A political party is an organized group of people with common views, who come together to contest elections and hold power in the government. The party agrees on some proposed policies and programmes, with a view to promoting the collective good or furthering their supporters' interests. While there is some international commonality in the way political parties are recognized and in how they operate, there are many differences, some are significant. Many political parties have an ideological core, but some do not, many represent ideologies different from their ideology at the time the party was founded. Many countries, such as Germany and India, have several significant political parties, some nations have one-party systems, such as China and Cuba; the United States is in practice a two-party system but with many smaller parties participating and a high degree of autonomy for individual candidates. Political factions have existed in democratic societies since ancient times. Plato writes in his Republic on the formation of political cliques in Classical Athens, the tendency of Athenian citizens to vote according to factional loyalty rather than for the public good.
In the Roman Republic, Polybius coined the term ochlocracy to describe the tendency of politicians to mobilise popular factionalist sentiment against their political rivals. Factional politics remained a part of Roman political life through the Imperial period and beyond, the poet Juvenal coined the phrase "bread and circuses" to describe the political class pandering to the citizenry through diversionary entertainments rather than through arguments about policy. "Bread and circuses" survived as part of Byzantine political life - for example, the Nika revolt during the reign of Justinian was a riot between the "Blues" and the "Greens"—two chariot racing factions at the Hippodrome, who received patronage from different Senatorial factions and religious sects. The patricians who sponsored the Blues and the Greens competed with each other to hold grander games and public entertainments during electoral campaigns, in order to appeal to the citizenry of Constantinople; the first modern political factions, can be said to have originated in early modern Britain.
The first political factions, cohering around a basic, if fluid, set of principles, emerged from the Exclusion Crisis and Glorious Revolution in late 17th century England. The Whigs supported Protestant constitutional monarchy against absolute rule, they were interested in the citizens of United Kingdom being free from the aristocracy and opposed to any tyranny, however they supported the constitutional aristocracy and does not consider the British nobility abusive because of its limits; the leader of the Whigs was Robert Walpole, who maintained control of the government in the period 1721–1742. As the century wore on, the factions began to adopt more coherent political tendencies as the interests of their power bases began to diverge; the Whig party's initial base of support from the great aristocratic families widened to include the emerging industrial interests and wealthy merchants. As well as championing constitutional monarchy with strict limits on the monarch's power, the Whigs adamantly opposed a Catholic king as a threat to liberty, believed in extending toleration to nonconformist Protestants, or dissenters.
A major influence on the Whigs were the liberal political ideas of John Locke, the concepts of universal rights employed by Locke and Algernon Sidney. Although the Tories were out of office for half a century, for most of this period the Tories retained party cohesion, with occasional hopes of regaining office at the accession of George II and the downfall of the ministry of Sir Robert Walpole in 1742, they acted as a united, though unavailing, opposition to Whig corruption and scandals. At times they cooperated with the "Opposition Whigs", Whigs who were in opposition to the Whig government, they regained power with the accession of George III in 1760 under Lord Bute. When they lost power, the old Whig leadership dissolved into a decade of factional chaos with distinct "Grenvillite", "Bedfordite", "Rockinghamite", "Chathamite" factions successively in power, all referring to themselves as "Whigs". Out of this chaos, the first distinctive parties emerged; the first such party was the Rockingham Whigs under the leadership of Charles Watson-Wentworth and the intellectual guidance of the political philosopher Edmund Burke.
Burke laid out a philosophy that described the basic framework of the political party as "a body of men united for promoting by their joint endeavours the national interest, upon some particular principle in which they are all agreed". As opposed to the instability of the earlier factions, which were tied to a particular leader and could disintegrate if removed from power, the party was centred around a set of core principles and remained out of power as a united opposition to government. A coalition including the Rockingham Whigs, led by the Earl of She
Ordino is the most northerly parish in the Principality of Andorra. It's the main area of Valira del Nord or Valira d'Ordino river valley. Ordino is the name of the main town of the parish. Other settlements in the parish are El Serrat, Sornàs, La Cortinada, Segudet, Les Salines and Arcalís, it is home to the Sorteny National Park, the largest nature area of Andorra. It has a population of 4,858, as of 2017; the town preserves a vast medieval center linked to the culture of the country. The parish has borders with France and with the parishes of La Massana and Encamp; the only main road and only all year external link is the CG-3 leading to the neighbouring parish of La Massana. With 85 km ² is the third largest parish after Encamp; the town of Ordino lies on the footslopes of Casamanya, a mountain which has spectacular panoramic views from its summit being located exactly in the centre of Andorra. The etymological origin of the name of the parish Ordino and its capital is pre-Roman, it is documented for the first time in the Acta de Consagració i Dotació de la Catedral de la Seu d'Urgell, during the 9th century, as Hordinavi or Sant Cebrià d'Hordinavi.
Ordino is known for its ironworks of the 16th century Farga del Serrat and Farga de l'Areny. Besides being the industrial center of Andorra, Ordino is considered the cultural center of Andorra. Here Antoni Fiter i Rossell wrote the Manual Digest, called the "Bible of Andorra," which tells the story, the government and the Andorran customs; the town of Ordino include the parish church of Sant Corneli i Sant Cebrià mentioned in 839, was built during the 12th and 13th centuries. The Romanesque church of Sant Martí de la Cortinada, with 12th-century murals, is a good example of romanesque Andorran art. Manor houses like Fiter-Riba or Casa Rossell, which holds the original Manual Digest and Areny-Plandolit family house, owners of Farga de l'Areny, represented the good society of Andorra between the 17th and 19th centuries. Both mansions were acquired in 1972 by Consell General and converted into an ethnological and historical museum; the parish and town is the namesake of the Andorran legend El buner d'Ordino, in which a bagpiper from Ordino, en route to a festival in Canillo, is chased and treed by wolves, but frightens them off by playing his instrument.
Ordino has been part of the culture of Andorra and the Catalan language as major headquarter of Fundacio Ramon Llull, an international organization constituted in 2008 in order to promote Catalan language and culture internationally. The National Auditorium of Andorra is located in Ordino town; the International Narciso Yepes Festival, a series of classical music concerts, has been held there every October since 1983. The festival was started by Narciso Yepes; the Postal and Postcard Museum of Andorra and the Miniature Museum are localed in the parish of Ordino. La Ruta del Ferro, which translates into English as the Iron Route, is a cultural route of old iron ore mines and rural cottages across the Valira del Nord, between Llorts and La Cortinada, it is part of the old road that the carriers used to carry the iron from the mines of Llorts to the ironwork forges of La Massana. A festival rooted in the town of Ordino is El Roser d'Ordino or The Rose Festival, in which the processions and devotions during the month of July have given way to the Roses festival, a spring symbol linked to love and devotion.
Traditionally, the day before the youth went to pick roses that grew in the fields and orchards, preparing the bouquets and placed in a basket that gave to women. The celebration was religious in the morning, in the afternoon there was a parade and a harvest and everything ended with a dance at night. During two days the first weekend of August, the streets of Ordino are filled with buners, an aerophone instrument that receives a wide variety of names depending on the area and is a symbol of the parish by its legend. All events are popular, celebrated by local people and parishioners, who have gone from town to town and from a popular festival to a popular festival playing the bagpipes; the sings of Caramelles, its dances, are popular and traditional in the parish. The Comú d'Ordino, the local government, has a sports center with swimming pool, squash and rock climbing wall. It's the parish were the start and finish of Ultra Trail Andorra take place, one of the most important mountain trail races in Southern Europe.
FC Ordino, founded in 2010, is one of the major sport clubs in the parish. The club's football section plays in Primera Divisió, the Andorran Premier Division. In the extreme northwest of the parish is the Vallnord ski resort. Vallnord is part of the annually Freeride World Tour El Dorado route since 2015, as part of the major ski events in Andorra; the ski station has hosted since 2005 main stages of the European Championships of Ski Mountaineering and World Championships of Ski Mountaineering. During summer the ski resort is open as bike park. In mountain biking, Vallnord was the venue for events during the 2008, 2009 and 2013 UCI Mountain
New Centre (Andorra)
The New Centre is a Christian democratic political party in Andorra. The party was founded in 2005 as a merger between the Andorran Democratic Centre and Century 21 political parties after they had been in an electoral alliance since 2001; the new party joined the centre-right Reformist Coalition for the Andorran parliamentary election, 2009 which gained 11 seats in the General Council of the Valleys. Official website
Liberal Party of Andorra
The Liberal Party of Andorra is a conservative-liberal political party in Andorra. It is the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe; the party was established as the Liberal Union in 1992 by Marc Forné Molné. In the 1993 elections it received 22% of the vote and won five seats, making it the second largest party in the General Council. Although the party was in opposition after Òscar Ribas Reig formed a progressive coalition government, Ribas was forced out of office after losing a vote of no confidence and Forné became Prime Minister on 7 December 1994. After two votes of no confidence, Forné called early elections in 1997. In the run-up to the elections the Union formed alliances with several local parties, including the Liberal Union–Liberal Group of Encamp, the Liberal Opinion Group and Renewal and the Lauredian Union, with the local parties contesting only at the parish level; the Union won 16 seats of which GOL took four, UL two and the UiR two, with Forné remaining Prime Minister.
Shortly before the 2001 elections the party was renamed the Liberal Party of Andorra. It won 46.1 % of 15 seats, with Forné again remaining Prime Minister. In the 2005 elections the party lost another seat, but was still able to form a government, this time led by Albert Pintat. Pintat resigned the leadership, which passed before the 2009 elections. In the elections the party was part of the Reformist Coalition alongside the Lauredian Union, Century 21, two other political parties; the Coalition won 11 seats, whilst the Social Democrats won 14 seats and gained control of the government. In the run up to the 2011 parliamentary election, the Liberal Party and the other members of the Reformist Coalition gave support to the Democrats for Andorra; the new party chose Antoni Martí as leader and won the election on 3 April 2011 a landslide with 20 of the General Council's 28 seats. Half way through the first term in office of Democrats for Andorra, a group of party activists started to work in order to run again separately in the 2015 elections.
They presented their new name Liberals of Andorra and they announced their intention to stand candidates in the next parliamentary election. In the 2015 parliamentary election held on 1 March 2015, the Liberal Party received 27.7% of the vote and 8 seats in the General Council. Emili Prats Grau Joan Albert Farré Santuré Liberalism Contributions to liberal theory Liberalism worldwide List of liberal parties Liberal democracy Official website
Andorra the Principality of Andorra called the Principality of the Valleys of Andorra, is a sovereign landlocked microstate on the Iberian Peninsula, in the eastern Pyrenees, bordering France to the north and Spain to the south. Believed to have been created by Charlemagne, Andorra was ruled by the Count of Urgell until 988, when it was transferred to the Roman Catholic Diocese of Urgell, the present principality was formed by a charter in 1278, it is known as a principality as it is a diarchy headed by two Princes: the Catholic Bishop of Urgell in Catalonia and the President of France. Andorra is the sixth-smallest nation in Europe, having an area of 468 square kilometres and a population of 77,281; the Andorran people are a Romance ethnic group of Catalan descent. Andorra is the 16th-smallest country in the 11th-smallest by population, its capital, Andorra la Vella, is the highest capital city in Europe, at an elevation of 1,023 metres above sea level. The official language is Catalan. Tourism in Andorra sees an estimated 10.2 million visitors annually.
It is not a member of the European Union. It has been a member of the United Nations since 1993. In 2013, Andorra had the highest life expectancy in the world at 81 years, according to the Global Burden of Disease Study; the origin of the word Andorra is unknown. The oldest derivation of the word Andorra is from the Greek historian Polybius who describes the Andosins, an Iberian Pre-Roman tribe, as located in the valleys of Andorra and facing the Carthaginian army in its passage through the Pyrenees during the Punic Wars; the word Andosini or Andosins may derive from the Basque handia whose meaning is "big" or "giant". The Andorran toponymy shows evidence of Basque language in the area. Another theory suggests that the word Andorra may derive from the old word Anorra that contains the Basque word ur. Another theory suggests that Andorra may derive from Arabic al-durra, meaning "The forest"; when the Moors colonized the Iberian Peninsula, the valleys of the Pyrenees were covered by large tracts of forest, other regions and towns administered by Muslims, received this designation.
Other theories suggest that the term derives from the Navarro-Aragonese andurrial, which means "land covered with bushes" or "scrubland". The folk etymology holds that Charlemagne had named the region as a reference to the Biblical Canaanite valley of Endor or Andor, a name bestowed by his heir and son Louis le Debonnaire after defeating the Moors in the "wild valleys of Hell". La Balma de la Margineda, found by archaeologists at Sant Julia de Loria, was first settled in 9,500 BC as a passing place between the two sides of the Pyrenees; the seasonal camp was located for hunting and fishing by the groups of hunter-gatherers from Ariege and Segre. During the Neolithic Age, a group of people moved to the Valley of Madriu as a permanent camp in 6640 BC; the population of the valley grew cereals, raised domestic livestock, developed a commercial trade with people from the Segre and Occitania. Other archaeological deposits include the Tombs of Segudet and Feixa del Moro both dated in 4900–4300 BC as an example of the Urn culture in Andorra.
The model of small settlements began to evolve to a complex urbanism during the Bronze Age. Metallurgical items of iron, ancient coins, relicaries can be found in the ancient sanctuaries scattered around the country; the sanctuary of Roc de les Bruixes is the most important archeological complex of this age in Andorra, located in the parish of Canillo, about the rituals of funerals, ancient scripture and engraved stone murals. The inhabitants of the valleys were traditionally associated with the Iberians and located in Andorra as the Iberian tribe Andosins or Andosini during the 7th and 2nd centuries BC. Influenced by Aquitanias and Iberian languages, the locals developed some current toponyms. Early writings and documents relating to this group of people goes back to the second century BC by the Greek writer Polybius in his Histories during the Punic Wars; some of the most significant remains of this era are the Castle of the Roc d'Enclar, l'Anxiu in Les Escaldes and Roc de L'Oral in Encamp.
The presence of Roman influence is recorded from the 2nd century BC to the 5th century AD. The places found with more Roman presence are in Camp Vermell in Sant Julia de Loria, in some places in Encamp, as well as in the Roc d'Enclar. People continued trading with wine and cereals, with the Roman cities of Urgellet and all across Segre through the Via Romana Strata Ceretana. After the fall of the Roman Empire, Andorra came under the influence of the Visigoths, not remotely from the Kingdom of Toledo, but locally from the Diocese of Urgell; the Visigoths remained in the valleys for 200 years. When the Muslim Empire and its conquest of most of the Iberian Peninsula replaced the ruling Visigoths, Andorra was sheltered from these invaders by the Franks. Tradition holds that Charles the Great granted a charter to the Andorran people for a contingent of five thousand soldiers under the command of Marc Almugaver, in
Social Democracy and Progress
Social Democracy and Progress is a social-democratic political party in Andorra led by Víctor Naudi Zamora. Established in May 2013, the PSD ran in the 2015 parliamentary elections. In the constituency elections the party failed to win a seat. However, it received 11% of the proportional representation vote, winning two seats. Official website
Politics of Andorra
The politics of Andorra take place in a framework of a parliamentary constitutional diarchy, a multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government, with the Head of Government of Andorra as chief executive. Legislative power is vested in both the parliament; the judiciary is independent of the legislature. Before 1993, Andorra's political system had no clear division of powers into executive and judicial branches. A constitution ratified and approved in 1993 establishes Andorra as a sovereign parliamentary democracy that retains the President of France and Bishop of Urgell as co-princes and heads of state. However, the head of government retains executive power; the two co-princes serve coequally with limited powers that do not include an individual veto over government acts. They are each represented in Andorra by a personal representative; the fundamental impetus for this political transformation was a recommendation by the Council of Europe in 1990 that, if Andorra wished to attain full integration in the European Union, it should adopt a modern constitution that guarantees the rights of those living and working there.
A Tripartite Commission – made up of representatives of the co-princes, the General Council, the Executive Council – was formed in 1990 and finalized the draft constitution in April 1991, making the new constitution a fact. One remaining, though symbolic, legacy of Andorra's special relationship with France and Spain, is that the Principality has no postal service of its own – French and Spanish postal services operate side by side, although each of them issues separate stamps for Andorra, instead of using their own. Under the 1993 constitution, the co-princes continue as heads of state, but the head of government retains executive power; the two co-princes serve coequally with limited powers that do not include veto over government acts. Both are represented in Andorra by a delegate, although since 1993, both France and Spain have their own embassies; as co-princes of Andorra, the President of France and the Bishop of Urgell maintain supreme authority in approval of all international treaties with France and Spain, as well as all those that deal with internal security, Andorran territory, diplomatic representation, judicial or penal cooperation.
Although the institution of the co-princes is viewed by some as an anachronism, the majority sees them as both a link with Andorra's traditions and a way to balance the power of Andorra's two much larger neighbors. The way the two princes are chosen makes Andorra one of the most politically distinct nations on earth. One co-prince is the current sitting President of France Emmanuel Macron; the other is the current Roman Catholic bishop of the Catalan city of La Seu d'Urgell Joan Enric Vives i Sicilia. As neither prince lives in Andorra, their role is entirely ceremonial. In 1981, the Executive Council, consisting of the Cap de Govern and seven ministers, was established; every four years, after the general elections, the General Council elects the head of government, who, in turn, chooses the other members of the Executive Council. Andorra's main legislative body is the 28-member General Council; the sindic, the subsindic and the members of the Council are elected in the general elections to be held every four years.
The Council meets throughout the year on certain dates as required. At least one representative from each parish must be present for the General Council to meet. Within the General Council, four deputies apiece from each of the seven individual parishes have provided representation; this system allowed parishes with as few as 350 voters the same number of representatives as larger parishes with up to 2,600 voters. To correct this imbalance, a provision in the new constitution modifies the structure and format for electing Council members. Under the new format, half of the representatives are chosen by the traditional system, the other half selected from nationwide lists. A sindic and a subsindic are chosen by the General Council to implement its decisions, they may be reappointed once. They receive an annual salary. Sindics have no discretionary powers, all policy decisions must be approved by the Council as a whole; the judicial system is independent. Courts apply the customary law of Andorra, supplemented with customary Catalan law.
Civil cases are first heard by the Court of Batlles – a group of four judges, two chosen by each co-prince. Appeals are heard in the Court of Appeals; the highest body is the five-member Superior Court of Justice. More info: Andorran parliamentary election, 2011 Andorra is formed by seven parishes; the Government of Andorra maintains a small ceremonial Army, a well-equipped modernized Police Corps, a Fire Brigade, a Mountain Rescue Service, the GIPA, a para-military unit trained in hostage and counter-terrorism roles. Andorra's young democracy is in the process of redefining its political party system. Three out of the five parties that dominated the political scene in past years have dissolved; the Liberal Union tried to reshape itself and change its name to that of the Liberal Party of Andorra to offer a political umbrella to small parties and groups that have not yet found their place. Another party, the Social Democratic Party of Andorra, has been formed, it was designed to attract parties previously