Crownies is an Australian television drama series, broadcast on ABC1 from 14 July until 1 December 2011. The series revolves around a group of solicitors fresh from law school, working with Crown Prosecutors, who are the public prosecutors in the legal system of Australia, working for the office of the Director of Public Prosecutions. ABC1 ordered Crownies for a twenty-two episode run and it was produced by Karl Zwicky, it was the first long-form drama format to be commissioned by the Australian Broadcasting Corporation since 2005's MDA. Filming began in January 2011; the location chosen for filming was New South Wales. Many scenes were filmed in the business district Parramatta, more predominantly around the Parramatta Justice Precinct for the low financial cost and its accessibility. Alongside the Parramatta river shops and streets were used for location shoots; every twelve days a Brazilian restaurant located on Church Street would be converted into the set of "Gar's Bar", which served as the "legal hangout" for the characters.
To cut costs, scenes requiring countryside settings were filmed a mere fifteen-minute drive away from Parramatta. The series finished filming in September 2011, it is written by Greg Haddrick, Jane Allen, Kylie Needham, Tamara Asmar, Blake Ayshford, Chris Hawkshaw, Justine Gillmer, Pete McTighe, Stuart Page & Sam Miekle. It is directed by Tony Tilse, Chris Noonan, Cherie Nowlan, Grant Brown, Lynn Hegarty, Garth Maxwell and Jet Wilkinson. On 24 January 2011, Greg Hassall from The Sydney Morning Herald announced the casting of Todd Lasance, Hamish Michael, Marta Dusseldorp and Jerome Ehlers. Todd Lasance as Ben McMahon Hamish Michael as Richard Stirling Ella Scott Lynch as Erin O'Shaughnessy Andrea Demetriades as Lina Badir Marta Dusseldorp as Janet King Indiana Evans as Tatum Novak Peter Kowitz as Tony Gillies Jeanette Cronin as Tracey Samuels Lewis Fitz-Gerald as David Sinclair QC Jerome Ehlers as Rhys Kowalski Chantelle Jamieson as Julie Rousseau Christopher Morris as Andy Campbell Daniel Lissing as Conrad De Groot Marcus Graham as Danny Novak Aimee Pedersen as Ashleigh Larsson Ritchie Singer as The Honourable Mr Justice Rosenberg Paul Moxey as Harry Petra Yared as Paula Corvini Before the series finale of Crownies had broadcast, ABC1 Channel Controller Brendan Dahill revealed that he sought the creation of a spin-off and singled out Dusseldorp and Michael for their portrayals.
He believed that there were many successful aspects of Crownies to build on and expressed his surprise that the show was not as popular as he had envisioned. On 20 August 2012, ABC TV confirmed that it had commissioned an "8-part legal and political thriller" titled Janet King; the spin-off featured various cast members from Crownies. The first episode aired on 27 February 2014. Crownies was released on region 4 DVD in two separate parts; the first eleven episodes were released on 6 October 2011. The remaining episodes were released on 1 December 2011; the two box-sets were released for region 2. Doug Anderson from The Sydney Morning Herald liked the show for cast, "fresh" writing and good relationship between character, he believed. He praised the character of Tatum Novak for being the modern girl and branded the rest as conventional characters, with personal issues blended in with cases, but his colleague Craig Mathieson criticised the show stating "The show is struggling to find an tone and at various times it's flirtatiously sexy, coolly cynical and blazingly emotional.
The problem is. It's somewhat messy." Official website Production website Crownies on IMDb
Parramatta Justice Precinct
The Parramatta Justice Precinct is located in the western part of the Parramatta central business district. The precinct houses the corporate headquarters of the New South Wales Department of Attorney General and Justice. Other legal offices include the Children's Court of New South Wales and the Sydney West Trial Courts, Legal Aid Commission of New South Wales, Office of Trustee and Guardian, NSW Registry of Births and Marriages, Office of the Director of Public Prosecutions, as well as a branch of the Family Court. Nearby on Marsden Street is the Parramatta Courthouse and a courthouse where the specialist Drug Court of New South Wales sits; the Garfield Barwick Commonwealth Law Courts Building, houses courts of the Federal Magistrates Court of Australia and the Family Court of Australia. Parramatta is a suburb of Australia, it is located in Greater Western Sydney 23 kilometres west of the Sydney central business district on the banks of the Parramatta River. Parramatta, founded in the same year as Sydney by the British in 1788, is the oldest inland European settlement in Australia and is the economic capital of Greater Western Sydney and the sixth largest central business district in Australia.
The Parramatta Justice Precinct provides, in addition to judicial and administrative functions, community service health- and welfare-related needs. The first Parramatta courthouse was opened by Governor Arthur Phillip in 1791 and was closed and demolished in 1826 due to the poor condition of the building. Thereafter, the Parramatta district used a rented building for judicial activities; the second Parramatta courthouse, located at the corner of Church Street and George Street, was designed by Mortimer Lewis, built in 1837 by Houlson and Payten, extended in 1853. It was in use between 1837 and 1891. Following its disestablishment, some of the original courthouse's columns were used to form the Boer War Memorial in Parramatta Park; the third Parramatta courthouse, located at the corner of George Street and Marsden Street, was opened in 1896. In the 1940s, a new courthouse and offices were added. Notably, this courthouse bore the royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom; the fourth Parramatta courthouse, located across the road from the fifth and current Parramatta courthouse, was opened on 8 November 1974, by Governor Sir Roden Cutler.
The courthouse remained in operation from 1974 till 2008. The Parramatta Courthouse, the fifth and current courthouse opened in Parramatta, is a courthouse complex located within the Parramatta Justice Precinct; the complex includes a a trial court with nine courtrooms for criminal trials. The area on which the current Parramatta Justice Precinct is located was the site for health services since 1790, including the Colonial Hospital, founded in 1818. In August 2005, the Parramatta Justice Precinct project was conceived and the contract, worth AUD 300 million, for the design and construction project was won by Brookfeld Multiplex; the Precinct's offices are energy efficient and are rated 5-star Green Star developments and 5-star Australian Building Greenhouse Rating. The precinct was featured predominantly in the ABC television drama series Crownies, broadcast during 2011, the subsequent spin-off series, Janet King, broadcast between 2014 and 2016
New South Wales
New South Wales is a state on the east coast of Australia. It borders Queensland to the north, Victoria to the south, South Australia to the west, its coast borders the Tasman Sea to the east. The Australian Capital Territory is an enclave within the state. New South Wales' state capital is Sydney, Australia's most populous city. In September 2018, the population of New South Wales was over 8 million, making it Australia's most populous state. Just under two-thirds of the state's population, 5.1 million, live in the Greater Sydney area. Inhabitants of New South Wales are referred to as New South Welshmen; the Colony of New South Wales was founded as a penal colony in 1788. It comprised more than half of the Australian mainland with its western boundary set at 129th meridian east in 1825; the colony included the island territories of New Zealand, Van Diemen's Land, Lord Howe Island, Norfolk Island. During the 19th century, most of the colony's area was detached to form separate British colonies that became New Zealand and the various states and territories of Australia.
However, the Swan River Colony has never been administered as part of New South Wales. Lord Howe Island remains part of New South Wales, while Norfolk Island has become a federal territory, as have the areas now known as the Australian Capital Territory and the Jervis Bay Territory; the prior inhabitants of New South Wales were the Aboriginal tribes who arrived in Australia about 40,000 to 60,000 years ago. Before European settlement there were an estimated 250,000 Aboriginal people in the region; the Wodi Wodi people are the original custodians of the Illawarra region of South Sydney. Speaking a variant of the Dharawal language, the Wodi Wodi people lived across a large stretch of land, surrounded by what is now known as Campbelltown, Shoalhaven River and Moss Vale; the Bundjalung people are the original custodians of parts of the northern coastal areas. The European discovery of New South Wales was made by Captain James Cook during his 1770 survey along the unmapped eastern coast of the Dutch-named continent of New Holland, now Australia.
In his original journal covering the survey, in triplicate to satisfy Admiralty Orders, Cook first named the land "New Wales", named after Wales. However, in the copy held by the Admiralty, he "revised the wording" to "New South Wales"; the first British settlement was made by. After years of chaos and anarchy after the overthrow of Governor William Bligh, a new governor, Lieutenant-Colonel Lachlan Macquarie, was sent from Britain to reform the settlement in 1809. During his time as governor, Macquarie commissioned the construction of roads, wharves and public buildings, sent explorers out from Sydney and employed a planner to design the street layout of Sydney. Macquarie's legacy is still evident today. During the 19th century, large areas were successively separated to form the British colonies of Tasmania, South Australia and Queensland. Responsible government was granted to the New South Wales colony in 1855. Following the Treaty of Waitangi, William Hobson declared British sovereignty over New Zealand in 1840.
In 1841 it was separated from the Colony of New South Wales to form the new Colony of New Zealand. Charles Darwin visited Australia in January 1836 and in The Voyage of the Beagle records his hesitations about and fascination with New South Wales, including his speculations about the geological origin and formation of the great valleys, the aboriginal population, the situation of the convicts, the future prospects of the country. At the end of the 19th century, the movement toward federation between the Australian colonies gathered momentum. Conventions and forums involving colony leaders were held on a regular basis. Proponents of New South Wales as a free trade state were in dispute with the other leading colony Victoria, which had a protectionist economy. At this time customs posts were common on borders on the Murray River. Travelling from New South Wales to Victoria in those days was difficult. Supporters of federation included the New South Wales premier Sir Henry Parkes whose 1889 Tenterfield Speech was pivotal in gathering support for New South Wales involvement.
Edmund Barton to become Australia's first Prime Minister, was another strong advocate for federation and a meeting held in Corowa in 1893 drafted an initial constitution. In 1898 popular referenda on the proposed federation were held in New South Wales, South Australia and Tasmania. All votes resulted in a majority in favour, but the New South Wales government under Premier George Reid had set a requirement for a higher "yes" vote than just a simple majority, not met. In 1899 further referenda were held in the same states as well as Queensland. All resulted in yes votes with majorities increased from the previous year. New South Wales met the conditions; as a compromise to the question on where the capital was to be located, an agreement was made that the site was to be within New South Wales but not closer than 100 miles from Sydney, while the provisional capital would be Melbourne. The area that now forms the Australian Capital Territory was ceded by New South Wales when Canberra was selected.
In the years after World War I, the high prices enjoyed durin
The Parramatta River is an intermediate tide dominated, drowned valley estuary located in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. With an average depth of 5.1 metres, the Parramatta River is the main tributary of Sydney Harbour, a branch of Port Jackson. Secondary tributaries include Duck rivers. Formed by the confluence of Toongabbie Creek and Darling Mills Creek at North Parramatta, the river flows in an easterly direction to a line between Yurulbin and Manns Point, Greenwich. Here it flows into about 21 kilometres from the Tasman Sea; the total catchment area of the river is 252.4 square kilometres and is tidal to Charles Street Weir in Parramatta 30 kilometres from the Sydney Heads. The land adjacent to the Parramatta River was occupied for many thousands of years by the Burramattagal, Wallumattagal and Wategora Aboriginal peoples, they used the river as an important source of a place for trade. The headwaters of the Parramatta River are formed by the confluence of Darling Mills Creek and Toongabbie Creek.
The point of the confluence lies on the northern border of the grounds of Cumberland Hospital. It lies on the boundary of the suburbs of Westmead and North Parramatta. Waterways flowing into the Parramatta River, west–to–east include: Vineyard Creek at Rydalmere, from the north Ponds Subiaco Creek at Rydalmere, from the north Duck River at Silverwater, from the south Archer Creek at Meadowbank, from the north Smalls Creek at Meadowbank, from the far north Charity Creek at Meadowbank, from the north Haslams Creek at Homebush Bay, from the south Powells Creek at Homebush Bay, from the south Iron Cove Creek at Five Dock, from the south Hawthorne Canal at Iron Cove, from the south Tarban Creek at Huntleys Point, from the north Lane Cove River at Greenwich, from the north From its headwaters at Toongabbie, the river flows in a southerly direction through the grounds of Cumberland Hospital. Entering Parramatta Park, it turns west and flows through the Parramatta CBD. Both banks are open to the public, with parkland and walkways, downstream to James Ruse Drive.
The river is fed by a number of small creeks and stormwater drains. The waters are controlled by a series of weirs: the weir at the edge of the hospital grounds, the Kiosk Weir in Parramatta Park, the Marsden Street Weir, the Charles Street Weir at the ferry wharf; the weirs have been equipped with fish ladders. Kiosk Weir and Charles Street Weir include footbridges enabling a crossing of the river; the river was dammed to provide reservoirs for the town. However, the function of the weirs is aesthetic, preventing the water from draining away during dry periods; as a consequence the river floods in heavy rain at the Charles Street Weir. The Charles Street Weir forms the boundary between fresh water and salt water, is the limit of tides; the whole of Sydney Harbour including its tributary rivers is subject to a long range Catchment Management Plan. The Government has eliminated local representation by eliminating the former local catchment management boards; the New South Wales Government has a documented policy in relation to access to the harbour and river foreshores, including public access to intertidal lands where landowners have absolute waterfronts but where the waterfront is exposed at low tide.
Moorings and jetties are the responsibility of Roads and Maritime Services, who are responsible for the management of the Harbour and river seabed. Many bays contain swing moorings privately owned, but some associated with commercial marinas. Along the Parramatta River many hands have made lighter work, in the community-wide effort to make the entire river swimmable again by 2025, starting with the opening of Lake Parramatta in 2014. Thirteen councils sit within the Parramatta River catchment group and all have committed to tackling the two major polluters: sewer overflows and stormwater. There are River Cat services along the Parramatta River to Circular Quay; the main wharves, west–to–east are: The Parramatta River, along with Sydney Harbour, is the most significant waterway in Sydney. Since settlement, the river and the harbour have presented a formidable barrier between the early–European settled southern Farm Cove precinct, to development north of the waterway. Together, Parramatta River and Port Jackson cut Sydney in half along its north–south axis.
As a result, the many crossings are important to the life of the city. From west–to–east, the crossings of the Parramatta River are located at: Until 1970 the river was an open drain for Sydney's industry and the southern central embayments are contaminated with a range of heavy metals and chemicals; the Northern Bays are less affected as the Sydney Harbour Bridge was not completed until 1932 and so industrial development was well established on the southern side of the Harbour. Dr Gavin Birch of the University of Sydney has published a number of papers which show that Sydney Harbour is as contaminated as most other harbours in industrialised cities, that the main sediment contamination is in the southern central embayments, that there are five contaminated areas of Sydney Harbour, that four of them are in the Parramatta river system; the main contaminated areas of the Parramatta River are: Homebush Bay - dioxins, phthalates, DDT, PAHs originating from nearby chemical factories of Berger Paints, CSR Chemicals, ICI/Orica, Union Carbide.
Iron Cove - various metals and chemicals with no defined point source. Pollution may enter through Iron Cove Creek and Hawthorne Canal. Adjacent to the former AGL site, now
Parramatta is a prominent suburb of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia, 20 kilometres west of the Sydney central business district on the banks of the Parramatta River. Parramatta is the administrative seat of the City of Parramatta and is regarded as the second Central Business district of Sydney. Parramatta, founded by the British in 1788, the same year as Sydney, is the oldest inland European settlement in Australia and the economic capital of Greater Western Sydney. Since 2000, government agencies such as the New South Wales Police Force and Sydney Water have relocated to Parramatta from the centre of Sydney. Established in 1799, the Old Government House is a world heritage site and museum within Parramatta Park and is Australia's oldest surviving public building. Parramatta is a major business and commercial centre, home to Westfield Parramatta, the ninth largest shopping centre in Australia. Parramatta is the major transport hub for Western Sydney, servicing trains and buses, as well as having a ferry wharf and future light rail and metro services.
Major upgrades have occurred around Parramatta railway station with the creation of a new transport interchange, the ongoing development of the Parramatta Square local government precinct. Radiocarbon dating suggests; the Darug people who lived in the area before European settlement regarded the area as rich in food from the river and forests. They called the area Baramada or Burramatta which means "head of waters", "the place where the eels lie down" or "eel waters". To this day many eels and other sea creatures are attracted to nutrients that are concentrated where the saltwater of Port Jackson meets the freshwater of the Parramatta River; the Parramatta Eels Rugby League club chose their symbol as a result of this phenomenon. Parramatta was founded in the same year as Sydney; as such, Parramatta is the second oldest city in Australia, being only 10 months younger than Sydney. The British Colonists, who had arrived in January 1788 on the First Fleet at Sydney Cove, had only enough food to support themselves for a short time and the soil around Sydney Cove proved too poor to grow the amount of food that 1,000 convicts and administrators needed to survive.
During 1788, Governor Arthur Phillip had reconnoitred several places before choosing Parramatta as the most place for a successful large farm. Parramatta was the furthest navigable point inland on the Parramatta River and the point at which the river became freshwater and therefore useful for farming. On Sunday 2 November 1788, Governor Phillip took a detachment of marines along with a surveyor and, in boats, made his way upriver to a location that he called The Crescent, a defensible hill curved round a river bend, now in Parramatta Park; as a settlement developed, Governor Phillip gave it the name "Rose Hill" after British politician George Rose. On 4 June 1791 Phillip changed the name of the township to Parramatta, approximating the term used by the local Aboriginal people. A neighbouring suburb acquired the name "Rose Hill", which today is spelt "Rosehill". In an attempt to deal with the food crisis, Phillip in 1789 granted a convict named James Ruse the land of Experiment Farm at Parramatta on the condition that he develop a viable agriculture.
There, Ruse became the first person to grow grain in Australia. The Parramatta area was the site of the pioneering of the Australian wool industry by John Macarthur's Elizabeth Farm in the 1790s. Philip Gidley King's account of his visit to Parramatta on 9 April 1790 is one of the earliest descriptions of the area. Walking four miles with Governor Phillip to Prospect, he saw undulating grassland interspersed with magnificent trees and a great number of kangaroos and emus; the Battle of Parramatta, a major battle of the Hawkesbury and Nepean Wars, occurred in March 1797 where resistance leader Pemulwuy led a group of Bidjigal warriors, estimated to be at least 100, in an attack on a government farm at Toongabbie, challenging the British Army to fight. Governor Arthur Phillip built a small house for himself on the hill of The Crescent. In 1799 this was replaced by a larger residence which improved by Governor Lachlan Macquarie from 1815 to 1818, has survived to the present day, making it the oldest surviving Government House anywhere in Australia.
It was used as a retreat by Governors until the 1850s, with one Governor making it his principal home for a short period in the 1820s. In 1803, another famous incident occurred in Parramatta, involving a convicted criminal named Joseph Samuel from England. Samuel was convicted of murder and sentenced to death by hanging. In the second attempt, the noose slipped off his neck. In the third attempt, the new rope broke. Governor King was summoned and pardoned Samuel, as the incident appeared to him to be divine intervention. In 1814, Macquarie opened a school for Aboriginal children at Parramatta as part of a policy of improving relations between Aboriginal and European communities; this school was relocated to "Black Town". Parramatta has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: Parramatta has a humid subtropical climate with mild to cool winters and warm, sometimes hot summers, rainfall spread throughout the year. Depending on the wind direction, summer weather may be humid or dry, though the humidity is in the comfortable range, with the late summer/autumn period having a higher average humidity than late winter/early spring.
Summer maximum temperatures are quite variable reaching above 35 °C, on average 8.1 days in summer, sometimes rema
Sydney central business district
The Sydney central business district is the main commercial centre of Sydney, the state capital of New South Wales and the most populous city in Australia. It extends southwards for about 3 km from Sydney Cove, the point of first European settlement in which the Sydney region was established. Due to its pivotal role in Australia's early history, it is one of the oldest established areas in the country. Geographically, its north–south axis runs from Circular Quay in the north to Central railway station in the south, its east–west axis runs from a chain of parkland that includes Hyde Park, The Domain, Royal Botanic Gardens and Farm Cove on Sydney Harbour in the east. At the 2016 Australian Census, the CBD recorded a population of 17,252. "Sydney CBD" is occasionally used to refer not only to the CBD proper, but its nearby inner suburbs such as Pyrmont, Haymarket and Woolloomooloo. The Sydney CBD is Australia's main financial and economic centre, as well as a leading hub of economic activity for the Asia-Pacific region.
The city centre employs 13% of the Sydney region's workforce. Based on industry mix and relative occupational wage levels it is estimated that economic activity generated in the city in 2015/16 was $118 billion. Culturally, the city centre is Sydney's focal point for entertainment, it is home to some of the city's most significant buildings and structures. The Sydney CBD is an area of densely concentrated skyscrapers and other buildings, interspersed by several parks such as Hyde Park, The Domain, Royal Botanic Gardens and Wynyard Park. George Street is the Sydney CBD's main north–south thoroughfare; the streets run on a warped grid pattern in the southern CBD, but in the older northern CBD the streets form several intersecting grids, reflecting their placement in relation to the prevailing breeze and orientation to Circular Quay in early settlement. The CBD runs along two ridge lines below Macquarie York Streets. Between these ridges is Pitt Street, running close to the course of the original Tank Stream.
Bridge Street, took its name from the bridge running east -- west. Pitt Street is the retail heart of the city which includes the Pitt Street Mall and the Sydney Tower. Macquarie Street is a historic precinct that houses such buildings as the State Parliament House and the Supreme Court of New South Wales. Prior to European settlement in New South Wales, the area around Sydney was home to the Gadigal tribes of Indigenous Australians; the colony of New South Wales founded Sydney at the Rocks in 1788 and established a city in 1842. In the midst of World War 1, on Valentine's day, riots racked the CBD, in what has come to be known as the Central Station Riots of 1916. A substantial segment of the violence was concentrated in the Central area; these riots involved five thousand military recruits who refused to comply with extraneous parade orders. During the riots they caused significant damage to buildings. People with "foreign" names were targeted; the recruits clashed with soldiers. A number of eight people sustained injuries.
Because this incident occurred in the middle of the Great War the state discouraged media coverage. Only a fifth of the rioters were court-marshalled; these riots spurred the introduction of lockout laws for pubs after 6pm. This law was only lifted in 1955; the Sydney central business district has many heritage-listed buildings including: Administratively, the Sydney CBD falls under the authority of the local government area of the City of Sydney. The New South Wales state government has authority over some aspects of the CBD, in particular through the Sydney Harbour Foreshore Authority. Independent Alex Greenwich has represented the Sydney seat since the 2012 by-election, triggered by the resignation of previous independent Clover Moore, the Lord Mayor of Sydney, due to introduced state laws preventing dual membership of state parliament and local council; the Sydney CBD is home to some of the largest Australian companies, as well as serving as an Asia-Pacific headquarters for many large international companies.
The financial services industry in particular occupies much of the available office space, with companies such as the Westpac, Commonwealth Bank of Australia, Deutsche Bank, Macquarie Bank, AMP Limited, Insurance Australia Group, AON, Allianz, HSBC, AXA, ABN Amro, RBC and Bloomsbury Publishing all having offices. Church Hill is a northerly district in the Central Business district of Australia, it is so named because the earliest churches in Australia were formed on this site, including St Patrick's, St Philip's and Scots Church The significance of Church Hill dates back to the time of Governor Arthur Phillip, who mandated compulsory Sunday church attendance for all convicts, until they rebelled and burned down the area’s first church in 1798. The area gained greater prominence as Church Hill on Wednesday 1 October 1800, when incoming Governor Philip Gidley King had the foundation stone laid for St Philip’s Church, which subsequently he proclaimed one of Australia’s first two parishes in 1802.
The site where St Patrick’s Church stands is where the Roman Catholic Eucharist was first preserved in Australia, in May 1818. Celebrations for the bicentenary of this occasion were held in St Patrick’s Church on Sunday 6 May 2018. A proposed stop on the tram network under construction on George Street may be named Church Hill. Sydney's CBD is serviced by commuter rail, light
Second Boer War
The Second Boer War was fought between the British Empire and two Boer states, the South African Republic and the Orange Free State, over the Empire's influence in South Africa. It is known variously as the Boer War, Anglo-Boer War, or South African War. Initial Boer attacks were successful, although British reinforcements reversed these, the war continued for years with Boer guerrilla warfare, until harsh British counter-measures brought them to terms; the war under-prepared. The Boers were well armed and struck first, besieging Ladysmith and Mahikeng in early 1900, winning important battles at Colenso and Stormberg. Staggered, the British fought back. General Redvers Buller was replaced by Lord Kitchener, they relieved the three besieged cities, invaded the two Boer republics in late 1900. The onward marches of the British Army, well over 400,000 men, were so overwhelming that the Boers did not fight staged battles in defense of their homeland; the British seized control of all of the Orange Free State and Transvaal, as the civilian leadership went into hiding or exile.
In conventional terms, the war was over. The British annexed the two countries in 1900. Back home, Britain's Conservative government wanted to capitalize on this success and use it to maneuver an early general election, dubbed a "khaki election" to give the government another six years of power in London. British military efforts were aided by Cape Colony, the Colony of Natal and some native African allies, further supported by volunteers from the British Empire, including Southern Africa, the Australian colonies, Canada and New Zealand. All other nations were neutral, but public opinion was hostile to the British. Inside the UK and its Empire there was significant opposition to the Second Boer War; the Boers refused to surrender. They reverted to guerrilla warfare under new generals Louis Botha, Jan Smuts, Christiaan de Wet and Koos de la Rey. Two years of surprise attacks and quick escapes followed; as guerrillas without uniforms, the Boer fighters blended into the farmlands, which provided hiding places and horses.
The UK's response to guerilla warfare was to set up complex nets of block houses, strong points, barbed wire fences, partitioning off the entire conquered territory. In addition, civilian farms and live stock were destroyed in the scorched earth strategy. Survivors were forced into concentration camps. Large proportions of these civilians died of hunger and disease the children. British mounted infantry units systematically tracked down the mobile Boer guerrilla units; the battles at this stage were small operations. Few died during combat, though many of disease; the war ended in surrender and British terms with the Treaty of Vereeniging in May 1902. Both former republics were incorporated into the Union of South Africa in 1910, as part of the British Empire; the conflict is referred to as the Boer War, since the First Boer War was a much smaller conflict. "Boer" is the common term for Afrikaans-speaking white South Africans descended from the Dutch East India Company's original settlers at the Cape of Good Hope.
It is known as the Anglo-Boer War among some South Africans. In Afrikaans it may be called the Anglo-Boereoorlog, Tweede Boereoorlog, Tweede Vryheidsoorlog or Engelse oorlog. In South Africa it is called the South African War; the complex origins of the war resulted from more than a century of conflict between the Boers and Britain, but of particular immediate importance was the question as to who would control and benefit most from the lucrative Witwatersrand gold mines. The first European settlement in South Africa was founded at the Cape of Good Hope in 1652, thereafter administered as part of the Dutch Cape Colony; the Cape was governed by the Dutch East India Company until its bankruptcy in the late 1700s, thereafter directly by the Netherlands. The British occupied the Cape three times during the Napoleonic Wars as a result of political turmoil in the Netherlands, the occupation became permanent after British forces defeated the Dutch at the Battle of Blaauwberg in 1806. At the time, the colony was home to about 26,000 colonists settled under Dutch rule.
A relative majority still represented old Dutch families brought to the Cape during the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries. Cleavages were likelier to occur along socio-economic rather than ethnic lines and broadly speaking the colonists included a number of distinct subgroups, namely the Boers; the Boers were itinerant farmers who lived on the colony's frontiers, seeking better pastures for their livestock. Many Boers who were dissatisfied with aspects of British administration, in particular with Britain's abolition of slavery on 1 December 1834, elected to migrate away from British rule in what became known as the Great Trek. Around 15,000 trekking Boers followed the eastern coast towards Natal. After Britain annexed Natal in 1843, they journeyed further northwards into South Africa's vast eastern interior. There they established two independent Boer republics: the South African Republic and the Orange Free State. Britain recognised the two Boer republics in 1852 and 1854, but attempted British annexation of the Transvaal in 1877 led to the First Boer War in 1880–81