Sophronius of Jerusalem
For other people of the same name, see Sophronius. Sophronius was the Patriarch of Jerusalem from 634 until his death, he is venerated as a saint in the Eastern Catholic Churches. Before rising to the primacy of the see of Jerusalem, he was a monk and theologian, the chief protagonist for orthodox teaching in the doctrinal controversy on the essential nature of Jesus and his volitional acts. Sophronius was born in Damascus around 560, he has been claimed to be of Byzantine Greek, as well as of Syriac descent. A teacher of rhetoric, Sophronius became an ascetic in Egypt about 580 and entered the monastery of St. Theodosius near Bethlehem. Traveling to monastic centres in Asia Minor and Rome, he accompanied the Byzantine chronicler St. John Moschus, who dedicated to him his celebrated tract on the religious life, Leimõn ho Leimõnon. On the death of Moschus in Rome in 619, Sophronius accompanied the body back to Jerusalem for monastic burial, he traveled to Alexandria, to Constantinople in the year 633 to persuade the respective patriarchs to renounce Monoenergism, a heterodox teaching that espoused a single, divine energy in Christ to the exclusion of a human capacity for choice.
Sophronius' extensive writings on this question are all lost. Although unsuccessful his mission to condemn Monoenergism, Sophronius was elected patriarch of Jerusalem in 634. Soon after his enthronement he forwarded his noted synodical letter to Pope Honorius I and to the Eastern patriarchs, explaining the orthodox belief in the two natures and divine, of Christ, as opposed to Monoenergism, which he viewed as a subtle form of heretical Monophysitism. Moreover, he composed a Florilegium of some 600 texts from the Early Church Fathers in favour of the Christian tenet of Dyothelitism; this document is lost. In his Christmas sermon of 634, Sophronius was more concerned with keeping the clergy in line with the Chalcedonian view of God, giving only the most conventional of warnings of the Saracen advance on Palestine, commenting that the Saracens controlled Bethlehem. Sophronius, who viewed the Saracen control of Palestine as "unwitting representatives of God's inevitable chastisement of weak and wavering Christians", died soon after the fall of Jerusalem to the caliph Umar I in 637, but not before he had negotiated the recognition of civil and religious liberty for Christians in exchange for tribute - an agreement known as Umari Treaty.
The caliph himself came to Jerusalem, met with the patriarch at the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. Sophronius invited Umar to pray there, but Umar declined, fearing to endanger the Church's status as a Christian temple. Beside polemics, Sophronius' writings included an encomium on the Alexandrian martyrs Cyrus and John in gratitude for an extraordinary cure of his failing vision, he wrote 23 Anacreontic poems on such themes as the Muslim siege of Jerusalem and on various liturgical celebrations. His Anacreontica 19 and 20 seem to be an expression of the longing desire he had of the Holy City when he was absent from Jerusalem during one of his many journeys; the order of the two poems has to be inverted to establish a correct sequence of the diverse subjects. Arranged in this way, the two poems describe a complete circuit throughout the most important sanctuaries of Jerusalem at the end of the 6th century, described as the golden age of Christianity in the Holy Land. Themes of Anacreonticon 20 include the gates of Jerusalem, the Anastasis, the Rock of the Cross, the Constantinian Basilica, Mount Sion, the Praetorium, St. Mary at the Probatica, Gethsemane.
The Mount of Olives and Bethlehem come next in Anacreonticon 19. Sophronius wrote down the Life of St. Mary of Egypt, read on the fifth Thursday of Lent in the Byzantine Rite. According to the Muslim apocryphal treaty Pact of Umar, caliph Umar ibn al-Khattab came to Jerusalem in 637 after the conquest of Jerusalem and toured the city with Sophronius. During the tour of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, the time for prayer came, despite Sophronius's offer to Umar to pray inside the Church, Umar chose to pray outside. According to Islamic tradition, the caliph's reason for declining to pray there was because in the future Muslims might say that Umar prayed here and use it as an excuse to build a mosque there. Therefore, Muslims are not allowed to build a mosque there. So appreciating the caliph's intelligence he gave the keys of the church to him. Unable to refuse it the caliph gave it to a family of Muslims from Medina and asked them to open the church and close it. D. Woods,'The 60 Martyrs of Gaza and the Martyrdom of Bishop Sophronius of Jerusalem’, ARAM Periodical 15, 129-50.
Reprinted in M. Bonner, Arab-Byzantine Relations in Early Islamic Times, 429-50. St Sophronius the Patriarch of Jerusalem Orthodox icon and synaxarion References by Sophronius to Islam
Simeon of Jerusalem
Simeon of Jerusalem, son of Clopas, was a Jewish Christian leader and according to most Christian traditions the second Bishop of Jerusalem. In his Church History Eusebius of Caesarea gives the list of these bishops. According to tradition the first bishop of Jerusalem was James the Just, the "brother of the Lord", who according to Eusebius said that he was appointed bishop by the Apostles Peter, St. James, John. According to Eusebius, Simeon of Jerusalem was selected as James' successor after the conquest of Jerusalem which took place after the martyrdom of James which puts the account in agreement with that of Flavius Josephus, who puts James' first arrest and subsequent release by Procurator Lucceius Albinus in 63 AD and the modern footnotes show that his martyrdom took place some years afterwards, shortly before the destruction of Jerusalem. After the martyrdom of James and the conquest of Jerusalem which followed, it is said that those of the apostles and disciples of the Lord that were still living came together from all directions with those that were related to the Lord according to the flesh to take counsel as to, worthy to succeed James.
They all with one consent pronounced Symeon, the son of Clopas, of whom the Gospel makes mention. He was a cousin, of the Saviour. For Hegesippus records. According to Hegesippus, Simeon prevailed against Thebutis, whom the church fathers deemed a Judaizing heresiarch, led most of the Christians to Pella before the outbreak of the First Roman–Jewish War in 66 and the destruction of Herod's Temple in 70. According to Eusebius, Simeon was executed about the year 107 or 117 under the reign of emperor Trajan by the proconsul Tiberius Claudius Atticus Herodes in Jerusalem or the vicinity. However, this must be a mistake by Eusebius because the administrator of the Roman province of Judea at the time of the crucifixion was Quintus Pompeius Falco and Tiberius Claudius Atticus Herodes was there much earlier, from 99-102 AD. Simeon is sometimes identified with Simon, the "brother of the Lord", mentioned in passing in the Bible and pointing to Hegesippus referring to him as the second bishop of Jerusalem.
Other exegetes consider the brothers to be actual brothers and Hegesippus' wording as subsuming both James and Simeon under a more general term. He has been identified with the Apostle Simon the Zealot
James, brother of Jesus
James the Just, or a variation of James, brother of the Lord, was an early leader of the Jerusalem Church of the Apostolic Age, to which Paul was affiliated. He died in martyrdom in 62 or 69 AD. Catholics and Eastern Orthodox, as well as some Anglicans and Lutherans, teach that James, along with others named in the New Testament as "brothers" of Jesus, were not the biological children of Mary, but were cousins of Jesus or step-brothers from a previous marriage of Joseph. Roman Catholic tradition holds that this James is to be identified with James, son of Alphaeus, James the Less, it is agreed by most that he should not be confused with son of Zebedee. Eusebius records that Clement of Alexandria related, "This James, whom the people of old called the Just because of his outstanding virtue, was the first, as the record tells us, to be elected to the episcopal throne of the Jerusalem church." Other epithets are "James the brother of the Lord, surnamed the Just," and "James the Righteous". He is sometimes referred to in Eastern Christianity as "James Adelphotheos", James the Brother of God.
The oldest surviving Christian liturgy, the Liturgy of St James, uses this epithet. The Jerusalem Church was an early Christian community located in Jerusalem, of which James and Peter were leaders. Paul was affiliated with this community, took his central kerygma, as described in 1 Corinthians 15, from this community. According to Eusebius, the Jerusalem church escaped to Pella during the siege of Jerusalem by the future Emperor Titus in 70 and afterwards returned, having a further series of Jewish bishops until the Bar Kokhba revolt in 130. Following the second destruction of Jerusalem and the rebuilding of the city as Aelia Capitolina, subsequent bishops were Greeks. James the Just was "from an early date with Peter a leader of the Church at Jerusalem and from the time when Peter left Jerusalem after Herod Agrippa's attempt to kill him, James appears as the principal authority who presided at Council of Jerusalem."The Pauline epistles and the chapters of the Acts of the Apostles portray James as an important figure in the Christian community of Jerusalem.
When Paul arrives in Jerusalem to deliver the money he raised for the faithful there, it is to James that he speaks, it is James who insists that Paul ritually cleanse himself at Herod's Temple to prove his faith and deny rumors of teaching rebellion against the Torah. Paul describes James as being one of the persons to whom the risen Christ showed himself, in Galatians 2:9, Paul lists James with Cephas and John the Apostle as the three "pillars" of the Church. Paul describes these Pillars as the ones who will minister to the "circumcised" in Jerusalem, while Paul and his fellows will minister to the "uncircumcised", after a debate in response to concerns of the Christians of Antioch; the Antioch community was concerned over whether Gentile Christians need be circumcised to be saved, sent Paul and Barnabas to confer with the Jerusalem church. James played a prominent role in the formulation of the council's decision. James was the last named figure to speak, after Peter and Barnabas, he supported them all in being against the requirement and suggested prohibitions about eating blood as well as meat sacrificed to idols and fornication.
This became the ruling of the Council, agreed upon by all the apostles and elders and sent to the other churches by letter. The Encyclopædia Britannica relates that "James the Lord's brother was a Christian apostle, according to St. Paul, although not one of the original Twelve Apostles." According to Schaff, James seems to have taken the place of James the son of Zebedee, after his martyrdom, around 44 AD. Modern historians of the early Christian churches tend to place James in the tradition of Jewish Christianity. According to Schaff, James was the local head of the oldest church and the leader of the most conservative portion of Jewish Christianity. Scholar James D. G. Dunn has proposed that Peter was the "bridge-man" between the two other "prominent leading figures": Paul and James the Just. Apart from a handful of references in the synoptic Gospels, the main sources for the life of James the Just are the Pauline epistles, the Acts of the Apostles, Eusebius and Jerome, who quote the early Christian chronicler Hegesippus and Epiphanius.
There is no mention of James in the Gospel of John and the early portions of the Acts of the Apostles. The Synoptics mention no further information. In the extant lists of Pseudo-Hippolytus of Rome, Dorotheus of Tyre, the Chronicon Paschale, Dimitry of Rostov, he is the first of the Seventy Apostles though some sources, such as the Catholic Encyclopedia, state that "these lists are worthless"; the New Testament mentions several people named James. The Pauline epistles, from about the sixth decade of the 1st century, have two passages mentioning a James; the Acts of the Apostles, written sometime between 60 and 150 AD describes the period before the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 AD. It has three mentions of a James; the Gospels, with disputed datings ranging from about 50 to as late as 130 AD, describe the period of Jesus' ministry, around 30-33 AD. It mentions at least two different peop
Athens is the capital and largest city of Greece. Athens dominates the Attica region and is one of the world's oldest cities, with its recorded history spanning over 3,400 years and its earliest human presence starting somewhere between the 11th and 7th millennium BC. Classical Athens was a powerful city-state that emerged in conjunction with the seagoing development of the port of Piraeus, a distinct city prior to its 5th century BC incorporation with Athens. A center for the arts and philosophy, home of Plato's Academy and Aristotle's Lyceum, it is referred to as the cradle of Western civilization and the birthplace of democracy because of its cultural and political impact on the European continent, in particular the Romans. In modern times, Athens is a large cosmopolitan metropolis and central to economic, industrial, maritime and cultural life in Greece. In 2012, Athens was ranked the world's 39th richest city by purchasing power and the 67th most expensive in a UBS study. Athens is a global one of the biggest economic centres in southeastern Europe.
It has a large financial sector, its port Piraeus is both the largest passenger port in Europe, the second largest in the world. While at the same time being the sixth busiest passenger port in Europe; the Municipality of Athens had a population of 664,046 within its administrative limits, a land area of 38.96 km2. The urban area of Athens extends beyond its administrative municipal city limits, with a population of 3,090,508 over an area of 412 km2. According to Eurostat in 2011, the functional urban area of Athens was the 9th most populous FUA in the European Union, with a population of 3.8 million people. Athens is the southernmost capital on the European mainland; the heritage of the classical era is still evident in the city, represented by ancient monuments and works of art, the most famous of all being the Parthenon, considered a key landmark of early Western civilization. The city retains Roman and Byzantine monuments, as well as a smaller number of Ottoman monuments. Athens is home to two UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the Acropolis of Athens and the medieval Daphni Monastery.
Landmarks of the modern era, dating back to the establishment of Athens as the capital of the independent Greek state in 1834, include the Hellenic Parliament and the so-called "architectural trilogy of Athens", consisting of the National Library of Greece, the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens and the Academy of Athens. Athens is home to several museums and cultural institutions, such as the National Archeological Museum, featuring the world's largest collection of ancient Greek antiquities, the Acropolis Museum, the Museum of Cycladic Art, the Benaki Museum and the Byzantine and Christian Museum. Athens was the host city of the first modern-day Olympic Games in 1896, 108 years it welcomed home the 2004 Summer Olympics, making it one of only a handful of cities to have hosted the Olympics more than once. In Ancient Greek, the name of the city was Ἀθῆναι a plural. In earlier Greek, such as Homeric Greek, the name had been current in the singular form though, as Ἀθήνη, it was rendered in the plural on, like those of Θῆβαι and Μυκῆναι.
The root of the word is not of Greek or Indo-European origin, is a remnant of the Pre-Greek substrate of Attica. In antiquity, it was debated whether Athens took its name from its patron goddess Athena or Athena took her name from the city. Modern scholars now agree that the goddess takes her name from the city, because the ending -ene is common in names of locations, but rare for personal names. During the medieval period, the name of the city was rendered once again in the singular as Ἀθήνα. However, after the establishment of the modern Greek state, due to the conservatism of the written language, Ἀθῆναι became again the official name of the city and remained so until the abandonment of Katharevousa in the 1970s, when Ἀθήνα, Athína, became the official name. According to the ancient Athenian founding myth, the goddess of wisdom, competed against Poseidon, the god of the seas, for patronage of the yet-unnamed city. According to the account given by Pseudo-Apollodorus, Poseidon struck the ground with his trident and a salt water spring welled up.
In an alternative version of the myth from Vergil's Georgics, Poseidon instead gave the Athenians the first horse. In both versions, Athena offered the Athenians the first domesticated olive tree. Cecrops declared Athena the patron goddess of Athens. Different etymologies, now rejected, were proposed during the 19th century. Christian Lobeck proposed as the root of the name the word ἄθος or ἄνθος meaning "flower", to denote Athens as the "flowering city". Ludwig von Döderlein proposed the stem of the verb θάω, stem θη- to denote Athens as having fertile soil. In classical literature, the city was sometimes referred to as the City of the Violet Crown, first documented in Pindar's ἰοστέφανοι Ἀθᾶναι, or as τὸ κλεινὸν ἄστυ. In medieval texts, variant names include Setines and Astines, all derivations involving false splitting of p
Modestus of Jerusalem
Modestus of Jerusalem was a Greek Orthodox Patriarch of Jerusalem, commemorated as a saint by the Orthodox Church, on May 17, March 29 or December 17. The Palestinian-Georgian calendar venerates October 19 in the Acta Sanctorum, he was born in Cappadocian Sebasteia. Five months old at his Christian parents' death, he was raised as a Christian; as an adult he was sold as a slave in Egypt, but converted his pagan master to Christianity and was freed by him. Withdrawing to Mount Sinai to live as an ascetic, he was made abbot of the Monastery of St. Theodosius in Palestine. In 614 Chosroes II destroyed Jerusalem, killed 66,509 Christians and captured the Patriarch of Jerusalem, other Christians and the True Cross. Modestus had been on his way to raise Greek troops to oppose this and was surrounded by Persian troops, having a narrow escape. Modestus was chosen to stand in for Zacharias as Patriarch, he buried the monks killed at the monastery of Saint Sabbas the Sanctified and rebuilt the Holy Sepulchre, the city's churches and monasteries with help from John the Merciful, Patriarch of Alexandria.
He became patriarch in his own right after Zacharias died in Persia when Heraclius visited the city to restore the True Cross in March 630. On Modestus's death he was buried in the Church of the Eleona on the Mount of Olives. Building projects of Modestus Orthodox Church in America - Modestus of Jerusalem "Modestus of Jerusalem". Orthodoxwiki.org. Retrieved 6 January 2019. "St Modestus, Patriarch of Jerusalem. Commemorated December 18". Orthodox.net. Retrieved 6 January 2019
Ephram II of Jerusalem
Ephram II was a Greek writer. He was born in Athens, he was Greek Orthodox Patriarch of Jerusalem
Cyril of Jerusalem
Cyril of Jerusalem was a distinguished theologian of the early Church. He is venerated as a saint by the Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church, Oriental Orthodox Church and the Anglican Communion. In 1883, Cyril was declared a Doctor of the Church by Pope Leo XIII, he is respected in the Palestinian Christian Community. About the end of 350 AD he succeeded Maximus as Bishop of Jerusalem, but was exiled on more than one occasion due to the enmity of Acacius of Caesarea, the policies of various emperors. Cyril left important writings documenting the instruction of catechumens and the order of the Liturgy in his day. Little is known of his life. According to Butler, Cyril was born at or near the city of Jerusalem, was well-read in both the Church fathers and the pagan philosophers. Cyril was ordained a deacon by Bishop St. Macarius of Jerusalem in about 335 and a priest some eight years by Bishop St. Maximus. About the end of 350 he succeeded St. Maximus in the See of Jerusalem. Relations between Metropolitan Acacius of Caesarea and Cyril became strained.
Acacius is presented as a leading Arian by the orthodox historians, his opposition to Cyril in the 350s is attributed by these writers to this. Sozomen suggests that the tension may have been increased by Acacius's jealousy of the importance assigned to St. Cyril's See by the Council of Nicaea, as well as by the threat posed to Caesarea by the rising influence of the seat of Jerusalem as it developed into the prime Christian holy place and became a centre of pilgrimage. Acacius charged Cyril with selling church property; the city of Jerusalem had suffered drastic food shortages at which point church historians Sozomen and Theodoret report “Cyril secretly sold sacramental ornaments of the church and a valuable holy robe, fashioned with gold thread that the emperor Constantine had once donated for the bishop to wear when he performed the rite of Baptism”. It was believed that Cyril sold some plate and imperial gifts to keep his people from starving. For two years, Cyril resisted Acacius' summons to account for his actions in selling off church property, but a council held under Acacius's influence in 357 deposed St. Cyril in his absence and Cyril took refuge with Silvanus, Bishop of Tarsus.
The following year, 359, in an atmosphere hostile to Acacius, the Council of Seleucia reinstated Cyril and deposed Acacius. In 360, this was reversed by Emperor Constantius, Cyril suffered another year's exile from Jerusalem until the Emperor Julian's accession allowed him to return. Cyril was once again banished from Jerusalem by the Arian Emperor Valens in 367. St. Cyril was able to return again at the accession of Emperor Gratian in 378, after which he remained undisturbed until his death in 386. In 380, St. Gregory of Nyssa came to Jerusalem on the recommendation of a council held at Antioch in the preceding year, he corrupt in morals. Cyril's jurisdiction over Jerusalem was expressly confirmed by the First Council of Constantinople, at which he was present. At that council he voted for acceptance of the term homoousios, having been convinced that there was no better alternative, his story is best representative of those Eastern bishops mistrustful of Nicaea, who came to accept the creed of that council, the doctrine of the homoousion.
Though his theology was at first somewhat indefinite in phraseology, he undoubtedly gave a thorough adhesion to the Nicene Orthodoxy. If he did avoid the debatable term homoousios, he expressed its sense in many passages, which exclude Patripassianism and the formula "there was a time when the Son was not" attributed to Arius. In other points he takes the ordinary ground of the Eastern Fathers, as in the emphasis he lays on the freedom of the will, the autexousion, in his view of the nature of sin. To him sin is the consequence of freedom, not a natural condition; the body is not the instrument of sin. The remedy for it is repentance, on. Like many of the Eastern Fathers, he focuses on high moral living as essential to true Christianity, his doctrine of the Resurrection is not quite so realistic as that of other Fathers. His interpretation of the Eucharist is disputed. If he sometimes seems to approach the symbolic view, at other times he comes close to a strong realistic doctrine; the bread and wine are not the body and blood of Christ.
Cyril's writings are filled with the loving and forgiving nature of God, somewhat uncommon during his time period. Cyril fills his writings with great lines of the healing power of forgiveness and the Holy Spirit, like “The Spirit comes and makes himself known by his fragrance, he is not felt as a burden for God is light light. Rays of light and knowledge stream before him as the Spirit approaches; the Spirit comes with the tenderness of a true friend to save, to heal, to teach, to counsel, to strengthen and to console”. Cyril himself followed God's message of forgiveness many times throughout his life; this is most seen in his two major exiles where Cyril was disgraced and forced to leave his position and his people behind. He never showed any ill will towards those who wronged him. Cyril stressed the