A trademark, trade mark, or trade-mark is a recognizable sign, design, or expression which identifies products or services of a particular source from those of others, although trademarks used to identify services are called service marks. The trademark owner can be business organization, or any legal entity. A trademark may be located on a label, a voucher, or on the product itself. For the sake of corporate identity, trademarks are displayed on company buildings; the first legislative act concerning trademarks was passed in 1266 under the reign of Henry III, requiring all bakers to use a distinctive mark for the bread they sold. The first modern trademark laws emerged in the late 19th century. In France the first comprehensive trademark system in the world was passed into law in 1857; the Trade Marks Act 1938 of the United Kingdom changed the system, permitting registration based on "intent-to-use”, creating an examination based process, creating an application publication system. The 1938 Act, which served as a model for similar legislation elsewhere, contained other novel concepts such as "associated trademarks", a consent to use system, a defensive mark system, non claiming right system.
The symbols ™ and ® can be used to indicate trademarks. A trademark identifies the brand owner of a particular service. Trademarks can be used by others under licensing agreements; the unauthorized usage of trademarks by producing and trading counterfeit consumer goods is known as brand piracy. The owner of a trademark may pursue legal action against trademark infringement. Most countries require formal registration of a trademark as a precondition for pursuing this type of action; the United States and other countries recognize common law trademark rights, which means action can be taken to protect an unregistered trademark if it is in use. Still, common law trademarks offer the holder, in general, less legal protection than registered trademarks. A trademark may be designated by the following symbols: ™ ℠ ® A trademark is a name, phrase, symbol, image, or a combination of these elements. There is a range of non-conventional trademarks comprising marks which do not fall into these standard categories, such as those based on colour, smell, or sound.
Trademarks which are considered offensive are rejected according to a nation's trademark law. The term trademark is used informally to refer to any distinguishing attribute by which an individual is identified, such as the well-known characteristics of celebrities; when a trademark is used in relation to services rather than products, it may sometimes be called a service mark in the United States. The essential function of a trademark is to identify the commercial source or origin of products or services, so a trademark, properly called, indicates source or serves as a badge of origin. In other words, trademarks serve to identify a particular business as the source of goods or services; the use of a trademark in this way is known as trademark use. Certain exclusive rights attach to a registered mark. Trademark rights arise out of the use of, or to maintain exclusive rights over, that sign in relation to certain products or services, assuming there are no other trademark objections. Different goods and services have been classified by the International Classification of Goods and Services into 45 Trademark Classes.
The idea behind this system is to specify and limit the extension of the intellectual property right by determining which goods or services are covered by the mark, to unify classification systems around the world. In trademark treatises it is reported that blacksmiths who made swords in the Roman Empire are thought of as being the first users of trademarks. Other notable trademarks that have been used for a long time include Löwenbräu, which claims use of its lion mark since 1383; the first trademark legislation was passed by the Parliament of England under the reign of King Henry III in 1266, which required all bakers to use a distinctive mark for the bread they sold. The first modern trademark laws emerged in the late 19th century. In France the first comprehensive trademark system in the world was passed into law in 1857 with the "Manufacture and Goods Mark Act". In Britain, the Merchandise Marks Act 1862 made it a criminal offence to imitate another's trade mark'with intent to defraud or to enable another to defraud'.
In 1875, the Trade Marks Registration Act was passed which allowed formal registration of trade marks at the UK Patent Office for the first time. Registration was considered to comprise prima facie evidence of ownership of a trade mark and registration of marks began on 1 January 1876; the 1875 Act defined a registrable trade mark as'a device, or mark, or name of an individual or firm printed in some particular and distinctive manner. In the United States, Congress first atte
Open-source software is a type of computer software in which source code is released under a license in which the copyright holder grants users the rights to study and distribute the software to anyone and for any purpose. Open-source software may be developed in a collaborative public manner. Open-source software is a prominent example of open collaboration. Open-source software development generates an more diverse scope of design perspective than any company is capable of developing and sustaining long term. A 2008 report by the Standish Group stated that adoption of open-source software models have resulted in savings of about $60 billion per year for consumers. In the early days of computing and developers shared software in order to learn from each other and evolve the field of computing; the open-source notion moved to the way side of commercialization of software in the years 1970-1980. However, academics still developed software collaboratively. For example Donald Knuth in 1979 with the TeX typesetting system or Richard Stallman in 1983 with the GNU operating system.
In 1997, Eric Raymond published The Cathedral and the Bazaar, a reflective analysis of the hacker community and free-software principles. The paper received significant attention in early 1998, was one factor in motivating Netscape Communications Corporation to release their popular Netscape Communicator Internet suite as free software; this source code subsequently became the basis behind SeaMonkey, Mozilla Firefox and KompoZer. Netscape's act prompted Raymond and others to look into how to bring the Free Software Foundation's free software ideas and perceived benefits to the commercial software industry, they concluded that FSF's social activism was not appealing to companies like Netscape, looked for a way to rebrand the free software movement to emphasize the business potential of sharing and collaborating on software source code. The new term they chose was "open source", soon adopted by Bruce Perens, publisher Tim O'Reilly, Linus Torvalds, others; the Open Source Initiative was founded in February 1998 to encourage use of the new term and evangelize open-source principles.
While the Open Source Initiative sought to encourage the use of the new term and evangelize the principles it adhered to, commercial software vendors found themselves threatened by the concept of distributed software and universal access to an application's source code. A Microsoft executive publicly stated in 2001 that "open source is an intellectual property destroyer. I can't imagine something that could be worse than this for the software business and the intellectual-property business." However, while Free and open-source software has played a role outside of the mainstream of private software development, companies as large as Microsoft have begun to develop official open-source presences on the Internet. IBM, Oracle and State Farm are just a few of the companies with a serious public stake in today's competitive open-source market. There has been a significant shift in the corporate philosophy concerning the development of FOSS; the free-software movement was launched in 1983. In 1998, a group of individuals advocated that the term free software should be replaced by open-source software as an expression, less ambiguous and more comfortable for the corporate world.
Software licenses grant rights to users which would otherwise be reserved by copyright law to the copyright holder. Several open-source software licenses have qualified within the boundaries of the Open Source Definition; the most prominent and popular example is the GNU General Public License, which "allows free distribution under the condition that further developments and applications are put under the same licence", thus free. The open source label came out of a strategy session held on April 7, 1998 in Palo Alto in reaction to Netscape's January 1998 announcement of a source code release for Navigator. A group of individuals at the session included Tim O'Reilly, Linus Torvalds, Tom Paquin, Jamie Zawinski, Larry Wall, Brian Behlendorf, Sameer Parekh, Eric Allman, Greg Olson, Paul Vixie, John Ousterhout, Guido van Rossum, Philip Zimmermann, John Gilmore and Eric S. Raymond, they used the opportunity before the release of Navigator's source code to clarify a potential confusion caused by the ambiguity of the word "free" in English.
Many people claimed that the birth of the Internet, since 1969, started the open-source movement, while others do not distinguish between open-source and free software movements. The Free Software Foun
Copyright is a legal right, existing in many countries, that grants the creator of an original work exclusive rights to determine whether, under what conditions, this original work may be used by others. This is only for a limited time. Copyright is one of two types of intellectual property rights, the other is industrial property rights; the exclusive rights are not absolute but limited by limitations and exceptions to copyright law, including fair use. A major limitation on copyright on ideas is that copyright protects only the original expression of ideas, not the underlying ideas themselves. Copyright is applicable to certain forms of creative work. Some, but not all jurisdictions require "fixing" copyrighted works in a tangible form, it is shared among multiple authors, each of whom holds a set of rights to use or license the work, who are referred to as rights holders. These rights include reproduction, control over derivative works, public performance, moral rights such as attribution. Copyrights can be granted by public law and are in that case considered "territorial rights".
This means that copyrights granted by the law of a certain state, do not extend beyond the territory of that specific jurisdiction. Copyrights of this type vary by country; the public law duration of a copyright expires 50 to 100 years after the creator dies, depending on the jurisdiction. Some countries require certain copyright formalities to establishing copyright, others recognize copyright in any completed work, without formal registration. Copyright is enforced as a civil matter, though some jurisdictions do apply criminal sanctions. Most jurisdictions recognize copyright limitations, allowing "fair" exceptions to the creator's exclusivity of copyright and giving users certain rights; the development of digital media and computer network technologies have prompted reinterpretation of these exceptions, introduced new difficulties in enforcing copyright, inspired additional challenges to the philosophical basis of copyright law. Businesses with great economic dependence upon copyright, such as those in the music business, have advocated the extension and expansion of copyright and sought additional legal and technological enforcement.
Copyright licenses can be granted by those deputized by the original claimant, private companies may request this as a condition of doing business with them. Services of internet platform providers like YouTube, GitHub, DropBox, WhatsApp or Twitter only can be used when users grant the platform provider beforehand the right to co-use all uploaded content, including all material exchanged per email, chat or cloud-storage; these copyrights only apply for the firm that operates such a platform, no matter in what jurisdiction the platform-services are being offered. Private companies in general do not recognize exceptions or give users more rights than the right to use the platform according certain rules. Copyright came about with wider literacy; as a legal concept, its origins in Britain were from a reaction to printers' monopolies at the beginning of the 18th century. The English Parliament was concerned about the unregulated copying of books and passed the Licensing of the Press Act 1662, which established a register of licensed books and required a copy to be deposited with the Stationers' Company continuing the licensing of material that had long been in effect.
Copyright laws allow products of creative human activities, such as literary and artistic production, to be preferentially exploited and thus incentivized. Different cultural attitudes, social organizations, economic models and legal frameworks are seen to account for why copyright emerged in Europe and not, for example, in Asia. In the Middle Ages in Europe, there was a lack of any concept of literary property due to the general relations of production, the specific organization of literary production and the role of culture in society; the latter refers to the tendency of oral societies, such as that of Europe in the medieval period, to view knowledge as the product and expression of the collective, rather than to see it as individual property. However, with copyright laws, intellectual production comes to be seen as a product of an individual, with attendant rights; the most significant point is that patent and copyright laws support the expansion of the range of creative human activities that can be commodified.
This parallels the ways in which capitalism led to the commodification of many aspects of social life that earlier had no monetary or economic value per se. Copyright has grown from a legal concept regulating copying rights in the publishing of books and maps to one with a significant effect on nearly every modern industry, covering such items as sound recordings, photographs and architectural works. Seen as the first real copyright law, the 1709 British Statute of Anne gave the publishers rights for a fixed period, after which the copyright expired; the act alluded to individual rights of the artist. It began, "Whereas Printers and other Persons, have of late taken the Liberty of Printing... Books, other Writings, without the Consent of the Authors... to their great Detriment, too to the Ruin of them and their Families:". A right to benefit financially from the work is articulated, court rulings and legislation have recognized a right to control the work, such as ensuring that the integrity of it is preserved.
Java virtual machine
A Java virtual machine is a virtual machine that enables a computer to run Java programs as well as programs written in other languages that are compiled to Java bytecode. The JVM is detailed by a specification that formally describes what is required of a JVM implementation. Having a specification ensures interoperability of Java programs across different implementations so that program authors using the Java Development Kit need not worry about idiosyncrasies of the underlying hardware platform; the JVM reference implementation is developed by the OpenJDK project as open source code and includes a JIT compiler called HotSpot. The commercially supported Java releases available from Oracle Corporation are based on the OpenJDK runtime. Eclipse OpenJ9 is another open source JVM for OpenJDK; the Java virtual machine is an abstract computer defined by a specification. The garbage-collection algorithm used and any internal optimization of the Java virtual machine instructions are not specified; the main reason for this omission is to not unnecessarily constrain implementers.
Any Java application can be run only inside some concrete implementation of the abstract specification of the Java virtual machine. Starting with Java Platform, Standard Edition 5.0, changes to the JVM specification have been developed under the Java Community Process as JSR 924. As of 2006, changes to specification to support changes proposed to the class file format are being done as a maintenance release of JSR 924; the specification for the JVM was published as the blue book, The preface states: We intend that this specification should sufficiently document the Java Virtual Machine to make possible compatible clean-room implementations. Oracle provides tests that verify the proper operation of implementations of the Java Virtual Machine. One of Oracle's JVMs is named the other, inherited from BEA Systems is JRockit. Clean-room Java implementations include Kaffe, IBM J9 and Skelmir's CEE-J. Oracle owns the Java trademark and may allow its use to certify implementation suites as compatible with Oracle's specification.
One of the organizational units of JVM byte code is a class. A class loader implementation must be able to recognize and load anything that conforms to the Java class file format. Any implementation is free to recognize other binary forms besides class files, but it must recognize class files; the class loader performs three basic activities in this strict order: Loading: finds and imports the binary data for a type Linking: performs verification and resolution Verification: ensures the correctness of the imported type Preparation: allocates memory for class variables and initializing the memory to default values Resolution: transforms symbolic references from the type into direct references. Initialization: invokes Java code that initializes class variables to their proper starting values. In general, there are two types of class loader: bootstrap class loader and user defined class loader; every Java virtual machine implementation must have a bootstrap class loader, capable of loading trusted classes.
The Java virtual machine specification doesn't specify. The JVM operates on primitive references; the JVM is fundamentally a 32-bit machine. Long and double types, which are 64-bits, are supported natively, but consume two units of storage in a frame's local variables or operand stack, since each unit is 32 bits. Boolean, byte and char types are all sign-extended and operated on as 32-bit integers, the same as int types; the smaller types only have a few type-specific instructions for loading and type conversion. Boolean is operated on with 0 representing false and 1 representing true; the JVM has a garbage-collected heap for storing arrays. Code and other class data are stored in the "method area"; the method area is logically part of the heap, but implementations may treat the method area separately from the heap, for example might not garbage collect it. Each JVM thread has its own call stack, which stores frames. A new frame is created each time a method is called, the frame is destroyed when that method exits.
Each frame provides an "operand stack" and an array of "local variables". The operand stack is used for operands to computations and for receiving the return value of a called method, while local variables serve the same purpose as registers and are used to pass method arguments. Thus, the JVM is both a register machine; the JVM has instructions for the following groups of tasks: The aim is binary compatibility. Each particular host operating system needs its own implementation of the runtime; these JVMs interpret the bytecode semantically the same way, but the actual implementation may be different. More complex than just emulating bytecode is compatibly and efficiently im
Perl 6 is a member of the Perl family of programming languages. While several interpreter and compiler implementations were being written, today only the Rakudo Perl 6 implementation is in active development, it is introducing elements of many historical languages. Compatibility with Perl 5 is not a goal; the design process for Perl 6 began in 2000. In February 2015 a post on The Perl Foundation blog stated that "The Perl6 team will attempt to get a development release of version 1.0 available for Larry's birthday in September and a Version 1.0 release by Christmas", on 25 December 2015, the first stable version of the specification was announced. Development on Pugs, the first high-traction implementation, began in 2005, there have been multiple Perl 6 implementation projects. Rakudo Perl 6 is based on NQP and can use MoarVM or the Java Virtual Machine as a runtime environment, releases a new version every month. Larry Wall maintains a reference grammar known as STD.pm6, written in Perl 6 and bootstrapped with Perl 5.
In Perl 6, we decided. The Perl 6 design process was first announced on 19 July 2000, on the fourth day of that year's Perl Conference, by Larry Wall in his State of the Onion 2000 talk. At that time, the primary goals were to remove "historical warts" from the language; the process began with a series of requests for comments or "RFCs". This process was open to all contributors, left no aspect of the language closed to change. Once the RFC process was complete, Wall classified each request, he began the process of writing several "Apocalypses", a term which means "revealing". While the original goal was to write one Apocalypse for each chapter of Programming Perl, it became obvious that, as each Apocalypse was written, previous Apocalypses were being invalidated by changes. For this reason, a set of Synopses were published, each one relating the contents of an Apocalypse, but with any subsequent changes reflected in updates. Today, Perl 6 specification continues entirely within the Synopses. There are a series of Exegeses written by Damian Conway that explain the content of each Apocalypse in terms of practical usage.
Each Exegesis consists of code examples along with discussion of the usage and implications of the examples. There are three primary methods of communication used in the development of Perl 6 today; the first is the #perl6 connect IRC channel on freenode. The second is a set of mailing lists on The Perl Foundation's servers at perl.org. The third is the Git source code repository hosted at https://github.com/perl6. The break in compatibility was mandated from the start of the project, allowed some of the changes that Larry Wall had suggested in his initial speech. "Historical warts" such as the confusion surrounding sigil usage for containers. Over the years, Perl 6 has undergone several alterations in its direction; the introduction of concepts from Python and Ruby were early influences, but as the Pugs interpreter was written in the Haskell programming language, many functional programming influences were absorbed by the Perl 6 design team. The language's mascot is "Camelia, the Perl 6 bug", her name is a nod to the camel mascot associated with Perl, her form, in the pun-loving tradition of the Perl community, is a play on "software bug".
Spiral designs embedded in her butterfly-like wings resemble the characters "P6", the favored nickname for Perl 6, off-center eye placement is an intentional pun on "Wall-eyed"One of the goals behind the lively and colorful design of the logo was to discourage misogyny in the community and for it to be an opportunity for those of "masculine persuasion" to show their sensitive side. As of 2017, only the Rakudo Perl 6 implementation is under active development. No implementation will be designated as the official Perl 6 implementation. MoarVM is a virtual machine built for Rakudo Perl 6 and the NQP Compiler Toolchain. There is a layer between Perl 6 and the virtual machines called Not Quite Perl 6, or NQP, which implements Perl 6 rules for parsing Perl 6, as well as an Abstract syntax tree and backend-specific code generation. Large portions of Rakudo are written in Perl 6 itself, or in its subset NQP. Rakudo is not a self-hosting implementation, nor are there concrete plans at this point to make Rakudo a bootstrapping compiler.
Pugs was an initial implementation of Perl 6 written in Haskell. Pugs used to be the most advanced implementation of Perl 6, but since mid 2007 it is dormant; as of November 2014 Pugs was not being maintained. In 2007, v6-MiniPerl6 and its reimplementation, v6-KindaPerl6 were written as a means to bootstrap the Perl-6.0.0 STD, using Perl 5. The STD is a full grammar for Perl 6 and is written in Perl 6. In theory, anything capable of parsing the STD and generating executable code is a suitable bootstrapping system for Perl 6
April Fools' Day
April Fools' Day or April Fool's Day is an annual celebration commemorated on April 1st by playing practical jokes and spreading hoaxes. The jokes and their victims are called April fools. People playing April Fool jokes expose their prank by shouting "April fool" at the unfortunate victim; some newspapers and other published media report fake stories, which are explained the next day or below the news section in smaller letters. Although popular since the 19th century, the day is not a public holiday in any country. Aside from April Fools' Day, the custom of setting aside a day for the playing of harmless pranks upon one's neighbour has been common in the world. A disputed association between April 1 and foolishness is in Geoffrey Chaucer's The Canterbury Tales. In the "Nun's Priest's Tale", a vain cock Chauntecleer is tricked by a fox on Syn March bigan thritty dayes and two. Readers understood this line to mean "32 March", i.e. April 1. However, it is not clear that Chaucer was referencing April 1.
Modern scholars believe that there is a copying error in the extant manuscripts and that Chaucer wrote, Syn March was gon. If so, the passage would have meant 32 days after March, i.e. 2 May, the anniversary of the engagement of King Richard II of England to Anne of Bohemia, which took place in 1381. In 1508, French poet Eloy d'Amerval referred to a poisson d’avril the first reference to the celebration in France; some writers suggest that April Fools' originated because in the Middle Ages, New Year's Day was celebrated on March 25 in most European towns, through a holiday that in some areas of France ended on April 1, those who celebrated New Year's Eve on January 1 made fun of those who celebrated on other dates by the invention of April Fools' Day. The use of January 1 as New Year's Day became common in France only by the mid-16th century, the date was not adopted until 1564, thanks to the Edict of Roussillon. In 1539, Flemish poet Eduard de Dene wrote of a nobleman who sent his servants on foolish errands on April 1.
In the Netherlands, the origin of April Fools' Day is attributed to the Dutch victory at Brielle in 1572, where the Spanish Duke Álvarez de Toledo was defeated. "Op 1 april verloor Alva zijn bril" is a Dutch proverb, which can be translated to: "On the first of April, Alva lost his glasses." In this case, the glasses serve as a metaphor for Brielle. This theory, provides no explanation for the international celebration of April Fools' Day. In 1686, John Aubrey referred to the first British reference. On April 1, 1698, several people were tricked into going to the Tower of London to "see the Lions washed". Although no Biblical scholar or historian are known to have mentioned a relationship, some have expressed the belief that the origins of April Fool's Day may go back to the Genesis flood narrative. In a 1908 edition of the Harper's Weekly cartoonist Bertha R. McDonald wrote: Authorities gravely back with it to the time of Noah and the ark; the London Public Advertiser of March 13, 1769, printed: "The mistake of Noah sending the dove out of the ark before the water had abated, on the first day of April, to perpetuate the memory of this deliverance it was thought proper, whoever forgot so remarkable a circumstance, to punish them by sending them upon some sleeveless errand similar to that ineffectual message upon which the bird was sent by the patriarch".
In the UK, an April Fool joke is revealed by shouting "April fool!" at the recipient, who becomes the "April fool". A study in the 1950s, by folklorists Iona and Peter Opie, found that in the UK, in countries whose traditions derived from the UK, the joking ceased at midday; this continues to be the current practice with the holiday ceasing at noon, after which time it is no longer acceptable to play jokes. Ergo, a person playing a joke after midday is considered the "April fool" themselves. In Scotland, April Fools' Day was traditionally called'Huntigowk Day', although this name has fallen into disuse; the name is a corruption of ` Hunt the Gowk', "gowk" being Scots for a foolish person. The traditional prank is to ask someone to deliver a sealed message that requests help of some sort. In fact, the message reads "dinna smile. Hunt the gowk another mile." The recipient, upon reading it, will explain he can only help if he first contacts another person, sends the victim to this next person with an identical message, with the same result.
In England a "fool" is known by different names around the country, including a "noodle", "gob", "gobby" or "noddy". In Ireland, it was traditional to entrust the victim with an "important letter" to be given to a named person; that person would ask the victim to take it to someone else, so on. The letter when opened contained the words "send the fool further". In Poland, prima aprilis as a day of jokes is a centuries-long tradition, it is a day. Serious activities are avoided, every word said on April 1st can be a lie, or a joke; the conviction for this is so strong that the Polish anti-Turkish alliance with Leopold I signed on April 1, 1683, was backdated to March 31. However, for some in Poland prima aprilis ends at noon of April 1st, prima aprilis jokes after that hour are consid
Free software movement
The free software movement or free/open-source software movement or free/libre open-source software movement is a social movement with the goal of obtaining and guaranteeing certain freedoms for software users, namely the freedom to run the software, to study and change the software, to redistribute copies with or without changes. Although drawing on traditions and philosophies among members of the 1970s hacker culture and academia, Richard Stallman formally founded the movement in 1983 by launching the GNU Project. Stallman established the Free Software Foundation in 1985 to support the movement; the philosophy of the movement is that the use of computers should not lead to people being prevented from cooperating with each other. In practice, this means rejecting "proprietary software", which imposes such restrictions, promoting free software, with the ultimate goal of liberating everyone in cyberspace – that is, every computer user. Stallman notes that this action will promote rather than hinder the progression of technology, since "it means that much wasteful duplication of system programming effort will be avoided.
This effort can go instead into advancing the state of the art". Members of the free software movement believe that all users of software should have the freedoms listed in The Free Software Definition. Many of them hold that it is immoral to prohibit or prevent people from exercising these freedoms and that these freedoms are required to create a decent society where software users can help each other, to have control over their computers; some free software users and programmers do not believe that proprietary software is immoral, citing an increased profitability in the business models available for proprietary software or technical features and convenience as their reasons."While social change may occur as an unintended by-product of technological change, advocates of new technologies have promoted them as instruments of positive social change." This quote by San Jose State professor Joel West explains much of the philosophy, or the reason that the free source movement is alive. If it is assumed that social change is not only affected, but in some points of view, directed by the advancement of technology, is it ethical to hold these technologies from certain people?
If not to make a direct change, this movement is in place to raise awareness about the effects that take place because of the physical things around us. A computer, for instance, allows us so many more freedoms than we have without a computer, but should these technological mediums be implied freedoms, or selective privileges? The debate over the morality of both sides to the free software movement is a difficult topic to compromise respective opposition; the Free Software Foundation believes all software needs free documentation, in particular because conscientious programmers should be able to update manuals to reflect modification that they made to the software, but deems the freedom to modify less important for other types of written works. Within the free software movement, the FLOSS Manuals foundation specialises on the goal of providing such documentation. Members of the free software movement advocate that works which serve a practical purpose should be free; the core work of the free software movement focused on software development.
The free software movement rejects proprietary software, refusing to install software that does not give them the freedoms of free software. According to Stallman, "The only thing in the software field, worse than an unauthorised copy of a proprietary program, is an authorised copy of the proprietary program because this does the same harm to its whole community of users, in addition the developer, the perpetrator of this evil, profits from it." Some supporters of the free software movement take up public speaking, or host a stall at software-related conferences to raise awareness of software freedom. This is seen as important since people who receive free software, but who are not aware that it is free software, will accept a non-free replacement or will add software, not free software. Margaret S. Elliot, a researcher in the Institute for Software at the University of California Irvine, not only outlines many benefits that could come from a free software movement, she claims that it is inherently necessary to give every person equal opportunity to utilize the Internet, assuming that the computer is globally accessible.
Since the world has become more based in the framework of technology and its advancement, creating a selective internet that allows only some to surf the web is nonsensical according to Elliot. If there is a desire to live in a more coexistent world, benefited by communication and global assistance globally free software should be a position to strive for, according to many scholars who promote awareness about the free software movement; the ideas sparked by the GNU associates are an attempt to promote a "cooperative environment" that understands the benefits of having a local community and a global community. A lot of lobbying work has been done against software expansions of copyright law. Other lobbying focusses directly on use of free software by government agencies and government-funded projects; the Venezuelan government implemented a free software law in January 2006. Decree No. 3,390 mandated all government agencies to migrate to free software over a two-year period. Congressmen Edgar David Villanueva and Jacques Rodrich Ackerman have been instrumental in introducing free software in Peru, with bill 1609 on "Free Software in Public Administration".
The incident invited the attention of Microsoft Inc, whose general manager wrote a letter to Villanueva. His response received worldwide attention and is seen a