Castle Peak (Colorado)
Castle Peak is the ninth highest summit of the Rocky Mountains of North America and the U. S. state of Colorado. The prominent 14,279-foot fourteener is the highest summit of the Elk Mountains and the Maroon Bells-Snowmass Wilderness; the peak is located 11.6 miles northeast by north of the Town of Crested Butte, United States, on the drainage divide separating Gunnison National Forest and Gunnison County from White River National Forest and Pitkin County. The summit of Castle Peak is the highest point of both counties. Castle Peak takes its name from its castellated summit; the best climbing months are June, August, September through the Montezuma Glacier, a permanent snowfield between Castle and Conundrum Peaks. There are two standard routes for ascent; the Northwest Ridge features a moderate snow climb followed by an easy ridge scramble. It should not be attempted late in the summer when the 200 feet of loose dirt and scree meet the climber near the top of the Castle-Conundrum saddle; the Northeast Ridge features an easy snow climb, but harder scrambling and route-finding once on the ridge.
There are two other peaks in Colorado that have the same name: one in Eagle County at 39°46′23″N 106°50′04″W, with an elevation 11,280+ feet,. Conundrum Peak is a northern subsummit of Castle Peak, it has two spaced summits. It is 0.4 miles north of Castle Peak, has 200 feet of clean topographic prominence. This does not meet the usual 300-foot prominence criterion for an separate peak. List of mountain peaks of North America List of mountain peaks of the United States List of mountain peaks of Colorado List of Colorado county high points List of Colorado fourteeners "Castle Peak and Conundrum Peak". 14ers.com. Retrieved 2011-05-09. "Castle Peak". SummitPost.org. "Conundrum Peak". SummitPost.org. "Castle Peak / Conundrum Peak". Colorado Fourteeners. Archived from the original on 2008-03-29. Retrieved 2011-05-09. "Castle Peak". Peakware. Retrieved 2011-05-09
Clear Creek County, Colorado
Clear Creek County is one of the 64 counties of the U. S. state of Colorado. As of the 2010 census, the population was 9,088; the county seat is Georgetown. Clear Creek County is part of CO Metropolitan Statistical Area. Clear Creek County was one of the original 17 counties created by the Colorado legislature on 1 November 1861, is one of only two counties to have persisted with its original boundaries unchanged, it was named after Clear Creek. Idaho Springs was designated the county seat, but the county government was moved to Georgetown in 1867. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 396 square miles, of which 395 square miles is land and 1.3 square miles is water. Jefferson County - east Gilpin County - northeast Park County - south Summit County - west Grand County - northwest I-70 US 6 US 40 SH 5 SH 103 Central City Parkway Pike National Forest Roosevelt National Forest James Peak Wilderness Mount Evans Wilderness American Discovery Trail Continental Divide National Scenic Trail Grays Peak National Recreation Trail Mount Evans National Recreation Trail Guanella Pass Scenic Byway Mount Evans Scenic Byway Clear Creek County tends to be somewhat divided between Republicans and Democrats.
In the 2012 election, Barack Obama won over Mitt Romney 54% to 42%. As of the census of 2000, there were 9,322 people, 4,019 households, 2,608 families residing in the county; the population density was 24 people per square mile. There were 5,128 housing units at an average density of 13 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 96.37% White, 0.28% Black or African American, 0.73% Native American, 0.36% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 1.02% from other races, 1.20% from two or more races. 3.87% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 4,019 households out of which 28.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.60% were married couples living together, 6.90% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.10% were non-families. 27.20% of all households were made up of individuals and 4.30% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.31 and the average family size was 2.81. In the county, the population was spread out with 22.60% under the age of 18, 5.60% from 18 to 24, 32.60% from 25 to 44, 32.20% from 45 to 64, 7.10% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females there were 108.80 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 110.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $50,997, the median income for a family was $61,400. Males had a median income of $41,667 versus $30,757 for females; the per capita income for the county was $28,160. About 3.00% of families and 5.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 6.80% of those under age 18 and 5.60% of those age 65 or over. Idaho Springs Empire Georgetown Silver Plume Downieville-Lawson-Dumont Floyd Hill St. Mary's Upper Bear Creek Georgetown Loop Historic Mining & Railroad Park Georgetown-Silver Plume National Historic District Outline of Colorado Index of Colorado-related articles Arapahoe County, Kansas Territory Montana County, Jefferson Territory Colorado census statistical areas Denver-Aurora-Boulder Combined Statistical Area Front Range Urban Corridor National Register of Historic Places listings in Clear Creek County, Colorado Clear Creek County Government website Clear Creek County Colorado Tourism and Visitors Site Colorado Historical Society
Colorado is a state of the Western United States encompassing most of the southern Rocky Mountains as well as the northeastern portion of the Colorado Plateau and the western edge of the Great Plains. It is the 8th most extensive and 21st most populous U. S. state. The estimated population of Colorado was 5,695,564 on July 1, 2018, an increase of 13.25% since the 2010 United States Census. The state was named for the Colorado River, which early Spanish explorers named the Río Colorado for the ruddy silt the river carried from the mountains; the Territory of Colorado was organized on February 28, 1861, on August 1, 1876, U. S. President Ulysses S. Grant signed Proclamation 230 admitting Colorado to the Union as the 38th state. Colorado is nicknamed the "Centennial State" because it became a state one century after the signing of the United States Declaration of Independence. Colorado is bordered by Wyoming to the north, Nebraska to the northeast, Kansas to the east, Oklahoma to the southeast, New Mexico to the south, Utah to the west, touches Arizona to the southwest at the Four Corners.
Colorado is noted for its vivid landscape of mountains, high plains, canyons, plateaus and desert lands. Colorado is part of the western and southwestern United States, is one of the Mountain States. Denver is most populous city of Colorado. Residents of the state are known as Coloradans, although the antiquated term "Coloradoan" is used. Colorado is notable for its diverse geography, which includes alpine mountains, high plains, deserts with huge sand dunes, deep canyons. In 1861, the United States Congress defined the boundaries of the new Territory of Colorado by lines of latitude and longitude, stretching from 37°N to 41°N latitude, from 102°02'48"W to 109°02'48"W longitude. After 158 years of government surveys, the borders of Colorado are now defined by 697 boundary markers and 697 straight boundary lines. Colorado and Utah are the only states that have their borders defined by straight boundary lines with no natural features; the southwest corner of Colorado is the Four Corners Monument at 36°59'56"N, 109°2'43"W.
This is the only place in the United States where four states meet: Colorado, New Mexico and Utah. The summit of Mount Elbert at 14,440 feet elevation in Lake County is the highest point in Colorado and the Rocky Mountains of North America. Colorado is the only U. S. state that lies above 1,000 meters elevation. The point where the Arikaree River flows out of Yuma County and into Cheyenne County, Kansas, is the lowest point in Colorado at 3,317 feet elevation; this point, which holds the distinction of being the highest low elevation point of any state, is higher than the high elevation points of 18 states and the District of Columbia. A little less than half of Colorado is flat and rolling land. East of the Rocky Mountains are the Colorado Eastern Plains of the High Plains, the section of the Great Plains within Nebraska at elevations ranging from 3,350 to 7,500 feet; the Colorado plains are prairies but include deciduous forests and canyons. Precipitation averages 15 to 25 inches annually. Eastern Colorado is presently farmland and rangeland, along with small farming villages and towns.
Corn, hay and oats are all typical crops. Most villages and towns in this region boast both a grain elevator. Irrigation water is available from subterranean sources. Surface water sources include the South Platte, the Arkansas River, a few other streams. Subterranean water is accessed through artesian wells. Heavy use of wells for irrigation caused underground water reserves to decline. Eastern Colorado hosts considerable livestock, such as hog farms. 70% of Colorado's population resides along the eastern edge of the Rocky Mountains in the Front Range Urban Corridor between Cheyenne and Pueblo, Colorado. This region is protected from prevailing storms that blow in from the Pacific Ocean region by the high Rockies in the middle of Colorado; the "Front Range" includes Denver, Fort Collins, Castle Rock, Colorado Springs, Pueblo and other townships and municipalities in between. On the other side of the Rockies, the significant population centers in Western Colorado are the cities of Grand Junction and Montrose.
The Continental Divide of the Americas extends along the crest of the Rocky Mountains. The area of Colorado to the west of the Continental Divide is called the Western Slope of Colorado. West of the Continental Divide, water flows to the southwest via the Colorado River and the Green River into the Gulf of California. Within the interior of the Rocky Mountains are several large parks which are high broad basins. In the north, on the east side of the Continental Divide is the North Park of Colorado; the North Park is drained by the North Platte River, which flows north into Nebraska. Just to the south of North Park, but on the western side of the Continental Divide, is the Middle Park of Colorado, drained by the Colorado River; the South Park of Colorado is the region of the headwaters of the South Platte River. In southmost Colorado is the large San Luis Valley, where the headwaters of the Rio Grande are located; the valley sits between the Sangre De Cristo Mountains and San Juan Mountains, consists of large desert lands that run into the mountains.
The Rio Grande drains due south into New Mexico and Texas. Across the Sangre de Cristo Range to the east of the S
Grand County, Colorado
Grand County is one of the 64 counties in the U. S. state of Colorado. As of the 2010 census, the population was 14,843; the county seat is Hot Sulphur Springs. When Grand County was created February 2, 1874 it was carved out of Summit County and contained land to the western and northern borders of the state, in present-day Moffat County and Routt County, it was named after Grand Lake and the Grand River, an old name for the upper Colorado River, which has its headwaters in the county. On January 29, 1877 Routt County was created and Grand County shrunk down to its current western boundary; when valuable minerals were found in North Park, Grand County claimed the area as part of its county, a claim Larimer County held. It took a decision by the Colorado Supreme Court in 1886 to declare North Park part of Larimer County, setting Grand County's northern boundary. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,870 square miles, of which 1,846 square miles is land and 23 square miles is water.
Great Parks Bicycle Route TransAmerica Trail Bicycle Route Colorado River Headwaters National Scenic Byway Trail Ridge Road/Beaver Meadow National Scenic Byway As of the census of 2000, there were 12,442 people, 5,075 households, 3,217 families residing in the county. The population density was 7 people per square mile. There were 10,894 housing units at an average density of 6 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 95.15% White, 0.48% Black or African American, 0.43% Native American, 0.68% Asian, 0.10% Pacific Islander, 2.00% from other races, 1.15% from two or more races. 4.36% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 23.8 % were of 10.0 % English and 7.3 % American ancestry. There were 5,075 households out of which 28.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.70% were married couples living together, 5.20% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.60% were non-families. 24.80% of all households were made up of individuals and 4.80% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.37 and the average family size was 2.85. In the county, the population was spread out with 21.80% under the age of 18, 9.00% from 18 to 24, 34.70% from 25 to 44, 26.80% from 45 to 64, 7.80% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 112.70 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 115.70 males. The median income for a household in the county was $47,759, the median income for a family was $55,217. Males had a median income of $34,861 versus $26,445 for females; the per capita income for the county was $25,198. About 5.40% of families and 7.30% of the population were below the poverty line, including 7.90% of those under age 18 and 6.10% of those age 65 or over. Fraser Granby Grand Lake Hot Sulphur Springs Kremmling Winter Park Parshall Tabernash Radium Colorado portal List of counties in Colorado Saratoga County, Jefferson Territory National Register of Historic Places listings in Grand County, Colorado Official website Arapaho National Recreation Area website Colorado County Evolution by Don Stanwyck Colorado Historical Society Grand County Library District website Grand County News website Grand County Tourism Board website Town of Hot Sulphur Springs website Rocky Mountain National Park website Winter Park and Fraser Valley Chamber of Commerce website Grand Lake Chamber of Commerce homepage
In modern mapping, a topographic map is a type of map characterized by large-scale detail and quantitative representation of relief using contour lines, but using a variety of methods. Traditional definitions require a topographic map to show both man-made features. A topographic survey is published as a map series, made up of two or more map sheets that combine to form the whole map. A contour line is a line connecting places of equal elevation. Natural Resources Canada provides this description of topographic maps:These maps depict in detail ground relief, forest cover, administrative areas, populated areas, transportation routes and facilities, other man-made features. Other authors define topographic maps by contrasting them with another type of map. However, in the vernacular and day to day world, the representation of relief is popularly held to define the genre, such that small-scale maps showing relief are called "topographic"; the study or discipline of topography is a much broader field of study, which takes into account all natural and man-made features of terrain.
Topographic maps are based on topographical surveys. Performed at large scales, these surveys are called topographical in the old sense of topography, showing a variety of elevations and landforms; this is in contrast to older cadastral surveys, which show property and governmental boundaries. The first multi-sheet topographic map series of an entire country, the Carte géométrique de la France, was completed in 1789; the Great Trigonometric Survey of India, started by the East India Company in 1802 taken over by the British Raj after 1857 was notable as a successful effort on a larger scale and for determining heights of Himalayan peaks from viewpoints over one hundred miles distant. Topographic surveys were prepared by the military to assist in planning for battle and for defensive emplacements; as such, elevation information was of vital importance. As they evolved, topographic map series became a national resource in modern nations in planning infrastructure and resource exploitation. In the United States, the national map-making function, shared by both the Army Corps of Engineers and the Department of the Interior migrated to the newly created United States Geological Survey in 1879, where it has remained since.1913 saw the beginning of the International Map of the World initiative, which set out to map all of Earth's significant land areas at a scale of 1:1 million, on about one thousand sheets, each covering four degrees latitude by six or more degrees longitude.
Excluding borders, each sheet was up to 66 cm wide. Although the project foundered, it left an indexing system that remains in use. By the 1980s, centralized printing of standardized topographic maps began to be superseded by databases of coordinates that could be used on computers by moderately skilled end users to view or print maps with arbitrary contents and scale. For example, the Federal government of the United States' TIGER initiative compiled interlinked databases of federal and local political borders and census enumeration areas, of roadways and water features with support for locating street addresses within street segments. TIGER was used in the 1990 and subsequent decennial censuses. Digital elevation models were compiled from topographic maps and stereographic interpretation of aerial photographs and from satellite photography and radar data. Since all these were government projects funded with taxes and not classified for national security reasons, the datasets were in the public domain and usable without fees or licensing.
TIGER and DEM datasets facilitated Geographic information systems and made the Global Positioning System much more useful by providing context around locations given by the technology as coordinates. Initial applications were professionalized forms such as innovative surveying instruments and agency-level GIS systems tended by experts. By the mid-1990s user-friendly resources such as online mapping in two and three dimensions, integration of GPS with mobile phones and automotive navigation systems appeared; as of 2011, the future of standardized, centrally printed topographical maps is left somewhat in doubt. Topographic maps have multiple uses in the present day: any type of geographic planning or large-scale architecture; the various features shown on the map are represented by conventional symbols. For example, colors can be used to indicate a classification of roads; these signs are explained in the margin of the map, or on a separately published characteristic sheet. Topographic maps are commonly called contour maps or topo maps.
In the United States, where the primary national series is organized by a strict 7.5-minute grid, they are called topo quads or quadrangles. Topographic maps conventionally show land contours, by means of contour lines. Contour lines are curves. In other words, every point on the marked line of 100 m elevation is 100 m above mean sea level; these maps show
Charles Christopher Parry
Charles Christopher Parry was a British-American botanist and mountaineer. Parry was born in Gloucestershire, but moved to the United States with his parents in 1832, settling first in New York, he studied medicine at Columbia University, botany under John Torrey, Asa Gray and George Engelmann. He moved to Davenport, Iowa in 1846 where he practiced as a doctor for a short time before joining the United States and Mexican Boundary Survey as surgeon and botanist, he made extensive plant collections along the U. S.-Mexico border in California, in Colorado and other western states, many of which proved to be new species. Important plants he discovered include the Torrey pine and Engelmann spruce, which he named in honour of his mentors. Several plants are named after him, including the Parry Pinyon, Parry's Lily and Parry's Penstemon. In addition, the genus Neoparrya was named in his honor. Parry made the first barometric measurements of the heights of many of Colorado's mountains. Although he did not reach the summit, he estimated the height of Longs Peak, he was the first to climb and measure Grays Peak.
Parry Peak in Colorado is named after him. His archive is held at Iowa State University. Iowa State University: Parry archives Charles Christopher Parry Digital Collection Eastern Sierra Native Plants biography Charles Christopher Parry - King of Colorado Botany Torrey Pines Reserve bio Parry Peak
The Front Range is a mountain range of the Southern Rocky Mountains of North America located in the central portion of the U. S. State of Colorado, southeastern portion of the U. S. State of Wyoming, it is the first mountain range encountered as one goes westbound along the 40th parallel north across the Great Plains of North America. The Front Range runs north-south between Casper and Pueblo, Colorado and rises nearly 10,000 feet above the Great Plains. Longs Peak, Mount Evans, Pikes Peak are its most prominent peaks, visible from the Interstate 25 corridor; the area is a popular destination for mountain biking, hiking and camping during the warmer months and for skiing and snowboarding during winter. Millions of years ago, the present-day Front Range was home to ancient mountain ranges, deserts and oceans; the name "Front Range" is applied to the Front Range Urban Corridor, the populated region of Colorado and Wyoming just east of the mountain range and extending from Cheyenne, Wyoming south to Pueblo, Colorado.
This urban corridor benefits from the weather-moderating effect of the Front Range mountains, which help block prevailing storms. About 1 billion years ago, the earth was producing massive amounts of molten rock that would one day amalgamate, drift together and combine, to form the continents we live on today. In the Colorado region, this molten rock spewed and cooled, forming what we now know as the Precambrian Pikes Peak Granite. Over the next 500 million years, little is known about changes in the sedimentation after the granite was produced. However, at about 500–300 million years ago, the region began to sink and sediments began to deposit in the newly formed accommodation space. Eroded granite produced sand particles that began to form strata, layers of sediment, in the sinking basin. Sedimentation would continue to take place until about 300 million years ago. Around 300 million years ago, the sinking reversed, the sediment-covered granite began to uplift, giving rise to the Ancestral Rocky Mountains.
Over the next 150 million years, during uplift the mountains would continue to erode and cover themselves in their own sediment. Wind, rainwater and ice-melt supplied rivers that carved through the granite mountains and led to their end; the sediment from these mountains lies in the Fountain Formation today. Red Rocks Amphitheatre outside of Denver, Colorado, is set into the Fountain Formation. At 280 million years ago, sea levels were low and present-day Colorado was part of the super-continent Pangaea. Sand deserts covered most of the area spreading as dunes seen in the rock record, known today as the Lyons Sandstone; these dunes appear to be cross-bedded and show various fossil footprints and leaf imprints in many of the strata making up the section. 30 million years the sediment deposition was still taking place with the introduction of the Lykins Formation. This formation can be best attributed to its wavy layers of muddy limestone and signs of stromatolites that thrived in a smelly tidal flat at present-day Colorado.
250 million years ago, the Ancestral Rockies were burying themselves while the shoreline was present during the break-up of Pangaea. This formation began right after Earth's largest extinction 251 million years ago at the Permian–Triassic Boundary. Ninety percent of the planet's marine life was a great deal on land as well. After 100 million years of deposition, a new environment brought rise to a new formation, the sandstone Morrison Formation; the Morrison Formation contains some of the best fossils of the Late Jurassic. It is known for its sauropod tracks and sauropod bones among other dinosaur fossils; as identified by the fossil record, the environment was filled with various types of vegetation such as ferns and Zamites. While this time period boasts many types of plants, grass had not yet evolved; the Dakota Sandstone, deposited 100 million years ago towards Colorado's eastern coast, shows evidence of ferns, dinosaur tracks. Sheets of ripple marks can be seen on some of the strata. Over the next 30 million years, the region was taken over by a deep sea, the Cretaceous Western Interior Seaway, deposited mass amounts of shale over the area known as the Pierre Shale.
Both the thick section of shale and the marine life fossils found. Colorado drained from being at the bottom of an ocean to land again, giving yield to another fossiliferous rock layer, the Denver Formation. At about 68 million years ago, the Front Range began to rise again due to the Laramide Orogeny in the west; the Denver Formation contained fossils and bones from dinosaurs like Tyrannosaurus rex and Triceratops. While the forests of vegetation and other organisms thrived, their reign would come to an end at the Cretaceous–Paleogene boundary. In an instant, millions of species are obliterated from a meteor impact in Mexico's Yucatán Peninsula. While this extinction led to the demise of the dinosaurs and other organisms, some life did prevail to repopulate the earth as it recovered from this tremendous disaster; the uplifted Front Range continued to erode and, by 40 million years ago, the range was once again buried in its own rubble. 37 million years ago, a great volcanic eruption took place in the Collegiate Range and covered the landscape in molten hot ash that torched and consumed everything across the landscape.
An entire lush environment was capped in a matter of minutes with 20 feet of extr