The Northwest Territories is a federal territory of Canada. At a land area of 1,144,000 km2 and a 2016 census population of 41,786, it is the second-largest and the most populous of the three territories in Northern Canada, its estimated population as of 2018 is 44,445. Yellowknife became the territorial capital in 1967, following recommendations by the Carrothers Commission; the Northwest Territories, a portion of the old North-Western Territory, entered the Canadian Confederation on July 15, 1870, but the current borders were formed on April 1, 1999, when the territory was subdivided to create Nunavut to the east, via the Nunavut Act and the Nunavut Land Claims Agreement. While Nunavut is Arctic tundra, the Northwest Territories has a warmer climate and is both boreal forest, tundra, its most northern regions form part of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago; the Northwest Territories is bordered by Canada's two other territories, Nunavut to the east and Yukon to the west, by the provinces of British Columbia and Saskatchewan to the south.
The name is descriptive, adopted by the British government during the colonial era to indicate where it lay in relation to Rupert's Land. It is shortened from North-Western Territory. In Inuktitut, the Northwest Territories are referred to as ᓄᓇᑦᓯᐊᖅ, "beautiful land."There was some discussion of changing the name of the Northwest Territories after the splitting off of Nunavut to a term from an Aboriginal language. One proposal was "Denendeh", among others. One of the most popular proposals for a new name – one to name the territory "Bob" – began as a prank, but for a while it was at or near the top in the public-opinion polls. In the end, a poll conducted prior to division showed that strong support remained to keep the name "Northwest Territories"; this name arguably became more appropriate following division than it had been when the territories extended far into Canada's north-central and northeastern areas. Located in northern Canada, the territory borders Canada's two other territories, Yukon to the west and Nunavut to the east, three provinces: British Columbia to the southwest, Alberta and Saskatchewan to the south.
It meets Manitoba at a quadripoint to the extreme southeast, though surveys have not been completed. It has a land area of 1,183,085 km2. Geographical features include Great Bear Lake, the largest lake within Canada, Great Slave Lake, the deepest body of water in North America at 614 m, as well as the Mackenzie River and the canyons of the Nahanni National Park Reserve, a national park and UNESCO World Heritage Site. Territorial islands in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago include Banks Island, Borden Island, Prince Patrick Island, parts of Victoria Island and Melville Island, its highest point is Mount Nirvana near the border with Yukon at an elevation of 2,773 m. The Northwest Territories extends for more than 1,300,000 km2 and has a large climate variant from south to north; the southern part of the territory has a subarctic climate, while the islands and northern coast have a polar climate. Summers in the north are short and cool, with daytime highs of 14-17 Celsius, lows of 1-5 Celsius. Winters are long and harsh, daytime highs in the mid −20 °C and lows around −40 °C.
Extremes are common with summer highs in the south reaching 36 °C and lows reaching into the negatives. In winter in the south, it is not uncommon for the temperatures to reach −40 °C, but they can reach the low teens during the day. In the north, temperatures can reach highs of 30 °C, lows can reach into the low negatives. In winter in the north it is not uncommon for the temperatures to reach −50 °C but they can reach the single digits during the day. Thunderstorms are not rare in the south. In the north they are rare, but do occur. Tornadoes are rare but have happened with the most notable one happening just outside Yellowknife that destroyed a communications tower; the Territory has a dry climate due to the mountains in the west. About half of the territory is above the tree line. There are not many trees in the north islands; the present-day territory came under government authority in July 1870, after the Hudson's Bay Company transferred Rupert's Land and the North-Western Territory to the British Crown, which subsequently transferred them to Canada, giving it the name the North-west Territories.
This immense region comprised all of today's Canada except that, encompassed within the early signers of Canadian Confederation, that is, British Columbia, early forms of present-day Ontario and Quebec, the Maritimes, the Labrador coast, the Arctic Islands, except the southern half of Baffin Island. The first residential school opened in 1867 in Fort Resolution, followed by several others in regions across the territory, thus contributing to the Northwest Territories reaching the highest percentage of students in residential schools of any area in Canada. After the 1870 transfer, some of the North-west Territories was whittled away; the province of Manitoba was created on July 15, 1870, at first a small square area around Winnipeg
A headland is a coastal landform, a point of land high and with a sheer drop, that extends into a body of water. It is a type of promontory. A headland of considerable size is called a cape. Headlands are characterised by high, breaking waves, rocky shores, intense erosion, steep sea cliffs. Headlands and bays are found on the same coastline. A bay is flanked by land on three sides. Headlands and bays form on discordant coastlines, where bands of rock of alternating resistance run perpendicular to the coast. Bays form when weak rocks are eroded, leaving bands of stronger rocks forming a headland, or peninsula. Through the deposition of sediment within the bay and the erosion of the headlands, coastlines straighten out start the same process all over again. Cap-Vert, Senegal Cape Agulhas, South Africa, Africa's southernmost point Cape Blanc, Mauritania Cape Bojador, Western Sahara Cape Correntes, Mozambique Cape Delgado, Mozambique Cape Juby, Morocco Cape Malabata, Morocco Cape of Good Hope, South Africa Ras ben Sakka, Africa's northernmost point Cabo de Rama, India Cape Dezhnev, Russia Cape Engano, Philippines Indira Point and Nicobar Islands, India Kanyakumari or Cape Comorin, Tamil Nadu, India Beachy Head, England Cabo da Roca, the western tip of mainland Europe Cabo de São Vicente/Sagres, the southwestern tip of mainland Europe Cap Gris Nez, France Cape Arkona, Germany Cape Emine, Bulgaria Cape Enniberg, Faroe Islands Cape Finisterre, Spain Cape Greco, Cyprus Cape Kaliakra, Bulgaria Cape Tainaron, the southern tip of mainland Europe Cape Wrath, Scotland Gibraltar Great Orme, Wales Land's End, England Mull of Kintyre, Scotland North Cape, the northern tip of mainland Europe Pointe du Raz, France St Bees Head, UK, the most westerly point of northern England Cape Chidley and Labrador/Nunavut Cape Columbia, Canada's northernmost point Cape Freels and Labrador Cape Norman and Labrador Cape Spear and Labrador, Canada's easternmost point Cape Tormentine, New Brunswick Cape Farewell, Greenland's southernmost point Cabo San Lucas, Baja California Sur, Mexico Cape Ann, Massachusetts Cape Canaveral, Florida Cape Charles, Virginia Cape Cod, Massachusetts Cape Fear, North Carolina Cape Flattery, Washington Cape Hatteras, North Carolina Cape Henlopen, Delaware Cape Henry, Virginia Cape May, New Jersey Cape Mendocino, California Cape Prince of Wales, Alaska Cascade Head, Oregon Diamond Head, Hawaii Heceta Head, Oregon Hilton Head, South Carolina Koko Head, Hawaii Marin Headlands, California Mount Mitchill, New Jersey North Shore, Lake Superior, Minnesota Point Reyes, California Cape Leeuwin, Western Australia Cape York, Queensland South East Cape, Tasmania South West Cape, Tasmania Sydney Heads, New South Wales Cape Egmont Cape Foulwind Cape Reinga East Cape North Cape Young Nick's Head Cape Froward, Chile Cape Horn, South America's southernmost point Cape Virgenes, Argentina Cape Headlands and bays
Amundsen Gulf is a gulf located in the Northwest Territories, between Banks Island and Victoria Island and the mainland. It is 250 mi in length and about 93 mi across where it meets the Beaufort Sea; the Amundsen Gulf was explored by Norwegian explorer Roald Amundsen between 1903 and 1906. The gulf is at the western end of the famous Northwest Passage, a route from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific. Few people live along the shores of the gulf, but there are a few towns and communities, including Sachs Harbour and Paulatuk. Heading north in the gulf one would find the Prince of Wales Strait. Heading southeast and east, the gulf leads through the Dolphin and Union Strait, past Simpson Bay and into the Coronation Gulf. From there one would go through the Dease Strait and into the Queen Maud Gulf, head northeast into the Victoria Strait. Heading west and northwest a traveller would first enter the Beaufort Sea and the Arctic Ocean; the entire gulf is in the Arctic tundra climate region, characterized by cold winters.
In late winter the Amundsen Gulf is covered in sea ice. Most of the ice breaks up in July during a normal year, with some areas in the far eastern and northern part of the gulf only breaking up in August. Beluga whales, Arctic char and salmon use the waters of the gulf. Sockeye and pink salmon appeared for the first time in nearby waters between 1999 and 2001. De Salis Bay Storkerson Bay On the Edge of Ice in the Amundsen Gulf
Paulatuk is a hamlet located in the Inuvik Region of the Northwest Territories, Canada. It is located adjacent in the Amundsen Gulf; the town was named for the coal, found in the area in the 1920s, the Siglitun spelling is Paulatuuq, "place of coal". The area has been inhabited by humans, including the Thule and Copper Inuit, since 1000 CE. Most it is part of the Inuvialuit Settlement Region. Paulatuk was incorporated as a hamlet in 1987 and celebrated the 50th anniversary of its settlement in 2015. In 2017 the Government of the Northwest Territories reported that the population was 312 with an average yearly growth rate of 0.1 from 2007. At the 2016 Census, Paulatuk had a population of a decrease of 15.3 % over the 2011 Census. In the 2016 census 235 people were listed as Indigenous and all were Inuit; the two principal languages spoken in Paulatuk are English. The community was settled in the 1920s; this was followed a few years by the Roman Catholic Church which opened a trading post. In the 1950s a Distant Early Warning Line site was built about 95 km to the northeast at Cape Parry, on the Parry Peninsula, providing a wage based income for the community.
The trading post was taken over by the local co-op and today the local store is part of The North West Company. Hunting and trapping are major economic activities, but in recent years art printmaking has played an increasing role in the local economy; the Smoking Hills which are about 105 km west on the shores of the Arctic Ocean are a scientifically interesting object, since they are diminishing the pH value of the water areas. So the buffer effect has disappeared. Located to the east of the community is Tuktut Nogait National Park and Parks Canada has an office in the community. Paulatuk's Inuit artists are known across Canada and around the world for dance, sculptures and drawings. Floyd Kuptana was born in 1964, he studied under David Ruben Piqtoukun and began solo work in 1992. He is a carver and painter. Robert Kuptana was born in 1962. A carver since his youth, he studied under his brother Floyd and began professional work in 1998; the Paulatuk Moonlight Dancers are a group of traditional Inuvialuit dancers.
They have performed in Canada, the United States and Germany, are led by Michael “Nolan” Green. Green served as a hamlet councillor and received a Canada Youth Award in 2002. Abraham Anghik Ruben was born south of Paulatuk in 1951 and lived on the land with his family until he was eight years old, he lives on Salt Spring Island. His 2001 sculpture The Last Goodbye reflects Ruben and his brothers' experiences of being separated from their family by Canada's residential school system. Ruben writes, I remember when this took place—my mother sitting with my older brother and sister and Martha, just before they left for the Mission school in Aklavik. David was five years old at the time and Martha was only a little older, it was a scene, repeated on when my other brothers and I were sent off to residential school. But this time, it was sadder for my mother, because it would be three years that David and Martha would be gone, they left in 1955 and we didn’t see them again until the latter part of 1958.
Those three years had a permanent impact on my brother’s life." Abraham Anghik Ruben became an Officer in the Order of Canada on November 17, 2016 for his artistic contributions as a sculptor and for his preservation of northern heritage. David Ruben Piqtoukun was born in Paulatuk in 1950. A sculptor and print artist, he is brother to Abraham Anghik Ruben and was a mentor to Floyd Kuptana. A mayor has led the hamlet since its incorporation in 1987, when the first mayor, Garrett Ruben, was elected. Ruben was a community leader before incorporation; as a young man he worked near the Distant Early Warning Line site at Cape Parry, but the area was isolated and far from traditional hunting grounds. After leaving this work, he negotiated for the community locally and in the south and became Settlement Chair prior to serving as mayor. Ruben died in 2007 at the age of 72; the hamlet has formally recognized him for his 24 years of service. Ray Ruben, the sixth and current mayor, is his son. Paulatuk elder Anny Illasiak known as Granny Uma, died in 2012 at the age of 74.
A resident of Paulatuk since the 1970s, Illasiak was a leader in training children and young people to live on the land. She organized a community sewing group, teaching others to make traditional clothing and creating tapestries herself, volunteered as a cook with the Paulatuk Community Kitchen, she served as the Aboriginal language teacher for the Paulatuk Aboriginal Headstart Program for 10 years and continued to assist with the program after her retirement. Elizabeth "Liz" Kuptana, recipient of the Wallace Goose Award is a Paulatuk elder and storyteller, she teaches children and youth about Inuvialuit culture and language as well as the history of the Inuvialuit Final Agreement. She was awarded the Queen Elizabeth II Diamond Jubilee Medal in 2013. Paulatuuq Oral History Project: Elders Share Their Stories was published in 2004. Eight community elders, including Edward Ruben and Mary Evik Ruben, contributed to this record of the hamlet’s oral history, completing interviews transcribed by Cathy Cockney.
Services include a two-member Royal Canadian Mounted Police detachment and a health centre with two nurses. Phone services are provided by Northwestel with Internet by SSI Micro and
The Arctic Ocean is the smallest and shallowest of the world's five major oceans. The International Hydrographic Organization recognizes it as an ocean, although some oceanographers call it the Arctic Mediterranean Sea or the Arctic Sea, classifying it a mediterranean sea or an estuary of the Atlantic Ocean, it is seen as the northernmost part of the all-encompassing World Ocean. Located in the Arctic north polar region in the middle of the Northern Hemisphere, the Arctic Ocean is completely surrounded by Eurasia and North America, it is covered by sea ice throughout the year and completely in winter. The Arctic Ocean's surface temperature and salinity vary seasonally as the ice cover melts and freezes; the summer shrinking of the ice has been quoted at 50%. The US National Snow and Ice Data Center uses satellite data to provide a daily record of Arctic sea ice cover and the rate of melting compared to an average period and specific past years. Human habitation in the North American polar region goes back at least 50,000–17,000 years ago, during the Wisconsin glaciation.
At this time, falling sea levels allowed people to move across the Bering land bridge that joined Siberia to north west North America, leading to the Settlement of the Americas. Paleo-Eskimo groups included the Pre-Dorset; the Dorset were the last major Paleo-Eskimo culture in the Arctic before the migration east from present-day Alaska of the Thule, the ancestors of the modern Inuit. The Thule Tradition lasted from about 200 B. C. to 1600 A. D. around the Bering Strait, the Thule people being the prehistoric ancestors of the Inuit who now live in Northern Labrador. For much of European history, the north polar regions remained unexplored and their geography conjectural. Pytheas of Massilia recorded an account of a journey northward in 325 BC, to a land he called "Eschate Thule", where the Sun only set for three hours each day and the water was replaced by a congealed substance "on which one can neither walk nor sail", he was describing loose sea ice known today as "growlers" or "bergy bits". Early cartographers were unsure whether to draw the region around the North Pole as water.
The fervent desire of European merchants for a northern passage, the Northern Sea Route or the Northwest Passage, to "Cathay" caused water to win out, by 1723 mapmakers such as Johann Homann featured an extensive "Oceanus Septentrionalis" at the northern edge of their charts. The few expeditions to penetrate much beyond the Arctic Circle in this era added only small islands, such as Novaya Zemlya and Spitzbergen, though since these were surrounded by pack-ice, their northern limits were not so clear; the makers of navigational charts, more conservative than some of the more fanciful cartographers, tended to leave the region blank, with only fragments of known coastline sketched in. This lack of knowledge of what lay north of the shifting barrier of ice gave rise to a number of conjectures. In England and other European nations, the myth of an "Open Polar Sea" was persistent. John Barrow, longtime Second Secretary of the British Admiralty, promoted exploration of the region from 1818 to 1845 in search of this.
In the United States in the 1850s and 1860s, the explorers Elisha Kane and Isaac Israel Hayes both claimed to have seen part of this elusive body of water. Quite late in the century, the eminent authority Matthew Fontaine Maury included a description of the Open Polar Sea in his textbook The Physical Geography of the Sea; as all the explorers who travelled closer and closer to the pole reported, the polar ice cap is quite thick, persists year-round. Fridtjof Nansen was the first to make a nautical crossing of the Arctic Ocean, in 1896; the first surface crossing of the ocean was led by Wally Herbert in 1969, in a dog sled expedition from Alaska to Svalbard, with air support. The first nautical transit of the north pole was made in 1958 by the submarine USS Nautilus, the first surface nautical transit occurred in 1977 by the icebreaker NS Arktika. Since 1937, Soviet and Russian manned drifting ice stations have extensively monitored the Arctic Ocean. Scientific settlements were established on the drift ice and carried thousands of kilometers by ice floes.
In World War II, the European region of the Arctic Ocean was contested: the Allied commitment to resupply the Soviet Union via its northern ports was opposed by German naval and air forces. Since 1954 commercial airlines have flown over the Arctic Ocean; the Arctic Ocean occupies a circular basin and covers an area of about 14,056,000 km2 the size of Antarctica. The coastline is 45,390 km long, it is surrounded by the land masses of Eurasia, North America, by several islands. It is taken to include Baffin Bay, Barents Sea, Beaufort Sea, Chukchi Sea, East Siberian Sea, Greenland Sea, Hudson Bay, Hudson Strait, Kara Sea, Laptev Sea, White Sea and other tributary bodies of water
William Parry (explorer)
Rear-Admiral Sir William Edward Parry was an English explorer of the Arctic, known for his 1819 expedition through the Parry Channel the most successful in the long quest for the Northwest Passage. In 1827 he attempted one of the earliest expeditions to the North Pole, he reached 82°45′N, setting the record for human exploration Farthest North that stood for nearly five decades before being surpassed at 83°20′N by Sir Albert Hastings Markham in 1875. Parry was born in Bath, the son of Caleb Hillier Parry and Sarah Rigby, he was educated at King Edward's School. At the age of thirteen he joined the flagship of Admiral Sir William Cornwallis in the Channel fleet as a first-class volunteer, in 1806 became a midshipman, in 1810 received promotion to the rank of lieutenant in the frigate Alexander, which spent the next three years in the protection of the Spitsbergen whale fishery, he took advantage of this opportunity for the study and practice of astronomical observations in northern latitudes, afterwards published the results of his studies in a small volume on Nautical Astronomy by Night.
From 1813 to 1817 he served on the North American station. In 1818 he received command of the brig Alexander in the Arctic expedition under Captain John Ross; this expedition followed the coast of Baffin Bay without making any new discoveries. Parry and many others thought that Ross was wrong to turn back after entering Lancaster Sound at the north end of Baffin Island; as a result Parry was given command of a new expedition in HMS Hecla accompanied by the slower HMS Griper under Matthew Liddon. Others on the expedition were science officer and Frederick William Beechy. For protection from ice the ships were clad with 3-inch oak, had iron plates on their bows and internal cross-beams, they carried food in tin cans, an invention so new that there were as yet no can openers. Instead of taking Ross's easy route anti-clockwise around Baffin Bay he headed straight for Lancaster Sound. Fighting his way through ice he headed for Lancaster Sound, he kept going. Blocked by heavy ice, they went south for more than 100 miles into Prince Regent Inlet before turning back.
Continuing west they passed 110 ° W. Blocked by ice they turned back to a place Parry called Winter Harbour on the south shore of Melville Island, somewhere near 107- or 108° W. Cutting their way through new ice the ships reached anchorage on 26 September. Here they were frozen in for the next 10 months. There were three months of total darkness and in the new year the temperature reached −54 °F; the men were kept busy with regular exercise while the officers put on plays and produced a newspaper. The first case of scurvy was reported in January and by March fourteen men were on the sick list, about half with mild scurvy. Parry planted them in his cabin; the leaves seemed to help. There was some excitement in early March when the first melt water appeared, but by the end of the month the ice was still 6 feet thick. In June Parry led a group of men dragging a wooden cart to the north shore of the island which he named Hecla and Griper Bay, it was the first of August. They got as far west as 113°46'W before turning back.
It was too late in the season and new ice was beginning to form. They reached England in October 1820 having lost only one man. Parry's voyage, which had taken him through the Parry Channel three quarters of the way across the Canadian Arctic Archipelago was the single most productive voyage in the quest for the Northwest Passage. Luck had been on their side. A narrative of the expedition, entitled Journal of a Voyage to discover a North-west Passage, appeared in 1821, publisher John Murray paying 1,000 guineas for it. Upon his return Lieutenant Parry received promotion to the rank of commander, he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in February 1821. In April 1821 he again left for the Arctic commanding HMS Fury accompanied by HMS Hecla under George Francis Lyon. Others with him were George Fisher and chaplain, William Hooper and diarist, lieutenants Francis Crozier and Henry Parkyns Hoppner and James Clark Ross a midshipman. Experience from the previous voyage led to improvements; the two vessels were nearly identical.
They had cork insulation, cork plugs for the portholes and a coal-burning stove in the lowest deck to deal with condensation. The men were issued better clothing and lemon juice was stored in kegs rather than glass bottles; the goal this time was to find a passage near the northwest end of Hudson Bay. After working through the ice of Hudson Strait he headed directly west to Frozen Strait which Christopher Middleton had found impassable in 1742, he passed Frozen Strait in a fog and found himself in Repulse Bay which he re-checked and found land-locked. He ran northeast and mapped the coast of the Melville Peninsula and wintered at the southeast corner of Winter Island. From the Inuit he learned. In March and May Lyon led two sledging expeditions into the interior. Freed from the ice in July he went north and found the Fury and Hecla Strait, ice-filled, they waited for the ice to clear. In September Lieutenant Ried trekked 100 miles west along the Strait to the ice-filled Gulf of Boothia, the north end of which Parry had app
Franklin Bay is a large inlet in the Northwest Territories, Canada. It is a southern arm of southeastern Beaufort Sea; the bay measures 48 kilometres long, 40 kilometres wide at its mouth. The Parry Peninsula is to the east, its southern area is called Langton Bay. Franklin Bay receives the Horton River. There are gales in the early winter months. Franklin Bay was named in honor of Arctic explorer Sir John Franklin by John Richardson in 1826. Based on hearsay rather than exploration, Émile Petitot, a French Missionary Oblate and a notable Canadian northwest cartographer and geographer charted the Hornaday River's mouth at Franklin Bay, instead of Darnley Bay in his flawed 1875 maps and account. Langton Bay was the base of operations for the three-year expedition, 1909 to 1912, of Arctic explorers Vilhjalmur Stefansson and Rudolph Anderson