canoes made from native Fijian trees found in Tonga and Tongan words being part of the language of the Lau group of islands. Pots made in Fiji have been found in Samoa and the Marquesas Islands. In the 10th century, the Tu'i Tonga Empire was established in Tonga, Fiji came within its sphere of influence.
The Tongan influence brought Polynesian cu
Lautoka is the second largest city of Fiji. It is in the west of the island of Viti Levu, 24 kilometres north of Nadi and port of entry in Fiji, after Suva. Lying in the heart of Fiji's sugar cane-growing region, it is known as the Sugar City. Covering an area of 16 square kilometres, it had a population of 52,220 at the 2007 census, the most recent to date. Lautoka is known as the Sugar City because of its sugar cane belt areas; the main Lautoka Sugar Mill was founded in 1903, is the city's biggest employer by far. Built for the Colonial Sugar Refining Company by workers from India and the Solomon Islands between 1899 and 1903, it hires some 1,300 employees today. Other industries include timber milling, garment manufacturing, brewery, blending, fishing, domestic items and construction. In 2012 Lautoka was announced as the administration capital of the western division... The name of the city is derived from two Fijian words meaning "spear hit." According to an oral tradition, the name arose following a duel between two chiefs.
As one speared the other, he was reported to have cried "Lau-toka!". The first known European sighting of the Lautoka area took place on 7 May 1789. Captain William Bligh spotted and charted the coasts of Lautoka while making his epic voyage to Timor, in the wake of the mutiny on the Bounty. Incorporated as a town in 1929, Lautoka was proclaimed a city on 25 February 1977, it is governed by a 16-member city council. Lautoka does not have a mayor but has a government-appointed administrator like all urban centres in Fiji since the military coup of 2006; the former administrator was Parveen Bala, mayor of Ba. A well-known past Mayor is Ratilal Patel, elected mayor in 1967. Lautoka is the only city in Fiji's Western Division, is the industrial hub of Fiji which contains more than 50 percent of the nation's population, it is the headquarters of the Fiji Electricity Authority, the Fiji Pine Ltd, the National Marketing Authority. The headquarters and studios of Mix FM Fiji are located in Lautoka. With National coverage, MixFM is the only English station in Fiji to be based outside of Suva.
Since 1970, the population of Lautoka has grown and in the last twenty years it has changed in structure. In the early 1970s the population was estimated to be about 12,000, the vast majority of inhabitants being Indian, as would be expected considering the early growth of the city was associated with the sugar industry. All of the present Indian inhabitants are descendants of the early girmityas. In 1986 the population was 39,000 and in 1996 43,000, but it is not clear how the boundaries of the urban area were defined at either of these censuses. In 2005 the population including the suburban zones was about 50,000, occupying a total area of about 16 km²; the population of Lautoka including the rural districts is around 80,000. But much of the recent growth of the city itself has been due to indigenous Fijians moving into the urban area; the city is the birthplace of PGA Tour Hall of Famer Vijay Singh and Ghazal and Tabla star Cassius Khan. Port of Lautoka is the main maritime gateway for western Viti Levu and is the second largest port in Fiji.
The port is used for bulk sugar, woodchips and gas. The port is used for cruises, Blue Lagoon Cruises and Nai's Cruises are based here. Lautoka is served by Pacific Sunbeam buses. Pacific Transport connects Lautoka directly to Ba. Sunbeam runs 8 times daily Queen's Highway Service, linking Lautoka to Suva with stops at Nadi International Airport, Nadi Town, Fijian Resort, Sigatoka Town, Abua Sands, Hideaway Resort, Naviti Resort, Warwick Resorts, Beach House, Crusoes Retreat Junction, Deuba Inn and Tradewinds Lami. Rishi Shankar, a Fiji Indian lawyer, elected to the House of Representatives of Fiji 1987. Waqa Blake Fijian-Australian rugby league player, born in Lautoka Nathan Hughes England Rugby Player, born in Lautoka Vijay Singh, PGA Sam Singh, helped build the Fiji Soccer Association in Sacramento, CA USA and worked with the league for 18 years. Lautoka travel guide from Wikivoyage
The Punjabis or Punjabi people are an ethnic group associated with the Punjab region in South Asia in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, presently divided between Punjab and Punjab, Pakistan. They speak a language from the Indo-Aryan language family; the name Punjab means the land of five waters in Persian: panj āb. The name of the region was introduced by the Turko-Persian conquerors of the Indian subcontinent; the historical Punjab region is referred to as the breadbasket in both India and Pakistan. The coalescence of the various tribes and the inhabitants of the Punjab into a broader common "Punjabi" identity initiated from the onset of the 18th century CE. Prior to that the sense and perception of a common "Punjabi" ethno-cultural identity and community did not exist though the majority of the various communities of the Punjab had long shared linguistic and racial commonalities. Traditionally, Punjabi identity is linguistic and cultural, its identity is independent of historical origin or religion, refers to those who reside in the Punjab region, or associate with its population, those who consider the Punjabi language their mother tongue.
Integration and assimilation are important parts of Punjabi culture, since Punjabi identity is not based on tribal connections. More or less all Punjabis share the same cultural background; the Punjabi people were a heterogeneous group and were subdivided into a number of clans called biradari or tribes, with each person bound to a clan. However, Punjabi identity included those who did not belong to any of the historical tribes. With the passage of time, tribal structures are coming to an end and are being replaced with a more cohesive and holistic society, as community building and group cohesiveness form the new pillars of Punjabi society. In relative contemporary terms, Punjabis can be referred to in three most common subgroups. In the 19th century, Maharaja Ranjit Singh established a Punjabi kingdom based around the Punjab; the main geographical footprint of the country was the Punjab region to Khyber Pass in the west, to Kashmir in the north, to Sindh in the south, Tibet in the east. The religious demography of the Kingdom was Muslim, Hindu.
The population was 3.5 million, according to Amarinder Singh's The Last Sunset: The Rise and Fall of the Lahore Durbar. In 1799 Ranjit Singh moved the capital to Lahore from Gujranwala, where it had been established in 1763 by his grandfather, Charat Singh; the Punjab region was a region straddling the Afghan Durrani Empire. The following modern-day political divisions made up the historical Punjabi kingdom: Punjab region till Multan in south Panjab, with the capital Lahaur Parts of Punjab, India Himachal Pradesh, India Haryana, India Jammu, annexed 1808 - 17 June 1822 Kashmir, conquered 5 July 1819 - 15 March 1846, India/Pakistan/ChinaGilgit, Gilgit–Baltistan, Pakistan. Ladakh, India Khyber Pass, Afghanistan/PakistanPeshawar, Pakistan Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and the Federally Administered Tribal Areas, Pakistan After Ranjit Singh's death in 1839, the empire was weakened by internal divisions and political mismanagement; this opportunity was used by the British East India Company to launch the Anglo-Sikh Wars.
The country was annexed and dissolved at the end of the Second Anglo-Sikh War in 1849 into separate princely states and the British province of Punjab. A Lieutenant Governorship was formed in Lahore as a direct representative of the British Crown; the 1947 independence of India and Pakistan, the subsequent partition of Punjab, is considered by historians to be the beginning of the end of the British Empire. The UNHCR estimates 14 million Hindus and Muslims were displaced during the partition. To date, this is considered the largest mass migration in human history; until 1947, the province of Punjab was ruled by a coalition comprising the Indian National Congress, the Sikh-led Shiromani Akali Dal and the Unionist Muslim League. However, the growth of Muslim nationalism led to the All India Muslim League becoming the dominant party in the 1946 elections; as Muslim separatism increased, the opposition from Punjabi Hindus and Sikhs increased substantially. Communal violence on the eve of Indian independence led to the dismissal of the coalition government, although the succeeding League ministry was unable to form a majority.
Along with the province of Bengal, Punjab was partitioned on religious lines – the Muslim-majority West becoming part of the new Muslim state of Pakistan, the Hindu and Sikh East remaining in India. Partition was accompanied by massive violence on both sides, claiming the lives of hundreds of thousands of people. West Punjab was cleansed of its Hindu and Sikh populations, who were forced to leave for India, while East Punjab and Delhi were cleansed of their Muslim population. By the 1960s, Indian Punjab underwent reorganisation as demands for a linguistic Punjabi state increased; the Hindi-speaking areas were formed into the states of Himachal Pradesh and Haryana leaving a Punjabi speaking majority in the state of Punjab. In the 1980s, Sikh separatism combined with popular anger against the Indian Army's counter-insurgency operations led to violence and disorder in Indian P
The Gujarati people or Gujaratis are an ethnic group traditionally from Gujarat that speak Gujarati, an Indo-Aryan language. Gujaratis are prominent in industry and key figures played a historic role in the introduction of the doctrine of Swaraj and the Indian independence movement in British-ruled India. Albeit with huge migration for economic reasons, most Gujaratis in India live in the state of Gujarat in Western India. Gujaratis form a significant part of the populations in the neighboring metropolis of Mumbai and union territories of Daman and Diu, Dadra Nagar Haveli, both being former Portuguese colonies. There are large Gujarati immigrant communities in other parts of India, most notably in Mumbai, Calcutta, Madras and other metropolitan areas like Kollam and Kochi in Kerala. All throughout history Gujaratis have earned a reputation as being India's greatest merchants,industrialists and business entrepreneurs, have therefore been at forefront of migrations all over the world to regions that were part of the British empire such as Fiji, Hong Kong, New Zealand, East Africa and countries in Southern Africa.
Diasporas and transnational networks in many of these countries date back to more than a century. In recent decades, larger numbers of Gujaratis have migrated to English speaking countries such as the United Kingdom, Australia and the United States. Between 1790-1, an epidemic devastated numerous parts of Gujarat during which 100,000 Gujaratis were killed in Surat alone. An outbreak of bubonic plague in 1812 has been claimed to have killed about half the Gujarati population. Early European travelers like Ludovico di Varthema traveled to Gujarat and wrote on the people of Gujarat, he noted that Jainism had a strong presence in Gujarat and opined that Gujaratis were deprived of their kingdom by Mughals because of their kind heartedness. His description of Gujaratis was: Orthodox Gujarati society, mercantile by nature, was organized along ethno-religious lines and shaped into existence on the strength of its Mahajan, for its institution of Nagarsheth. Gujaratis belonging to numerous faiths and castes, thrived in an inclusive climate surcharged by a degree of cultural syncretism, in which Hindus and Jains dominated occupations such as shroffs and brokers whereas, Muslims and Parsis dominated sea shipping trade.
This led to religious interdependence, tolerance and community cohesion becoming the hallmark of modern-day Gujarati society. The Gujarati people are predominantly Hindu. There are significant populations of Jains and Muslims, minor populations of Sikhs, Zoroastrians and Christians The major communities in Gujarat are the traditional Agriculturalist such as Patel, Ahir and Rabari, Artisan communities, Brahmin communities, Farming communities (such as Choudhary Jats and Koli people, Genealogist communities, Kshatriya communities, Parsi Community, Tribal communities and Vaishya; the major Gujarati Muslim communities include Nizari Ismailis, Daudi Bohra, Khoja, Sayyid and Vahora. Gujaratis have a long tradition of seafaring and a history of overseas migration to foreign lands, to Yemen Oman Bahrain, Kuwait and other countries in the Persian Gulf since a mercantile culture resulted from the state's proximity to the Arabian Sea; the countries with the largest Gujarati populations are Pakistan, United Kingdom, United States and many countries in Southern and East Africa.
Globally, Gujaratis are estimated to comprise around 33% of the Indian diaspora worldwide and can be found in 129 of 190 countries listed as sovereign nations by the United Nations. Non Resident Gujaratis maintain active links with the homeland in the form of business, remittance and through their political contribution to state governed domestic affairs. Gujarati parents in the diaspora are not comfortable with the possibility of their language not surviving them. In a study, 80% of Malayali parents felt that "children would be better off with English", compared to 36% of Kannada parents and only 19% of Gujarati parents. There is a community of Gujarati Muslims settled in the Pakistani province of Sindh for generations. Community leaders say. A sizable number migrated after the Partition of India and subsequent creation of independent Pakistan in 1947; these Pakistani Gujaratis belong to the Ismāʿīlī, Dawoodi Bohra, Charotar Sunni Vohra, Muslim Kutchi, Muslim Khatri and Memon groups. Famous Gujaratis of Pakistan include Muhammed Ali Jinnah, Ibrahim Ismail Chundrigar, Sir Adamjee Haji Dawood, Abu Bakr Osman Mitha, Abdul Razzak Yaqoob, Javed Miandad, Abdul Sattar Edhi, Jehangir H. Kothari, Abdul Gaffar Billoo, Sarfraz Ahmed, Ramzan Chhipa, Tapu Javeri, Pervez Hoodbhoy (Pakista
Indian indenture system
The Indian indenture system was a system of indentured servitude, by which 2 million Indians were transported to labour in European colonies, as a substitute for slave labour, following the abolition of the trade in the early 19th century. The system expanded after the Slavery Abolition Act 1833 in the British Empire in 1833, in the French Colonies in 1848, continued until the 1920s; this resulted in the development of a large Indian diaspora in the Caribbean, Natal, Réunion, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, to Fiji, as well as the growth of Indo-Caribbean and Indo-African populations. On 18 January 1826, the Government of the French Indian Ocean island of Réunion laid down terms for the introduction of Indian labourers to the colony; each man was required to declare that he was going voluntarily. This agreement is known as girmit and it outlined a period of five years labour in the colonies with pay of ₹8 per month and rations, provided labourers had been transported from Pondicherry and Karaikal; the first attempt at importing Indian labour into Mauritius, in 1829, ended in failure, but by 1838, 25,000 Indian labourers had been shipped to Mauritius.
The Indian indenture system was put in place at the behest of sugar planters in colonial territories, who hoped the system would provide reliable cheap labour similar to the conditions under slavery. The new system was expected to demonstrate the superiority of "free" over slave labour in the production of tropical products for imperial markets; the East India Company's Regulations of 1837 laid down specific conditions for the dispatch of Indian labour from Calcutta. The would-be emigrant and his emigration agent were required to appear before an officer designated by the Government of British India, with a written statement of the terms of the contract; the length of service was to be renewable for further five-year terms. The emigrant was to be returned at the end of his service to the port of departure; each emigrant vessel was required to conform to certain standards of space, diet etc. and to carry a medical officer. In 1837 this scheme was extended to Madras; as soon as the new system of emigration of labour became known, a campaign similar to the anti-slavery campaign sprang up in Britain and India.
On 1 August 1838, a committee was appointed to inquire into the export of Indian labour. It heard reports of abuses of the new system. On 29 May 1839, overseas manual labour was prohibited and any person effecting such emigration was liable to a 200 Rupee fine or three months in jail. After prohibition, a few Indian labourers continued to be sent Mauritius via Pondicherry; the planters in Mauritius and the Caribbean worked hard to overturn the ban, while the anti-slavery committee worked just as hard to uphold the ban. The Government of the East India Company capitulated under intense pressure from planters and their supporters: On 2 December 1842, the Indian Government permitted emigration from Calcutta and Madras to Mauritius. Emigration Agents were appointed at each departure point. There were penalties for abuse of the system. Return passage had to be provided at any time after five years. After the lifting of the ban, the first ship left Calcutta for Mauritius on 23 January 1843; the Protector of the Immigrants in Mauritius reported that a ship arrived every few days with a human consignment and the large number of immigrants was causing a backlog in processing and he asked for help.
During 1843, 30,218 male and 4,307 female indentured immigrants entered Mauritius. The first ship from Madras arrived in Mauritius on 21 April 1843; the existing regulations failed to stamp out abuses of the system, which continued, including recruitment by false pretences and in 1843 the Government of Bengal, was forced to restrict emigration from Calcutta, only permitting departure after the signing of a certificate from the Agent and countersigned by the Protector. Migration to Mauritius continued, with 9,709 male Hill Coolies, 1,840 female wives and daughters trasported in 1844; the repatriation of Indians who had completed indenture remained a problem with a high death rate and investigations revealed that regulations for the return voyages were not being satisfactorily followed. Without enough recruits from Calcutta to satisfy the demands of Mauritius planters, permission was granted in 1847 to reopen emigration from Madras with the first ship leaving Madras for Mauritius in 1850. There were Company officials stationed in colonies that hosted Indian immigrants.
For example, when the Danish plantation owners began recruiting Indians, the British representative - considered a consul - to the Danish West Indies was called the Protector of Immigrants. This official oversaw the welfare of the workers and ensured that the terms of the agreement they signed were implemented. After the end of slavery, the West Indian sugar colonies tried the use of emancipated slaves, families from Ireland and Malta and Portuguese from Madeira. All these efforts failed to satisfy the labour needs of the colonies due to high mortality of the new arrivals and their reluctance to continue working at the end of their indenture. On 16 November 1844, the British Indian Government legalised emigration to Jamaica and Demerara; the first ship, the Whitby, sailed from Port Calcutta for British Guiana on 13 January 1838, arrived in Berbice on 5 May 1838. Transportation to the Caribbean stopped in 1848 due to problems in the sugar industry and resumed in Demerara and Trinidad in 1851 and Jamaica in 1860.
Importing labour became viable for plantation owners because newly emancipated slaves refused to work for low wages. This is demonstrated in the sheer number of freed slaves
Arya Samaj in Fiji
The Arya Samaj was the first religious and educational Fiji Indian organisation established in Fiji. From its inception, in 1904, it attracted the young and progressive Hindus into its fold. During the first three decades of the twentieth century, it was the sole voice of the Indian community in Fiji and as Fiji Indians won political rights, it was not surprising that first Indian members of the Legislative Council were all Arya Samajis; the influence of Arya Samaj over the Indians in Fiji waned as other organisations representing Indians were established but it remained the dominant force in politics until 1959. The modern day Arya Samaj in Fiji still speaks out on issues affecting its members and its activities are visible through the numerous educational institutions that it manages; as far back as 1893, learning centres had been established by small groups of people who had organised themselves into Samajs. With the arrival of Shiu Datt Sharma from India, in 1902, a temple was established in Samabula, near Suva, which acted as a school attended by about 60 boys and girls.
A person who had a profound influence on the establishment of Arya Samaj in Fiji was a 22-year-old man from Punjab, Behari Lal, who while on his way to Argentina via Australia, stopped over in Fiji. He found employment at the Navua Sugar Mill, but visited Suva where people interested in the teachings of Swami Dayanand Saraswati gathered at the residence of Mangal Singh. Lal had a copy of the Satyarth Prakash in the Urdu language from which he read and explained portions to the congregation every Sunday, it was this small group of Fiji Indians who included Mangal Singh, Gaji Pratap Singh, Nanku Sonar, Bihari Lal, Shiu Datt Sharma, Basdeo Rai, Inayat Hussein, Indra Narayan and Tikaram Verma, who met in Samabula on 25 December 1904 to form the Arya Samaj of Fiji. This was due to their desire to maintain their heritage and provide a platform for lifting their living standard and the inspiration they received from the teaching of Swami Dayanand Saraswati, the founder of Arya Samaj. Arya Samaj’s work in Fiji received a boost with the arrival of Arya Samaj Missionary from India, Swami Ram Manoharanand Saraswati, who arrived in Fiji from Burma in 1913.
Totaram Sanadhya, although himself a Sanatani, has written about the early contribution of Arya Samaj to providing education and religious education in Fiji and asked for them to send more educators to Fiji. An Arya Samaji gentleman by the name of Ram Manoharanand Sarasvati went and he preached there, therefore these words of thanks. There is a great need for this sort of religious instructor there, who knows Vedic principles and knows English as well.... We know that Arya Samaj is doing a lot of work, but aren't these givers of aid to the world, the Arya Samaj, able to send one more religious instructor to Fiji, for the benefit of our foreign-dwelling brothers? The Arya Samaj appealed to those who wanted to build a revitalised Hinduism in Fiji suitable to the local conditions. Badri Maharaj, who built the first school for Indians in Fiji in 1898 was an Arya Samaji and so was the first Indian Lawyer to arrive in Fiji, Manilal Doctor, involved in Arya Samaj in Mauritius and believed that Arya Samaj was the best sect for the individualized Indians in Fiji.
The first school was built by Arya Samaj in Fiji was the Gurukul Primary School in Saweni, Lautoka in 1918. Following the establishment of this school a great renaissance took place amongst Indo-Fijians to educate their children; this was supported by the arrival from India of a number of teachers, some of whom were Ami Chandra, Kundan Singh Kush and Kunwar Bachint Singh. Between 1926 and 1929 more than 100 Indo-Fijian boys and girls were sent to India to study at various Arya Samaj institutions. In the early thirties, Arya Samaj was the best organised of any Indo-Fijian organisation, it had as its leader, Vishnu Deo and the only Hindi language newspaper in Fiji, Fiji Samachar. The Arya Samaj aggressively promoted its teaching and attempted to gain converts from Muslims. Arya Samaj activities in Fiji reached a peak with the arrival of another missionary, Shri Krishna Sharma from India. Conflict soon developed with Indian Christians, South Indians and Sanatanis who had supported the Arya Samaj through Hindu Sangsthans.
There were debates on religious issues, but when Vishnu Deo was convicted and fined for an article in the Fiji Samachar, things quietened down. The Arya Samaj, concentrated on its educational activities and built numerous educational institutions. Arya Samajis continued to provide leadership to the Indo-Fijians and until the 1960s most Indo-Fijian leaders were either Arya Samajis or those with close links to the Arya Samaj in Fiji; some who served on the Legislative Council were Badri Maharaj, Vishnu Deo, Parmanand Singh, Chattur Singh, Ayodhya Prasad, Ami Chandra, K. B. Singh and Vijay R. Singh; some Arya Samaji members of Parliament since independence have been Vijay R. Singh, Dr. Ganesh Chand, Kamlesh Kumar Arya, Surendra Prasad, Anand Singh and Davendra Singh; as Indo-Fijians have migrated overseas, they have taken their religion and culture with them Consequently, Arya Samajs have been established in a number of countries by former Indo-Fijians. The following are links to the Web Sites of some of these: Auckland Arya Samaj Arya Samaj of Australia Victoria Arya Samaj Arya Pratinidhi Sabha of Fiji 1904:The Year Arya Samaj was born Arya Pratinidhi Sabha of Fiji