The Bridge of San Luis Rey
The Bridge of San Luis Rey is American author Thornton Wilder's second novel, first published in 1927 to worldwide acclaim. It tells the story of several interrelated people who die in the collapse of an Inca rope bridge in Peru, the events that lead up to their being on the bridge. A friar who has witnessed the accident goes about inquiring into the lives of the victims, seeking some sort of cosmic answer to the question of why each had to die; the novel won the Pulitzer Prize in 1928, was the best-selling work of fiction that year. The first few pages of the first chapter of The Bridge of San Luis Rey explain the book's basic premise: this story centers on a event that happened in Peru on the road between Lima and Cusco, at noon on Friday, July 20, 1714. A bridge woven by the Incas a century earlier collapsed at that particular moment, while five people were crossing it; the collapse was witnessed by Brother Juniper, a Franciscan friar, on his way to cross it. Wanting to show the world God's Divine Providence, he sets out to interview everyone he can find who knew the five victims.
Over the course of six years, he compiles a huge book of all of the evidence he gathers to show that the beginning and end of a person is all part of God's plan for that person. Part One foretells the burning of the book that occurs at the end of the novel, but it says that one copy of Brother Juniper's book survives and is at the library of the University of San Marco, where it sits neglected; the second section focuses on one of the victims of the collapse: Doña María, the Marquesa de Montemayor. She was the daughter of a wealthy cloth merchant, an ugly child who entered into an arranged marriage and bore a daughter, whom she loved dearly. Clara was indifferent to her mother and became engaged to a Spanish man and moved across the ocean to Spain where she married. Doña María visits her daughter; the only way that they can communicate comfortably is by letter, Doña María pours her heart into her writing, which becomes so polished that her letters will be read in schools for hundreds of years after her death.
Doña María takes as her companion Pepita, a girl raised at the Convent of Santa María Rosa de la Rosas. When she learns that her daughter in Spain is pregnant, Doña María decides to make a pilgrimage to the shrine of Santa María de Cluxambuqua. Pepita goes along as company; when Doña María is out at the shrine, Pepita stays at the inn and writes a letter to her patron, the Abbess, complaining about her misery and loneliness. Doña María reads it, she asks Pepita about the letter, Pepita says she tore it up because the letter was not brave. Doña María has new insight into the ways in which her own life and love for her daughter have lacked bravery, she writes her "first letter" of courageous love to her daughter, but two days returning to Lima and Pepita are on the bridge when it collapses. Esteban and Manuel are twins who were left at the Convent of Santa María Rosa de la Rosas as infants; the Abbess of the convent, Madre María del Pilar, developed a fondness for them. When they became older, they decided to be scribes.
They are so close. Their closeness becomes strained. Perichole flirts with Manuel and swears him to secrecy when she retains him to write letters to her lover, the Viceroy. Esteban has no idea of their relationship until she turns up at the twins' room one night in a hurry and has Manuel write to a bullfighter with whom she is having an affair. Esteban encourages his brother to follow her, but instead Manuel swears that he will never see her again. Manuel cuts his knee on a piece of metal and it becomes infected; the surgeon instructs Esteban to put cold compresses on the injury: the compresses are so painful that Manuel curses Esteban, though he remembers nothing of his curses. Esteban offers to send for Perichole. Soon after, Manuel dies; when the Abbess comes to prepare the body, she asks Esteban his name, he says he is Manuel. Gossip about his ensuing strange behavior spreads all over town, he runs away before Perichole can talk to him. Captain Alvarado goes to see Esteban in Cuzco and hires him to sail the world with him, far from Peru.
Esteban agrees refuses acquiesces if he can get all his pay in advance to buy a present for the Abbess before he departs. That night Esteban is saved by Captain Alvarado; the Captain offers to take him back to Lima to buy the present, at the ravine, the Captain goes down to a boat, ferrying some materials across the water. Esteban is on it when it collapses. Uncle Pio acts as Camila Perichole's valet, and, in addition, "her singing-master, her coiffeur, her masseur, her reader, her errand-boy, her banker; the story tells of his background. He was born the bastard son of a Madrid aristocrat, has traveled engaged in a wide variety of dubious, though legal, most related to being a go-between or agent of the powerful, including conducting interrogations for the Inquisition, his life "became too complicated" and he fled to Peru. He came to realize, he finds work as the confidential agent of the Viceroy of Peru. One day, he discovers a twelve-year-
Show Boat is a musical in two acts, with music by Jerome Kern and book and lyrics by Oscar Hammerstein II, based on Edna Ferber's best-selling novel of the same name. The musical follows the lives of the performers and dock workers on the Cotton Blossom, a Mississippi River show boat, over 40 years from 1887 to 1927, its themes include tragic, enduring love. The musical contributed such classic songs as "Ol' Man River", "Make Believe", "Can't Help Lovin' Dat Man"; the musical was first produced in 1927 by Florenz Ziegfeld. The premiere of Show Boat on Broadway was an important event in the history of American musical theatre, it "was a radical departure in musical storytelling, marrying spectacle with seriousness", compared with the trivial and unrealistic operettas, light musical comedies and "Follies"-type musical revues that defined Broadway in the 1890s and early 20th century. According to The Complete Book of Light Opera: Here we come to a new genre – the musical play as distinguished from musical comedy.
Now … the play was the thing, everything else was subservient to that play. Now … came complete integration of song and production numbers into a single and inextricable artistic entity; the quality of Show Boat was recognized by critics, it is revived. Awards did not exist for Broadway shows in 1927, when the show premiered, or in 1932 when its first revival was staged. Late 20th-century revivals of Show Boat have won both the Tony Award for Best Revival of a Musical and the Laurence Olivier Award for Best Musical Revival. In doing research for her proposed novel Show Boat, writer Edna Ferber spent five days on the James Adams Floating Palace Theatre in Bath, North Carolina, gathering material about a disappearing American entertainment venue, the river showboat. In a few weeks, she gained what she called a "treasure trove of show-boat material, touching, true". Ferber researched these American showboats for months prior to her stay on the Floating Palace Theatre. Jerome Kern was impressed by the novel and, hoping to adapt it as a musical, asked the critic Alexander Woollcott to introduce him to Ferber in October 1926.
Woollcott introduced them that evening during the intermission of Kern's latest musical, Criss Cross. Ferber was at first shocked. After being assured by Kern that he did not want to adapt it as the typical frivolous "girlie" show of the 1920s, she granted him and his collaborator Oscar Hammerstein II the rights to set her novel to music. After composing most of the first-act songs and Hammerstein auditioned their material for producer Florenz Ziegfeld, thinking that he was the person to create the elaborate production they felt necessary for Ferber's sprawling work. Ziegfeld was impressed with the show and agreed to produce it, writing the next day, "This is the best musical comedy I have been fortunate to get a hold of. Though Ziegfeld anticipated opening his new theatre on Sixth Avenue with Show Boat, the epic nature of the work required an unusually long gestation period and extensive changes during out-of-town tryouts. Impatient with Kern and Hammerstein and worried about the serious tone of the musical, Ziegfeld decided to open his theatre in February 1927 with Rio Rita, a musical by Kern's collaborator Guy Bolton.
When Rio Rita proved to be a success, Show Boat's Broadway opening was delayed until Rita could be moved to another theatre. Note: Although the basic plot of Show Boat has always remained the same, over the years revisions and alterations were made by the creators, over time by subsequent producers and directors; some of these revisions were for length and some for convenience, as when a different actor played a certain role and was unable to perform a specialty piece written for the role's creator. Some have been made to reflect contemporary sensitivities toward race and other social issues. Act IIn 1887, the show boat Cotton Blossom arrives at the river dock in Mississippi; the Reconstruction era had ended a decade earlier, white-dominated Southern legislatures have imposed racial segregation and Jim Crow rules. The boat's owner, Cap'n Andy Hawks, introduces his actors to the crowd on the levee. A fistfight breaks out between Steve Baker, the leading man of the troupe, Pete, a rough engineer, making passes at Steve's wife, the leading lady Julie La Verne.
Steve knocks Pete down, Pete swears revenge, suggesting he knows a dark secret about Julie. Cap'n Andy pretends to the shocked crowd that the fight was a preview of one of the melodramas to be performed; the troupe exits with the showboat band, the crowd follows. A handsome riverboat gambler, Gaylord Ravenal, appears on the levee and is taken with eighteen-year-old Magnolia Hawks, an aspiring performer and the daughter of Cap'n Andy and his wife Parthenia Ann. Magnolia is smitten with Ravenal, she seeks advice from Joe, a black dock worker aboard the boat, who has returned from buying flour for his wife Queenie, the ship's cook. He replies that there are "lots like on the river." As Magnolia goes inside the boat to tell her friend Julie about the handsome stranger, Joe mutters that she ought to ask the river for advice. He and the other dock workers reflect on the wisdom and indifference of "Ol' Man River", who doesn't seem to care what the world's troubles are, but "jes' keeps rollin' along".
Magnolia finds Julie inside and a
The Jazz Singer
The Jazz Singer is a 1927 American musical drama film directed by Alan Crosland. It is the first feature-length motion picture with not only a synchronized recorded music score but lip-synchronous singing and speech in several isolated sequences, its release ended the silent film era. It was produced by Warner Bros. with its Vitaphone sound-on-disc system. The film features six songs performed by Al Jolson, it is based on the play of the same name by Samson Raphaelson which itself was adapted from one of his short stories titled "The Day of Atonement". The film depicts the fictional story of Jakie Rabinowitz, a young man who defies the traditions of his devout Jewish family. After singing popular tunes in a beer garden he is punished by his father, a hazzan, prompting Jakie to run away from home; some years now calling himself Jack Robin, he has become a talented jazz singer. He attempts to build a career as an entertainer but his professional ambitions come into conflict with the demands of his home and heritage.
Darryl F. Zanuck won an Honorary Academy Award for producing the film. In 1996, The Jazz Singer was selected for preservation in the National Film Registry of "culturally or aesthetically significant" motion pictures. In 1998, the film was chosen in voting conducted by the American Film Institute as one of the best American films of all time, ranking at number ninety. Cantor Rabinowitz wants his son to carry on the generations-old family tradition and become a cantor at the synagogue in the Jewish ghetto of Manhattan's Lower East Side, but down at the beer garden, thirteen-year-old Jakie Rabinowitz is performing so-called jazz tunes. Moisha Yudelson tells Jakie's father, who drags him home. Jakie clings to his mother, Sara, as his father declares, "I'll teach him better than to debase the voice God gave him!" Jakie threatens: "If you whip me again, I'll run away—and never come back!" After the whipping, Jakie kisses his mother goodbye and, runs away. At the Yom Kippur service, Rabinowitz mournfully tells a fellow celebrant, "My son was to stand at my side and sing tonight—but now I have no son."
As the sacred Kol Nidre is sung, Jakie sneaks back home to retrieve a picture of his loving mother. About 10 years Jakie has changed his name to the more assimilated Jack Robin. Jack is called up from his table at a cabaret to perform on stage. Jack wows the crowd with his energized rendition. Afterward, he is introduced to the beautiful a musical theater dancer. "There are lots of jazz singers, but you have a tear in your voice," she says, offering to help with his budding career. With her help, Jack gets his big break: a leading part in the new musical April Follies. Back at the family home Jack left long ago, the elder Rabinowitz instructs a young student in the traditional cantorial art. Jack appears and tries to explain his point of view, his love of modern music, but the appalled cantor banishes him: "I never want to see you again—you jazz singer!" As he leaves, Jack makes a prediction: "I came home with a heart full of love, but you don't want to understand. Some day you'll understand, the same as Mama does."
Two weeks after Jack's expulsion from the family home and 24 hours before opening night of April Follies on Broadway, Jack's father falls gravely ill. Jack is asked to choose between the show and duty to his family and faith: in order to sing the Kol Nidre for Yom Kippur in his father's place, he will have to miss the big premiere; that evening, the eve of Yom Kippur, Yudleson tells the Jewish elders, "For the first time, we have no Cantor on the Day of Atonement." Lying in his bed and gaunt, Cantor Rabinowitz tells Sara that he cannot perform on the most sacred of holy days: "My son came to me in my dreams—he sang Kol Nidre so beautifully. If he would only sing like that tonight—surely he would be forgiven." As Jack prepares for a dress rehearsal by applying blackface makeup, he and Mary discuss his career aspirations and the family pressures they agree he must resist. Sara and Yudleson come to Jack's dressing room to plea for him to come to his father and sing in his stead. Jack is torn, he delivers his blackface performance, Sara sees her son onstage for the first time.
She has a tearful revelation: "Here he belongs. If God wanted him in His house, He would have kept him there. He's not my boy anymore—he belongs to the whole world now." Afterward, Jack returns to the Rabinowitz home. He kneels at his father's bedside and the two converse fondly: "My son—I love you." Sara suggests. Mary arrives with the producer, who warns Jack that he'll never work on Broadway again if he fails to appear on opening night. Jack can't decide. Mary challenges him: "Were you lying when you said your career came before everything?" Jack is unsure if he can replace his father: "I haven't sung Kol Nidre since I was a little boy." His mother tells him, "Do what is in your heart, Jakie—if you sing and God is not in your voice—your father will know." The producer cajoles Jack: "You're a jazz singer at heart!" At the theater, the opening night audience is told. Jack sings the Kol Nidre in his father's place, his father listens from his deathbed to the nearby ceremony and speaks his last, forgiving words: "Mama, we have our son again."
The spirit of Jack's father is shown at his side in the synagogue. Mary has come to listen, she sees how Jack has reconciled the division in his soul: "a jazz singer—singing to his God." "The season passes—and time heals—the show goes on." Jack, a
A prologue or prolog from Greek πρόλογος prologos, from πρό pro, "before" and λόγος logos, "word" is an opening to a story that establishes the context and gives background details some earlier story that ties into the main one, other miscellaneous information. The Ancient Greek prólogos included the modern meaning of prologue, but was of wider significance, more like the meaning of preface; the importance, therefore, of the prologue in Greek drama was great. It is believed that the prologue in this form was the invention of Euripides, with him, as has been said, it takes the place of an explanatory first act; this may help to modify the objection which criticism has brought against the Greek prologue, as an impertinence, a useless growth prefixed to the play, standing as a barrier between us and our enjoyment of it. The point is that, to an Athenian audience, it was useful and pertinent, as supplying just what they needed to make the succeeding scenes intelligible, but it is difficult to accept the view that Euripides invented the plan of producing a god out of a machine to justify the action of deity upon man, because it is plain that he himself disliked this interference of the supernatural and did not believe in it.
He seems, in such a typical prologue as that to the Hippolytus, to be accepting a conventional formula, employing it perversely, as a medium for his ironic rationalism. Many of the existing Greek prologues may be in date than the plays they illustrate, or may contain large interpolations. On the Latin stage the prologue was more elaborate than it was in Athens, in the careful composition of the poems which Plautus prefixes to his plays we see what importance he gave to this portion of the entertainment. Molière revived the Plautian prologue in the introduction to his Amphitryon. Racine introduced Piety as the speaker of a prologue; the tradition of the ancients vividly affected our own early dramatists. Not only were the mystery plays and miracles of the Middle Ages begun by a homily, but when the drama in its modern sense was inaugurated in the reign of Elizabeth, the prologue came with it, directly adapted from the practice of Euripides and Terence. Sackville, Lord Buckhurst, prepared a sort of prologue in dumb show for his Gorboduc of 1562.
Prologues of Renaissance drama served a specific function of transition and clarification for the audience. A direct address made by one actor, the prologue acted as an appeal to the audience's attention and sympathy, providing historical context, a guide to themes of the play, a disclaimer. In this mode, a prologue, like any scripted performance, would exist as the text, the actor who speaks that text, the presentation of the language as it is spoken. In ushering the audience from the reality into the world of the play, the prologue straddles boundaries between audience, characters, playwrights--basically, it creates a distinction between the imaginary space within the play and the outside world. Ben Jonson has been noted as using the prologue to remind the audience of the complexities between themselves and all aspects of the performance; the actor reciting the prologue would appear dressed in black, a stark contrast to the elaborate costumes used during the play. The prologue wore no makeup.
He may have carried a book, scroll, or a placard displaying the title of the play. He was introduced by three short trumpet calls, on the third of which he entered and took a position downstage, he made three bows in the current fashion of the court, addressed the audience. The Elizabethan prologue was unique in incorporating aspects of both classical and medieval traditions. In the classical tradition, the prologue conformed to one of four subgenres: the sustatikos, which recommends either the play or the poet. In the medieval tradition, expressions of morality and modesty are seen, as well as a meta-theatrical self-consciousness, an unabashed awareness of the financial contract engaged upon by paid actors and playwrights, a paying audience. Prologues have long been used in non-dramatic fiction, since at least the time of Geoffrey Chaucer's Canterbury Tales, although Chaucer had prologues to many of the tales, rather than one at the front of the book. Epigraph Epilogue Foreword Introduction Preface Prolegomena Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed..
"Prologue". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press; the dictionary definition of prologue at Wiktionary
A swashbuckler is a heroic archetype in European adventure literature, typified by the use of a sword and chivalric ideals. The archetype became common as a film genre. A'swashbuckler' is a protagonist, heroic and idealistic: he rescues damsels in distress, defends the downtrodden, in general saves the day. Swashbucklers are not unrepentant brigands or pirates, although some may rise from such disreputable stations in redemption, his opponent is characterized as the dastardly villain. There is a long list of swashbucklers who combine outstanding courage, swordfighting skill, a distinctive sense of honor and justice, as for example Cyrano de Bergerac, The Three Musketeers, The Scarlet Pimpernel, Robin Hood, Zorro. "Swashbuckler" is a compound of "swash" and "buckler" dating from the 16th century. While man-at-arms and sellswords of the era wore armor of necessity, their counterparts in romantic literature and film did not, the term evolved to denote a daring, devil-may-care demeanor rather than brandishment of accoutrements of war, modern "swashbuckling" heroes might not carry swords at all.
Swashbuckling adventures and romances are set in Europe from the late Renaissance up through the Age of Reason and the Napoleonic Wars, extending into the colonial era with pirate tales in the Caribbean. Jeffrey Richards traces the swashbuckling novel to the rise of Romanticism, an outgrowth of the historical novel those of Sir Walter Scott, "... medieval tales of chivalry and adventure rediscovered in the eighteenth century". This type of historical novel was further developed by Alexandre Dumas. John Galsworthy said of Robert Louis Stevenson's 1888 swashbuckling romance, The Black Arrow, that it was "a livelier picture of medieval times than I remember elsewhere in fiction." Anthony Hope's 1894, The Prisoner of Zenda initiated an additional subset of the swashbuckling novel, the Ruritanian romance. The perceived significant and widespread role of swordsmanship in civilian society as well as warfare in the Renaissance and Enlightenment periods led to fencing being performed on theatre stages as part of plays.
Soon actors were taught to fence in an dramatic manner. Fencing became an established part of a classical formation for actors; when movie theaters mushroomed, ambitious actors took the chance to present their accordant skills on the screen. Since silent movies were no proper medium for long dialogues, the classic stories about heroes who would defend their honour with sword in hand were simplified and sheer action would gain priority; this was the birth of a new kind of film hero: the swashbuckler. Four of the most famous instructors for swashbuckling swordplay are William Hobbs, Anthony De Longis, Bob Anderson and Peter Diamond; the larger-than-life heroics portrayed in some film franchise adventures set in the modern era have been described as swashbuckling. The genre has, apart from swordplay, always been characterized by influences that can be traced back to the chivalry tales of Medieval Europe, such as the legends of Robin Hood and King Arthur, it soon created its own drafts based on classic examples like The Mark of Zorro, The Three Musketeers and The Scarlet Pimpernel.
Some films did use motifs of pirate stories. These films were adaptations of classic historic novels published by well-known authors such as Alexandre Dumas, Rafael Sabatini, Baroness Emma Orczy, Sir Walter Scott, Johnston McCulley, Edmond Rostand. Swashbucklers are one of the most flamboyant Hollywood film genres, unlike cinema verite or modern realistic filmmaking; the genre attracted large audiences who relished the blend of escapist adventure, historic romance, daring stunts in cinemas before it became a fixture on TV screens. As a first variation of the classic swashbuckler there have been female swashbucklers. Maureen O'Hara in Against All Flags and Jean Peters in Anne of the Indies were early action film heroines; the typical swashbuckler motifs were used up because they had so been shown on TV screens. Films such as The Princess Bride, the Pirates of the Caribbean series and The Mask of Zorro include modern takes on the swashbuckler archetype. Television followed the films in the UK, with The Adventures of Robin Hood, Sword of Freedom, The Buccaneers, Willam Tell between 1955 and 1960.
US TV produced two series of Zorro in 1957 and 1990. Following the 1998 film The Mask of Zorro, a TV series about a female swashbuckler, the Queen of Swords, aired in 2000. Notable swashbuckler characters from literature and other media include the following: Actors notable for their portrayals of swashbucklers include: Benoît-Constant Coquelin, was a French actor, "one of the greatest theatrical figures of the age." He played "Cyrano de Begerac" over 400 times and toured North America in the role. In early 1883 James O'Neill took over the lead role in "The Count of Monte Cristo" at Booth's Theater in New York, his interpretation of the part caused a sensation with the theater-going public and a company was set up to take the play on tour. O'Neill bought the rights to the play. "Monte Cristo" remained a popular favorite and would continue to make its appearance on tour as regular as clockwork. O'Neill went on to play this role over 6,000 times. E. H. Sothern was known for his heroic portrayal of Rudolph Rassendyl in the first stage adaptation of The Prisoner of Zenda, which he first played in 1895.
The role made him a star. Douglas Fairbanks was a Holl
Modern Times (film)
Modern Times is a 1936 American comedy film written and directed by Charlie Chaplin in which his iconic Little Tramp character struggles to survive in the modern, industrialized world. The film is a comment on the desperate employment and financial conditions many people faced during the Great Depression, conditions created, in Chaplin's view, by the efficiencies of modern industrialization; the movie stars Paulette Goddard, Henry Bergman, Tiny Sandford and Chester Conklin. Modern Times was deemed "culturally significant" by the Library of Congress in 1989, selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry. Fourteen years it was screened "out of competition" at the 2003 Cannes Film Festival. Modern Times portrays Chaplin in his Tramp persona as a factory worker employed on an assembly line. There, he is subjected to such indignities as being force-fed by a malfunctioning "feeding machine" and an accelerating assembly line where he screws nuts at an ever-increasing rate onto pieces of machinery.
He suffers a nervous breakdown and runs amok. He is sent to a hospital. Following his recovery, the now unemployed factory worker is mistakenly arrested as an instigator in a Communist demonstration. In jail, he accidentally ingests smuggled cocaine. In his subsequent delirium, he avoids being put back in his cell; when he returns, he knocks the convicts unconscious. He is hailed as given special treatment; when he is informed that he will soon be released due to his heroic actions, he argues unsuccessfully that he prefers it in jail. Outside of jail, he leaves after causing an accident, he runs into a orphaned barefoot girl, fleeing the police after stealing a loaf of bread. Determined to go back to jail and to save the girl, he tells police that he is the thief and ought to be arrested. A witness reveals his deception and he is freed. To get arrested again, he eats an enormous amount of food at a cafeteria without paying, he meets up with Ellen in a paddy wagon, which crashes, she convinces him to escape with her.
Dreaming of a better life, he gets a job as a night watchman at a department store, sneaks Ellen into the store, encounters three burglars: one of whom is "Big Bill", a fellow worker from the factory at the beginning of the film, who explains that they are hungry and desperate. After sharing drinks with them, he wakes up the next morning during opening hours and is arrested once more. Ten days Ellen takes him to a new home – a run-down shack that she admits "isn't Buckingham Palace" but will do; the next morning, the factory worker reads about an old factory re-opening and lands a job there as a mechanic's assistant. His boss accidentally falls into the machinery; the other workers decide to go on strike. Outside, the worker is arrested again. Two weeks he is released and learns that Ellen is a café dancer, she gets him a job as a waiter, where he goes about his duties rather clumsily. During his floor show, he loses his cuffs, which bear the lyrics to his song, but he rescues the act by improvising the lyrics using gibberish from multiple languages, plus some pantomiming.
His act proves a hit. When police arrive to arrest Ellen for her earlier escape, the two flee again. Ellen despairs that there's no point to their struggling, but the factory worker assures her that they'll make it somehow. At a bright dawn, they walk down the road towards an hopeful future. During a European tour promoting City Lights, Chaplin got the inspiration for Modern Times from both the lamentable conditions of the continent through the Great Depression, along with a conversation with Mahatma Gandhi in which they discussed modern technology. Chaplin did not understand why Gandhi opposed it, though he granted that "machinery with only consideration of profit" had put people out of work and ruined lives. Chaplin began preparing the film in 1934 as his first "talkie", went as far as writing a dialogue script and experimenting with some sound scenes. However, he soon abandoned these attempts and reverted to a silent format with synchronized sound effects and sparse dialogue; the dialogue experiments confirmed his long-standing conviction that the universal appeal of his "Little Tramp" character would be lost if the character spoke on screen.
Most of the film was shot at "silent speed", 18 frames per second, which when projected at "sound speed", 24 frames per second, made the slapstick action appear more frenetic. The duration of filming was long for the time, beginning on October 11, 1934, ending on August 30, 1935; the reference to drugs seen in the prison sequence is somewhat daring for the time. According to the official documents, the music score was composed by Chaplin himself, arranged with the assistance of Alfred Newman, who had collaborated with Chaplin on the music score of his previous film City Lights. Newman and Chaplin had a falling out near the end of the Modern Times soundtrack recording sessions, leading to Newman's angry departure; the romance theme was given lyrics, became the pop standard "Smile", first recorded by Nat King Cole. Modern Times was the first film where Chaplin's voice is heard as he performs Léo Daniderff's comical song "Je cherche après Titine". Chaplin's version is known as "The Nonsense Song", as his character sings it in gibberish.
History of film
Although the start of the history of film is not defined, the commercial, public screening of ten of Lumière brothers' short films in Paris on 28 December 1895 can be regarded as the breakthrough of projected cinematographic motion pictures. There had been earlier cinematographic results and screenings but these lacked either the quality or the momentum that propelled the cinématographe Lumière into a worldwide success. Soon film production companies were established all over the world; the first decade of motion picture saw film moving from a novelty to an established mass entertainment industry. The earliest films were under a minute long and without recorded sound. During the 1890s films started to consist of several shots; the first film studios were built in 1897. The first rotating camera for taking panning shots was built in 1898. Special effects were introduced and film continuity, involving action moving from one sequence into another, began to be used. In the 1900s, continuity of action across successive shots was achieved and the first close-up shot was introduced.
Most films of this period were what came to be called "chase films". The first successful permanent theatre showing only films was "The Nickelodeon" in Pittsburgh in 1905; the first feature length multi-reel film was a 1906 Australian production. By 1910, actors began to receive screen credit for their roles, opening the way for the creation of film stars. Regular newsreels soon became a popular way for finding out the news. From about 1910, American films had the largest share of the market in Australia and in all European countries except France. New film techniques were introduced in this period including the use of artificial lighting, fire effects and low-key lighting for enhanced atmosphere during sinister scenes; as films grew longer, specialist writers were employed to simplify more complex stories derived from novels or plays into a form that could be contained on one reel and be easier to be understood by the audience – an audience, new to this form of storytelling. Genres began to be used as categories.
During the First World War there was a complex transition for the film industry. The exhibition of films changed from short one-reel programs to feature films. Exhibition venues began charging higher prices. By 1914, continuity cinema was the established mode of commercial cinema. One of the advanced continuity techniques involved an accurate and smooth transition from one shot to another. D. W. Griffith had the highest standing among American directors in the industry, because of the dramatic excitement he conveyed to the audience through his films; the American film industry, or "Hollywood", as it was becoming known after its new geographical center in Hollywood, a neighborhood in Los Angeles, gained the position it has held, more or less since: film factory for the world and exporting its product to most countries. By the 1920s, the United States reached what is still its era of greatest-ever output, producing an average of 800 feature films annually, or 82% of the global total. During late 1927, Warner's released The Jazz Singer, with the first synchronized dialogue in a feature film.
By the end of 1929, Hollywood was all-talkie, with several competing sound systems. Sound saved the Hollywood studio system in the face of the Great Depression; the desire for wartime propaganda created a renaissance in the film industry in Britain, with realistic war dramas. The onset of American involvement in World War II brought a proliferation of films as both patriotism and propaganda; the House Un-American Activities Committee investigated Hollywood in the early 1950s. During the immediate post-war years the cinematic industry was threatened by television and the increasing popularity of the medium meant that some film theatres would bankrupt and close; the 1950s was considered a "Golden Age" for non-English cinema. Roundhay Garden Scene is an 1888 short silent film recorded by French inventor Louis Le Prince, it is believed to be the oldest surviving film in existence, as noted by the Guinness Book of Records. The film Sortie de l'usine Lumière de Lyon by French Louis Lumière is considered the "first true motion picture".
Film as an art form has drawn on several earlier traditions in the fields such as storytelling, literature and visual arts. Forms of art and entertainment that had featured moving and/or projected images include: shadowgraphy used since prehistoric times camera obscura, a natural phenomenon, used as an artistic aid since prehistoric times shadow puppetry originated around 200 BCE in Central Asia, Indonesia or China magic lantern, developed in the 1650s, preceded by some incidental and/or inferior projectors stroboscopic "persistence of vision" animation devices Some ancient sightings of gods and spirits may have been conjured up by means of mirrors, camera obscura or unknown projectors. By the 16th century necromantic ceremonies and the conjuring of ghostly apparitions by charlatan "magicians" and "witches" seemed commonplace; the first magic lantern shows seem to have continued this tradition with images of death and other scary figures. Around 1790 this was developed into multi-media ghost shows known as phantasmagoria that could feature mechanical slides, rear projection, mobile projectors, dissolves, l