Symbolism was a late nineteenth-century art movement of French and Belgian origin in poetry and other arts. In literature, the style originates with the 1857 publication of Charles Baudelaire's Les Fleurs du mal; the works of Edgar Allan Poe, which Baudelaire admired and translated into French, were a significant influence and the source of many stock tropes and images. The aesthetic was developed by Paul Verlaine during the 1860s and 1870s. In the 1880s, the aesthetic was articulated by a series of manifestos and attracted a generation of writers; the term "symbolist" was first applied by the critic Jean Moréas, who invented the term to distinguish the Symbolists from the related Decadents of literature and of art. Distinct from, but related to, the style of literature, symbolism in art is related to the gothic component of Romanticism and Impressionism; the term "symbolism" is derived from the word "symbol" which derives from the Latin symbolum, a symbol of faith, symbolus, a sign of recognition, in turn from classical Greek σύμβολον symbolon, an object cut in half constituting a sign of recognition when the carriers were able to reassemble the two halves.
In ancient Greece, the symbolon was a shard of pottery, inscribed and broken into two pieces which were given to the ambassadors from two allied city states as a record of the alliance. Symbolism was a reaction against naturalism and realism, anti-idealistic styles which were attempts to represent reality in its gritty particularity, to elevate the humble and the ordinary over the ideal. Symbolism was a reaction in favour of spirituality, the imagination, dreams; some writers, such as Joris-Karl Huysmans, began as naturalists before becoming symbolists. Certain of the characteristic subjects of the Decadents represent naturalist interest in sexuality and taboo topics, but in their case this was mixed with Byronic romanticism and the world-weariness characteristic of the fin de siècle period; the Symbolist poets have a more complex relationship with Parnassianism, a French literary style that preceded it. While being influenced by hermeticism, allowing freer versification, rejecting Parnassian clarity and objectivity, it retained Parnassianism's love of word play and concern for the musical qualities of verse.
The Symbolists continued to admire Théophile Gautier's motto of "art for art's sake", retained – and modified – Parnassianism's mood of ironic detachment. Many Symbolist poets, including Stéphane Mallarmé and Paul Verlaine, published early works in Le Parnasse contemporain, the poetry anthologies that gave Parnassianism its name, but Arthur Rimbaud publicly mocked prominent Parnassians and published scatological parodies of some of their main authors, including François Coppée – misattributed to Coppée himself – in L'Album zutique. One of Symbolism's most colourful promoters in Paris was art and literary critic Joséphin Péladan, who established the Salon de la Rose + Croix; the Salon hosted a series of six presentations of avant-garde art and music during the 1890s, to give a presentation space for artists embracing spiritualism and idealism in their work. A number of Symbolists were associated with the Salon. Symbolists believed that art should represent absolute truths that could only be described indirectly.
Thus, they wrote in a metaphorical and suggestive manner, endowing particular images or objects with symbolic meaning. Jean Moréas published the Symbolist Manifesto in Le Figaro on 18 September 1886; the Symbolist Manifesto names Charles Baudelaire, Stéphane Mallarmé, Paul Verlaine as the three leading poets of the movement. Moréas announced that symbolism was hostile to "plain meanings, false sentimentality and matter-of-fact description", that its goal instead was to "clothe the Ideal in a perceptible form" whose "goal was not in itself, but whose sole purpose was to express the Ideal." Ainsi, dans cet art, les tableaux de la nature, les actions des humains, tous les phénomènes concrets ne sauraient se manifester eux-mêmes. In a nutshell, as Mallarmé writes in a letter to his friend Cazalis,'to depict not the thing but the effect it produces'; the symbolist poets wished to liberate techniques of versification in order to allow greater room for "fluidity", as such were sympathetic with the trend toward free verse, as evident in the poems of Gustave Kahn and Ezra Pound.
Symbolist poems were attempts to evoke, rather than to describe. T. S. Eliot was influenced by the poets Jules Laforgue, Paul Valéry and Arthur Rimbaud who used the techniques of the Symbolist school, though it has been said that'Imagism' was the style to which both Pound and Eliot subscribed. Synesthesia was a prized experience. In Baudelaire's poem Correspondences mentions forêts de symboles – forests of symbols – Il est des parfums frais comme des chairs d'enfants,Doux comme les hautbois, verts comme les prairies,– Et d'autres, riches et triomphants,Ayant l'expansion des choses infinies,Comme l'ambre, le musc, le benjoin et l'encens,Qui chantent le
Antoni Lange was a Polish poet, polyglot, novelist, science-writer and translator. A representative of Polish Parnassianism and symbolism, he is regarded as belonging to the Decadent movement, he was a popularizer of Eastern cultures. His novel Miranda is known in some circles, he translated English, Hungarian, Spanish, American, Serbian and Oriental writers into Polish and Polish poets into French and English. He was one of the most original poets of the Young Poland movement, his work is compared to Stéphane Mallarmé and Charles Marie René Leconte de Lisle. Lange was an uncle of the poet Bolesław Leśmian. Lange was born in Warsaw into the patriotic Jewish family of Zofia née Eisenbaum, his father took part in the November Uprising against the Russian Partition of Poland. He was an admirerer of its ideals. Antoni Lange enrolled at Warsaw University but around 1880 he was expelled for his patriotic activity by the Tsarist namiestnik Apuchtin who ruled the university at that time, he supported himself financially as a tutor but published poetry under the pen-names Napierski and Antoni Wrzesień.
He decided to study in Paris where he encountered new trends in literature and art. In France he became familiar with the theories of Jean Martin Charcot, as well as Spiritualism, the philosophy of Arthur Schopenhauer and Friedrich Nietzsche, oriental religions and Eastern literature and modern literary criticism, he took part in the literary meetings of Stéphane Mallarmé. Lange returned to his homeland upon Poland's return to independence, became one of the better known members of the Warsaw Society of Writers and Journalists, the precursor of the Polish Academy of Literature founded in 1933. Bolesław Prus, Julian Ochorowicz and Lange were the first Polish spiritists, he rented an apartment at Nowy Świat Street together with Władysław Reymont, a Polish writer and the winner of the Nobel Prize of 1924. Stanisław Brzozowski called Lange a real and not European mind and Julian Tuwim called him a master of reflective poetry. During this time Lange was a member of the Society of Polish Writers and Journalists.
However, with the sharp growth of his popularity as a poet his poems became more sceptical and hermetic. The main theme of the poems of this period was the feeling of being isolated and misunderstood by the crowd. At the beginning of the 20th century he became lonely and forgotten, he never allowed anyone to publish them. Lange's prestige as a writer was undermined by a new generation of avant-gardists, he died in isolation and obscurity in Warsaw in 1929. He never had no children. Antoni Lange was a friend of Jan Kasprowicz and Stanisław Przybyszewski. There are only two portraits of Lange, one of them was painted by Stanisław Wyspiański in 1890. Lange was a versatile writer, he wrote many novels, short stories, dramas and poems. Lange's poetry is erudite, it connects the traditions of European culture with Buddhism. The overriding theme of Lange's existential concerns was'extremity' and the'cycle' of death. In order to form of the poetry Lange connect to contradictory points of impressionism, romantic sentimentality and experimentary theories of Stéphane Mallarmé.
Lange was fond of rare poetic forms: acrostics, pantoums, scherzos and triolets. He was the author of many pastorals concerning the metaphysical side of village life. Lange was the author of many lyrical essays presenting original views about the relationship between poet and reader concerning eschatological issues. In the first phase of his writing he was a lover of esthetism, formal innovation and the theories of Stéphane Mallarmé; however he faced to primitivism, writings of folk poets and 16th century poets and blank verse. Both Lange and Jerzy Żuławski are referred to as "The Pioneers of Polish Science-Fiction". Lange's short stories from the book W czwartym wymiarze such as Babunia, Lenora, Nowe mieszkanie and Memoriał doktora Czang-Fu-Li are regarded as early examples of science fiction and weird fiction in Poland; the main themes of the stories are: hypnosis, the elixir of youth, eternal love and the materialization of phantoms. On a different note, Dr. Chang Fu Li's eponymous report, "written in Paris in 2652", is concerned with the climate change brought about by the re-routing of the Gulf Stream and the subsequent freezing over of Europe, with China taking over as the leading civilization.
Lange's works influenced many poets of the next generation, for example: Bolesław Leśmian, Antoni Słonimski, Julian Tuwim, Julian Przyboś, Jan Lechoń, Leopold Staff. Paradoxically, most of these poets criticized Lange for his anachronism and overintellectualism. Lange was a left wing journalist, he wrote for many important Polish newspapers such as Pobudka, Tygodnik Illustrowany or Przegląd tygodniowy. He created an original way of cultural assimilation for Jews via mixed marriage. Lange's numerous translations of classic 19th century literature from all over the world are still regarded, his translations of The
Paul-Marie Verlaine was a French poet associated with the Decadent movement. He is considered one of the greatest representatives of the fin de siècle in international and French poetry. Born in Metz, Verlaine was educated at the Lycée Impérial Bonaparte in Paris and took up a post in the civil service, he began writing poetry at an early age, was influenced by the Parnassien movement and its leader, Leconte de Lisle. Verlaine's first published poem was published in 1863 in La Revue du progrès, a publication founded by poet Louis-Xavier de Ricard. Verlaine was a frequenter of the salon of the Marquise de Ricard at 10 Boulevard des Batignolles and other social venues, where he rubbed shoulders with prominent artistic figures of the day: Anatole France, Emmanuel Chabrier, inventor-poet and humorist Charles Cros, the cynical anti-bourgeois idealist Villiers de l'Isle-Adam, Théodore de Banville, François Coppée, Jose-Maria de Heredia, Leconte de Lisle, Catulle Mendes and others. Verlaine's first published collection, Poèmes saturniens, though adversely commented upon by Sainte-Beuve, established him as a poet of promise and originality.
Verlaine's private life spills over into his work, beginning with his love for Mathilde Mauté de Fleurville. Mathilde became Verlaine's wife in 1870. At the proclamation of the Third Republic in the same year, Verlaine joined the 160th battalion of the Garde nationale, turning Communard on 18 March 1871, he became head of the press bureau of the Central Committee of the Paris Commune. Verlaine escaped the deadly street fighting known as the Bloody Week, or Semaine Sanglante, went into hiding in the Pas-de-Calais. Verlaine returned to Paris in August 1871, and, in September, he received the first letter from Arthur Rimbaud, who admired his poetry, he urged Rimbaud to come to Paris, by 1872, he had lost interest in Mathilde, abandoned her and their son, preferring the company of his new lover. Rimbaud and Verlaine's stormy affair took them to London in 1872. In Brussels in July 1873 in a drunken, jealous rage, he fired two shots with a pistol at Rimbaud, wounding his left wrist, though not injuring the poet.
As an indirect result of this incident, Verlaine was arrested and imprisoned at Mons, where he underwent a re-conversion to Roman Catholicism, which again influenced his work and provoked Rimbaud's sharp criticism. The poems collected in Romances sans paroles were written between 1872 and 1873, inspired by Verlaine's nostalgically colored recollections of his life with Mathilde on the one hand and impressionistic sketches of his on-again off-again year-long escapade with Rimbaud on the other. Romances sans. Following his release from prison, Verlaine again traveled to England, where he worked for some years as a teacher, teaching French and Greek, drawing at a grammar school in Stickney in Lincolnshire. From there he went to teach in nearby Boston, before moving to Bournemouth. While in England he produced another successful collection, Sagesse, he returned to France in 1877 and, while teaching English at a school in Rethel, fell in love with one of his pupils, Lucien Létinois, who inspired Verlaine to write further poems.
Verlaine was devastated when Létinois died of typhus in 1883. Verlaine's last years saw his descent into drug addiction and poverty, he lived in slums and public hospitals, spent his days drinking absinthe in Paris cafes. However, the people's love for his art was able to resurrect support and bring in an income for Verlaine: his early poetry was rediscovered, his lifestyle and strange behaviour in front of crowds attracted admiration, in 1894 he was elected France's "Prince of Poets" by his peers, his poetry was admired and recognized as ground-breaking, served as a source of inspiration to composers. Gabriel Fauré composed many mélodies, such as the song cycles Cinq mélodies "de Venise" and La bonne chanson, which were settings of Verlaine's poems. Claude Debussy set to music Clair de lune and six of the Fêtes galantes poems, forming part of the mélodie collection known as the Recueil Vasnier. Reynaldo Hahn set several of Verlaine's poems, his drug dependence and alcoholism took a toll on his life.
Paul Verlaine died in Paris at the age of 51 on 8 January 1896. Much of the French poetry produced during the fin de siècle was characterized as "decadent" for its lurid content or moral vision. In a similar vein, Verlaine used the expression poète maudit in 1884 to refer to a number of poets like Stéphane Mallarmé, Arthur Rimbaud, Aloysius Bertrand, Comte de Lautréamont or Alice de Chambrier, who had fought against poetic conventions and suffered social rebuke or were ignored by the critics, but with the publication of Jean Moréas' Symbolist Manifesto in 1886, it was the term symbolism, most applied to the new literary environment. Along with Verlaine, Mallarmé, Paul Valéry, Albert Samain and many others began to be referred to as "Symbolists." These poets would share themes that parallel Schopenhauer's aesthetics and notions of will and unconscious forces, used themes of sex, the city, irrational phenomena, sometimes a vaguely medieval setting. I
Andrew Lang was a Scottish poet, literary critic, contributor to the field of anthropology. He is best known as a collector of fairy tales; the Andrew Lang lectures at the University of St Andrews are named after him. Lang was born on 31 March 1844 in Selkirk, he was the eldest of the eight children born to John Lang, the town clerk of Selkirk, his wife Jane Plenderleath Sellar, the daughter of Patrick Sellar, factor to the first duke of Sutherland. On 17 April 1875, he married Leonora Blanche Alleyne, youngest daughter of C. T. Alleyne of Clifton and Barbados, she was variously credited as author, collaborator, or translator of Lang's Color/Rainbow Fairy Books which he edited. He was educated at Selkirk Grammar School, Loretto School, the Edinburgh Academy, as well as the University of St Andrews and Balliol College, where he took a first class in the final classical schools in 1868, becoming a fellow and subsequently honorary fellow of Merton College, he soon made a reputation as one of the most able and versatile writers of the day as a journalist, poet and historian.
In 1906, he was elected FBA. He died of angina pectoris on 20 July 1912 at the Tor-na-Coille Hotel in Banchory, survived by his wife, he was buried in the cathedral precincts at St Andrews, where a monument can be visited in the south-east corner of the 19th century section. Lang is now chiefly known for his publications on folklore and religion; the interest in folklore was from early life. Tylor; the earliest of his publications is Myth. In Myth and Religion he explained the "irrational" elements of mythology as survivals from more primitive forms. Lang's Making of Religion was influenced by the 18th century idea of the "noble savage": in it, he maintained the existence of high spiritual ideas among so-called "savage" races, drawing parallels with the contemporary interest in occult phenomena in England, his Blue Fairy Book was a beautifully produced and illustrated edition of fairy tales that has become a classic. This was followed by many other collections of fairy tales, collectively known as Andrew Lang's Fairy Books.
In the preface of the Lilac Fairy Book he credits his wife with translating and transcribing most of the stories in the collections. Lang examined the origins of totemism in Social Origins. Lang was one of the founders of "psychical research" and his other writings on anthropology include The Book of Dreams and Ghosts and Religion and The Secret of the Totem, he served as President of the Society for Psychical Research in 1911. Lang extensively cited nineteenth- and twentieth-century European spiritualism to challenge the idea of his teacher, that belief in spirits and animism were inherently irrational. Lang used Tyler's work and his own psychical research in an effort to posit an anthropological critique of materialism, he collaborated with S. H. Butcher in a prose translation of Homer's Odyssey, with E. Myers and Walter Leaf in a prose version of the Iliad, both still noted for their archaic but attractive style, he was a Homeric scholar of conservative views. Other works include Homer and the Study of Greek found in Essays in Little and the Epic.
Lang's writings on Scottish history are characterised by a scholarly care for detail, a piquant literary style, a gift for disentangling complicated questions. The Mystery of Mary Stuart was a consideration of the fresh light thrown on Mary, Queen of Scots, by the Lennox manuscripts in the University Library, approving of her and criticising her accusers, he wrote monographs on The Portraits and Jewels of Mary Stuart and James VI and the Gowrie Mystery. The somewhat unfavourable view of John Knox presented in his book John Knox and the Reformation aroused considerable controversy, he gave new information about the continental career of the Young Pretender in Pickle the Spy, an account of Alestair Ruadh MacDonnell, whom he identified with Pickle, a notorious Hanoverian spy. This was followed by a monograph on Prince Charles Edward. In 1900 he began a History of Scotland from the Roman Occupation; the Valet's Tragedy, which takes its title from an essay on Dumas's Man in the Iron Mask, collects twelve papers on historical mysteries, A Monk of Fife is a fictitious narrative purporting to be written by a young Scot in France in 1429–1431.
Lang's earliest publication was a volume of metrical experiments, The Ballads and Lyrics of Old France, this was followed at intervals by other volumes of dainty verse, Ballades in Blue China and Verses Vain, selected by Mr Austin Dobson. Lang was active as a journalist in various ways, ranging from sparkling "leaders" for the Daily News to miscellaneous articles for the Morning Post, for many years he was literary editor of Longman's Magazine, he edited The Poems and Songs of Robert Burns, was responsible for the Life and Letters of JG Lockhart, The Life and Diaries of Sir Stafford Northcote, 1st Earl of Iddesleigh. Lang discussed lite
José-Maria de Heredia
José-Maria de Heredia was a Cuban-born French Parnassian poet. He was the fifteenth member elected for seat 4 of the Académie française in 1894. Heredia was born at Fortuna Cafeyere, near Santiago de Cuba, to Domingo de Heredia Mieses Pimentel Guridi native of Santo Domingo and his second wife, French Louise Girardof. At the age of eight he went from the West Indies to France, returning to Havana at age seventeen, making France his home not long afterwards, he received his classical education with the priests of Saint Vincent at Senlis, after his visit to Havana he studied at the Ecole des Chartes at Paris. During the 1860s, with François Edouard Joachim Coppée, René François Armand Sully-Prudhomme, Paul Verlaine and others less distinguished, he was one of the poets who associated with Charles Leconte de Lisle, were given the name of "Parnassiens". To this new school, form – the technical part of their art – was of supreme importance, and, as a reaction against the influence of Alfred de Musset, they repressed in their work the expression of personal feeling and emotion.
"True poetry," said M. de Heredia in his discourse on entering the Academy, "dwells in nature and in humanity, which are eternal, not in the heart of the creature of a day, however great." De Heredia wrote little, published less, but his sonnets were circulated in manuscript form, gave him a reputation before they were published in 1893, together with a few longer poems, as a volume, with the title Les Trophées. In the original work, he called to his great friend, the artist Ernest Jean-Marie Millard de Bois Durand, to illustrate his book of original watercolors, he was granted French nationality in 1893 and was subsequently elected to the Académie française on 22 February 1894, in the place of Charles de Mazade the publicist. Few purely literary men can have entered the Academy with so few credentials. A small volume of verse, but the sonnets are of their kind among the most skilled of modern literature. "A Légende des siècles in sonnets" M. François Coppée termed them. In 1901 de Heredia became librarian of the Bibliothèque de l'Arsenal at Paris.
He died at the Château de Bourdonné in Seine-et-Oise on 3 October 1905, having completed his critical edition of André Chénier's works. José María Heredia y Campuzano Cuban poet Severiano de Heredia Cuban-born politician naturalized as French "José-Maria de Heredia". Académie française. 2009. Archived from the original on 2009-02-14. Retrieved 2009-01-18; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Heredia, José Maria de". Encyclopædia Britannica. 13. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 349–350. Works by José-Maria de Heredia at Project Gutenberg Works by or about José-Maria de Heredia at Internet Archive Works by José-Maria de Heredia at LibriVox
René François Armand Prudhomme was a French poet and essayist. He was the first winner of the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1901. Born in Paris, Prudhomme studied to be an engineer, but turned to philosophy and to poetry. In character sincere and melancholic, he was linked to the Parnassus school, although, at the same time, his work displays characteristics of its own. Prudhomme was born to a French shopkeeper. Prudhomme attended the Lycée Bonaparte, he worked for a while in the Creusot region for the Schneider steel foundry, began studying law in a notary's office. The favourable reception of his early poems by the Conférence La Bruyère encouraged him to begin a literary career, his first collection, Stances et Poèmes, was praised by Sainte-Beuve. It included his most famous poem, Le vase brisé, he published more poetry before the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian War. This war, which he discussed in Impressions de la guerre and La France, permanently damaged his health. During his career, Prudhomme shifted from the sentimental style of his first books towards a more personal style which unified the formality of the Parnassus school with his interest in philosophical and scientific subjects.
The inspiration was Lucretius's De rerum natura, for the first book of which he made a verse translation. His philosophy was expressed in Le Bonheur; the extreme economy of means employed in these poems has, however been judged as compromising their poetical quality without advancing their claims as works of philosophy. He was elected to the Académie française in 1881. Another distinction, Chevalier de la Légion d’honneur, was to follow in 1895. After, Le Bonheur, Prudhomme turned from poetry to write essays on aesthetics and philosophy, he published two important essays: L'Expression dans les beaux-arts and Réflexions sur l'art des vers, a series of articles on Blaise Pascal in La Revue des Deux Mondes, an article on free will in the Revue de métaphysique et de morale. The first writer to receive the Nobel Prize for Literature, he devoted the bulk of the money he received to the creation of a poetry prize awarded by the Société des gens de lettres, he founded, in 1902, the Société des poètes français with Jose-Maria de Heredia and Leon Dierx.
At the end of his life, his poor health forced him to live as a recluse at Châtenay-Malabry, suffering attacks of paralysis while continuing to work on essays. He died on 6 September 1907, was buried at Père-Lachaise in Paris. 1865: Stances et poèmes 1866: Les épreuves 1868: Croquis italiens 1869: Les solitudes: poésies 1872: Les destins 1874: La révolte des fleurs 1874: La France 1875: Les vaines tendresses 1876: Le zénith published in Revue des deux mondes 1878: La justice 1865–1888: Poésie 1886: Le prisme, poésies diverses 1888: Le bonheur 1908: Épaves 1883–1908: Œuvres de Sully Prudhomme, 8 volumes, A. Lemerre 1896: Que sais-je? 1901: Testament poétique 1905: La vraie religion selon Pascal 1922: Journal intime: lettres-pensée Gale Contemporary Authors Online, from the Gale Biography Resource Center database Petri Liukkonen. "Sully Prudhomme". Books and Writers Sully Prudhomme – Biography at www.nobel.se britannica.com Poesies.net: Sully Prudhomme Poesies.net: Le Zénith Works by Sully Prudhomme at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Sully Prudhomme at Internet Archive Works by Sully Prudhomme at LibriVox
Mount Parnassus is a mountain of limestone in central Greece that towers above Delphi, north of the Gulf of Corinth, offers scenic views of the surrounding olive groves and countryside. According to Greek mythology, this mountain was sacred to the Dionysian mysteries; the mountain was favored by the Dorians. It is suggested that the name derives from parnassas, the possessive adjective of the Luwian word parna meaning house, or temple, so the name means the mountain of the house of the god. Parnassus is one of the largest mountainous regions of Mainland Greece and one of the highest Greek mountains, it spreads over three municipalities, namely of Boeotia and Phocis, where its largest part lies. Its altitude is 2,457 meters and its highest peak is Liakouras. To the Northeast it is connected to the south with Kirphe, its name is due to the homonymous hero of the Greek mythology, son of Cleopompus and Cleodora, who had built on the mountain a city, destroyed in the Deluge of Deukalion. Etymological analysis, shows a prehellenic origin of the name, relating it to the Pelasgians, it appears to be from the Anatolian language Luwian.
The mountain is delimited to the east by the valley of the Boeotian Kephissus and to the West by the valley of Amfissa. The geological particularity of Parnassus is its rich deposits of bauxite, which has led to their systematic mining since the end of the 1930s, resulting in ecological damage to part of the mountain. Mount Parnassus is named after the son of the nymph Kleodora and the man Kleopompus. A city, of which Parnassos was leader, was flooded by torrential rains; the citizens ran from following wolves' howling, up the mountain slope. There the survivors built another city, called it Lykoreia, which in Greek means "the howling of the wolves." While Orpheus was living with his mother and his eight beautiful aunts on Parnassus, he met Apollo, courting the laughing muse Thalia. Apollo became fond of Orpheus and gave him a little golden lyre, taught him to play it. Orpheus's mother taught him to make verses for singing; as the Oracle of Delphi was sacred to the god Apollo, so did the mountain itself become associated with Apollo.
According to some traditions, Parnassus was the site of the fountain Castalia and the home of the Muses. As the home of the Muses, Parnassus became known as the home of poetry and learning. Parnassus was the site of several unrelated minor events in Greek mythology. In some versions of the Greek flood myth, the ark of Deucalion comes to rest on the slopes of Parnassus; this is the version of the myth recounted in Ovid's Metamorphoses. Orestes spent his time in hiding on Mount Parnassus. Parnassus was sacred to the god Dionysus; the Corycian Cave, located on the slopes of Parnassus, was sacred to the Muses. In Book 19 of The Odyssey, Odysseus recounts a story of how he was gored in the thigh during a boar hunt on Mount Parnassus in his youth. Parnassus was the home of Pegasus, the winged horse of Bellerophon; this relation of the mountain to the Muses offered an instigation to its more recent "mystification", with the poetic-artistic trend of the 19th century called "Parnassism". The Parnassic movement was established in France in the decade 1866–1876 as a reaction to Romanticism with a return to some classicistic elements and belief in the doctrine "Art for the Art", first expressed by Theophile Gautier.
The periodical Modern Parnassus issued for the first time by Catul Mendes and Xavier Ricard contained direct references to Mt. Parnassus and its mythological feature as habitation of the Muses; the Parnassists, who did not exceed a group of twenty poets, exercised a strong influence on the cultural life of Paris due to their tenacity on perfection of rhyme and vocabulary. Parnassism influenced several French poets, but it exercised an influence on Modern Greek poets Kostis Palamas and Gryparis; the name of the mountain was given to a quarter of Paris on the left bank of the Seine, where artists and poets used to gather and recite their poems in public. Montparnasse is nowadays one of the most renowned quarters of the city and in its cemetery many personalities of the arts and culture are buried. Parnassus figures earlier in Jonathan Swift's The Battle of the Books as the site of an ideological war between the ancients and the moderns; the significant biodiversity, both in flora and in fauna, led the authorities to the establishment of the National Park of Parnassus in 1938, the year when the systematic mining of bauxite started.
The Park comprises a landscape of 15,000 hectares spreading on the mountainous region between Delphi and Agoriani. Among the endemic flora species under protection are the Cephalonian fir tree and the Parnassian peony. In the Park sojourn prey birds and wolves, boars and weasels; the slopes of Mount Parnassus are composed of two ski sections and Fterolakka, which together make up the largest ski center in Greece. A smaller ski center called. Parnassus is mined for its abundant supply of bauxite, converted to aluminium oxide and to aluminium; the construction of the ski resort started in 1975 and was completed in 1976, when the first two drag lifts operated in Fterolaka. In 1981 the construction of a new ski area was completed in Kelaria, while in winter season 1987–1988 the chair lift Hermes started operat