Philibert Tsiranana was a Malagasy politician and leader, who served as the first President of Madagascar from 1959 to 1972. During the twelve years of his administration, the Republic of Madagascar experienced institutional stability that stood in contrast to the political turmoil many mainland African countries experienced in this period; this stability contributed to his reputation as a remarkable statesman. Madagascar experienced moderate economic growth under his moderately socialist policies and came to be known as "the Happy Island." However, the electoral process was fraught with issues and his term terminated in a series of farmer and student protests that brought about the end of the First Republic and the establishment of the socialist Second Republic. The "benevolent schoolmaster" public image that Tsiranana cultivated disguised intense firmness that tended toward authoritarianism. Nonetheless, he remains an esteemed Malagasy political figure remembered throughout the country as its "Father of Independence."
According to his official biography, Tsiranana was born on 18 October 1912 in Ambarikorano, Sofia Region, in northeastern Madagascar. Born to Madiomanana and Fisadoha Tsiranana, Catholic cattle ranchers from the Tsimihety ethnic group, Philibert was destined to become a cattle rancher himself. However, following the death of his father in 1923, Tsiranana's brother, suggested that he attend a primary school in Anjiamangirana. A brilliant student, Tsiranana was admitted into the Analalava regional school in 1926, where he graduated with a brevet des collèges. In 1930, he enrolled in the Le Myre de Vilers normal school in Tananarive, named after former resident-general of Madagascar Charles Le Myre de Vilers, where he entered the "Section Normale" program, preparing him for a career teaching in primary schools. After completing his studies, he started a teaching career in his hometown. In 1942, he began receiving instruction in Tananarive for middle school teaching and in 1945, he succeeded in the teacher assistant competitive examinations, allowing him to serve as a professor in a regional school.
In 1946, he obtained a scholarship to the École normale d'instituteurs in Montpellier, where he worked as a teacher assistant. He left Madagascar on 6 November. In 1943, Philibert Tsiranana joined the professional teachers' union and in 1944 entered the General Confederation of Labor. With the end of World War II and the creation of the French Union by the Fourth Republic, the colonial society of Madagascar experienced a liberalization; the colonized peoples now had the right to be politically organized. Tsiranana joined the Group of Student Communists of Madagascar in January 1946, on the advice of his mentor Paul Ralaivoavy, he assumed the role of treasurer. The GEC enabled him to meet future leaders of the PADESM, which he became a founding member of in June 1946; the PADESM was a political organization composed of Mainty and Tanindrana from the coastal region. The PADESM came about as a result of the holding of the French constituent elections of 1945 and 1946. For the first time, the people of Madagascar were allowed to participate in French elections, with electing settlers and indigenous people to the French National Assembly.
To ensure that they won one of the two seats allotted to native people of Madagascar, the inhabitants of the coastal region made an agreement with the Mouvement démocratique de la rénovation malgache, controlled by the Merina of the uplands. The coastal people agreed to seek the election of Paul Ralaivoavy in the west, while leaving the east to the Merina candidate, Joseph Ravoahangy; this agreement was not honoured and the Merina Joseph Raseta won the second seat in October 1945 and June 1946. Concerned about the possible return of "Merina control," the coastal people founded PADESM in order to counter the nationalist goals of the MDRM and oppose Malagasy independence - a position justified by Tsiranana in 1968: If had occurred in 1946, there would have been a civil war at once because the coastal people would not have accepted it. Given the intellectual level of the period, they would have remained petty village chiefs, subjugated, not to say slaves, since the gap between the people of the coast and the people of the uplands was enormous.
In July 1946, Tsiranana refused the post of secretary general of PADESM on account of his impending departure for the École normale de Montpellier. Tsiranana had become known for his contributions to PADESM's journal Voromahery, authored under the pseudonym "Tsimihety"; as a result of his journey to France, Tsiranana escaped the Malagasy Uprising of 1947 and its bloody suppression. Moved by the events, Tsiranana participated in an anti-colonial protest in Montpellier on 21 February 1949, although not a supporter of independence. During his time in France, Tsiranana became conscious of the bias towards the Malagasy elite in education, he found. In his view, there could never be a free union between all Malagasy while a cultural gap remained between the coastal people and the people of the highlands. To remedy this gap, he established two organisations in Madagascar: the Association of Coastal Malagasy Students in August 1949, the Cultural Association of Coastal Malagasy Intellectuals in September 1951.
These organisations were held against him. On his return to Madagascar in 1950, Tsiranana was appointed professor of technical education at the École industrielle in Tananarive in the highlands. There he taught mathematics, but he wa
The Merina people are the largest ethnic group in Madagascar. They are the "highlander" Malagasy ethnic group of the African island and one of the country's eighteen official ethnic groups, their origins are mixed, predominantly with Malayo-Indonesians arriving before the 5th century AD many centuries by Arabs and other ethnic groups. They speak the Merina dialect of the official Malagasy language of Madagascar; the Merina people are most found in the center of the island. Beginning in the late 18th century, Merina sovereigns expanded the political region under their control from their interior capital, outwards into the island, with their king Radama I helping unite the island under their rule; the French fought two wars with the Merina people in 1883-1885 and in 1895, colonized Madagascar in 1895–96 and abolished the Merina monarchy in 1897. They built innovative and elaborate irrigation infrastructure and productive rice farms in high plateaus of Madagascar by the 18th century; the Merina people were stratified with hierarchical castes, inherited occupations and endogamy, as well as one where two of the major and long serving monarchs of the Merina people were queens.
Austronesian people started settling in Madagascar between 200 and 500 CE. They were from various southeast Asian groups. Swahili-Arabs and Indian traders came to the island's northern regions. African slaves were brought to the island's coasts between the 18th centuries; the Portuguese traders were the first Europeans to arrive in the 15th century, followed by other European powers. This influx of diverse people led to various Malagasy sub-ethnicities in the mid-2nd millennium; the Merina were the early arrivals, though this is uncertain and other ethnic groups on Madagascar consider them relative newcomers to the island. The Merina people's culture mixed and merged with the Madagascar natives named Vazimba about whom little is known. According to the island's oral traditions, the "most Austronesian looking" Merina people reached the interior of the island in the 15th century and established their society there because of wars and migrant pressure at the coast. Merina people were settled in the central Madagascar, formed one of the three major kingdoms on the island by the 18th century – the other two being Sakalava kingdom on the west-northwest and Betsimisaraka kingdom on the east-northeast.
These early Merina settlers through their industriousness and innovative abilities built vast irrigation projects that helped drain the plateau marshes, irrigate arable lands, grow rice two times every year. They emerged as the politically dominant group and a wealthy kingdom towards the close of the 18th century; the capital of their kingdom remains the capital of contemporary Madagascar. Oral history traces the emergence of a united kingdom in the central highlands of Madagascar – a region called Imerina – back to early 16th-century king Andriamanelo. By 1824, a succession of Merina kings had conquered nearly all of Madagascar through the military strategy, ambitious treaties and political policies of Andrianampoinimerina and his son Radama I; the colonial British empire recognized the sovereignty of the Merina kingdom and its control of the Madagascar island in 1817. Radama I welcomed European traders and allowed Christian missionaries to establish missions on Madagascar. After him, the Merina people were ruled by Queen Ranavalona I ruled from 1828 to 1861, Queen Rasoherina from 1863 to 1868, Queen Ranavalona II ruled from 1868 to 1885.
The Swahili Arab traders expanded their opportunities to trade and European colonial powers such as the French trader Joseph-François Lambert signed a disputed lease with King Radama II for plantation lands for sugarcane cultivation and industries along the Madagascar coastal plains. The Merina people called the Malagasy living along the coasts as Cotier; these operations and plantations were worked by the forced labor of imported slaves. The largest influx of slaves was brought in by the French; the Makua people from Mozambique were one of the major victims of this demand, slave capture and export that attempted to satisfy this demand. The slavery was abolished by the French administration in 1896, which adversely impacted the fortunes of Merina and non-Merina operated slave-run plantations; the dominance of the Merina kingdom over all of Madagascar came to an end with the first Franco-Hova War of 1883 to 1885, triggered by the disputed lease signed by Radama II. At the war's end, Madagascar ceded Antsiranana on the northern coast to France and paid 560,000 gold francs to the heirs of Joseph-François Lambert, a Frenchman, promised lucrative trade privileges under King Radama II, revoked.
The French declared Madagascar as a protectorate in 1894, which the Merina Queen refused to sign to. The Second Franco-Hova War followed in 1895, when the French military landed in Mahajanga and marched by way of the Betsiboka River to the capital, taking the city's defenders by surprise. In 1896, the French annexed Madagascar, in 1897 the Merina people became the residents of the colony of French Madagascar. In early 20th century, the Merina people led an anti-French nationalist movement; the group, based in Antananarivo, was led by Pastor Ravelojoana. A secret society dedicated to affirming Malagasy cultural identity was formed in 1913, calling itself Iron and Stone Network. Repressed at first with numerous arrests over 1915 and 1916, the movement re-emerged in the 1920s through communists who gain
The Tsimihety are a Malagasy ethnic group who are found in the north-central region of Madagascar. Their name means "those who never cut their hair", a behavior linked to their independence from Sakalava kingdom, located to their west, where cutting hair at the time of mourning was expected, they are found in mountainous part of the island. They are one of the largest Malagasy ethnic groups and their population estimates range between 700,000 and over 1.2 million. This estimation places them as the fourth-largest ethnicity in Madagascar; the Tsimihety trace their origins back to the eastern coast, having migrated with their cattle to the Mandritsara plain in the 18th century as leaderless refugees fleeing the slave wars ongoing in their homeland. Soon afterward they accepted the rule of the Volafotsy, a clan associated with the Maroserana who had migrated north from Sakalava territory. Peter Wilson – a professor of Anthropology specializing on Madagascar, states that Tsimihety people do not fit the normal assumptions of anthropologists, for these people "didn't create symbols or rituals or tribal rules" like tribes do, but they can "only be described negatively" by what they didn't and don't do.
They are thus not a tribe, because they lack tribal ties, lack social compact and have no hierarchical power structure within the ethnic group. Their relationships are centered around biological kin; the anarchist system prevailed among the Tsimihety people before the 19th century. However, in 1823, Radama I, the Merina king, brought the entire island under one rule, including the Tsimihety, abolished slavery; the French colonial rule absorbed the Tsimihety as a part of French Madagascar. The Tsimihety have been an active part of Madagascar politics since. Philibert Tsiranana, a Tsimihety from near Mandritsara, was the first president of the Malagasy Republic, when it became a semi-autonomous region within the French Union in 1959, remained president for 10 years after it gained independence from France in 1960. David Graeber, an anthropologist specializing in the study of Anarchy systems, states the Tsimihety people exemplify one of the few historic social systems that accepted no authority and practiced anarchy: They are marked by resolutely egalitarian social organization and practices.
They are, in other words, the anarchists of northwest Madagascar. To this day they have maintained a reputation as masters of evasion: under the French, administrators would complain that they could send delegations to arrange for labor to build a road near a Tsimihety village, negotiate the terms with cooperative elders, return with the equipment a week only to discover the village abandoned – every single inhabitant had moved in with some relative in another part of the country; the Tsimihety represent one of the rare examples where the culture was innately anti-government, where states Graeber, all forms of government had been withdrawn from countryside and communities. Informal consensus was the basis of local decisions, anyone behaving like a leader was considered suspicious, giving orders was wrong, expecting anyone to be responsible for or would do something was wrong, concepts such as working for a wage was morally shunned. Graeber states that the Tsimihety were "eventually gobbled up by the state", gave up the utopia, as they sought economic opportunities and infrastructure.
The Tsimihety people are patrilineal, kin relationships with the male ancestors and descendants are most important to both men and women. Their cultural conventions require extended exogamy, which coupled with high birth rates have led to their migration and high diffusion among neighboring ethnic groups; the society is notable for the social roles expected by a Tsimihety family from a maternal uncle. The language of the Tsimihety people is a dialect of the Malagasy language, a branch of the Malayo-Polynesian language group derived from the Barito languages spoken in the Austronesian region. Tsimihety society and economy, as in much of Madagascar, is focused on agriculture. Rice is the staple crop, the Tsimihety raise cattle. Working on crop land on Tuesday is fady – a taboo – among the Tsimihety; the main economic center among the Tsimihety is in Mandritsara. Appiah, Anthony. Africana: The Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-517055-9.
Bradt, Hilary. Madagascar: The Bradt Travel Guide. Bradt Travel Guides. ISBN 978-1-84162-197-5. Diagram Group. Encyclopedia of African Peoples. San Francisco, CA: Routledge. ISBN 9781135963415. Fox, Leonard. Hainteny: The Traditional Poetry of Madagascar. Bucknell University Press. ISBN 978-0-8387-5175-6. Graeber, David. Fragments of an Anarchist Anthropology. Dubois Publishers. ISBN 978-0-9728196-4-0. Lambek, Michael; the Ethical Condition: Essays on Action and Value. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-29238-0. Ogot, Bethwell A.. Africa from the Sixteenth to the Eighteenth Century. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-06700-4. Perry, Richard. Race and Racism. Palgrave Macmillan. Pp. 74–75. ISBN 978-0-230-60919-8. Skutsch, Carl. Encyclopedia of the World's Minorities. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-135-19388-1. Wilson, Peter J.. Freedom by a Hair's Breadth: Tsimihety in Madagascar. University of Michigan Press. ISBN 978-0-472-10389-8
Demographics of Madagascar
This article is about the demographic features of the population of Madagascar, including population density, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population. Madagascar's population is predominantly of East African origin; the problem with population estimation in Madagascar is that data is old and limited. The last population census was carried out after an initial 1975 census. There was an attempt at a census in 2009, but this attempt failed due to political instability. Therefore, the demographic situation is inferred but reliability of any estimates from any source has a large margin of error. According to the 2017 revision of the World Population Prospects the total population was 24,894,551 in 2016, compared to only 4,084,000 in 1950; the proportion of children below the age of 15 in 2010 was 43.1%, 53.8% was between 15 and 65 years of age, while 3.1% was 65 years or older. Structure of the population: UN medium variant projections: Registration of vital events in Madagascar is not complete.
The Population Department of the United Nations prepared the following estimates. Total Fertility Rate and Crude Birth Rate: Fertility data as of 2008-2009: Source: UN World Population Prospects The island of Madagascar is predominantly populated by people broadly classified as belonging to the Malagasy ethno-linguistic group; this group is further subdivided a number of ethnic groups into the standard eighteen. In addition, communities of Indians and Arabs have long been established on the island and have assimilated into local communities to varying degrees, in some places having long since become identified "Malagasy" ethnic groups, in others maintaining distinct identities and cultural separation. More recent arrivals include Chinese immigrants. Madagascar was uninhabited prior to Austronesian settlement in the early centuries AD. Austronesian features are most predominant in the central highlands people, the Merina and the Betsileo; the largest coastal groups are the Tsimihety and Sakalava.
Malagasy society has long been polarized between the politically and economically advantaged highlanders of the central plateaux and the people along the coast. For example, in the 1970s there was widespread opposition among coastal ethnics against the policy of "Malagasization" which intended to phase out the use of the French language in public life in favour of a more prominent position for the Malagasy language, whose orthography is based on the Merina dialect. Identity politics were at the core of the brief civil unrest during 2002. Indians in Madagascar descend from traders who arrived in the newly independent nation looking for better opportunities; the majority of them came from the west coast of India known as Banian. The majority speak Hindi or Gujarati, although some other Indian dialects are spoken. Nowadays the younger generations speak at least three languages, including French and Malagasy. A large number of the Indians in Madagascar have a high level of education the younger generation.
A sizeable number of Europeans reside in Madagascar of French descent. According to the US Department of State in 2011, 41% of Madagascans practice Christianity and 52% practice traditional religion, which tends to emphasize links between the living and the razana, but according to the Pew Research Center in 2010, only 4.5% of Madagascans practice folk religions and 85% are Christian, with practitioners of Protestantism outnumbering adherents to Roman Catholicism. Madagascar's traditional religions tend to emphasize links between the dead, they believe that the dead join their ancestors in the ranks of divinity and that ancestors are intensely concerned with the fate of their living descendants. This spiritual communion is celebrated by the Merina and Betsileo reburial practice of famadihana, or "turning over the dead". In this ritual, relatives' remains are removed from the family tomb, rewrapped in new silk shrouds, returned to the tomb following festive ceremonies in their honor. In the festivities, they eat and dance with the dead.
After one or two days of celebrating, they rebury it. Malagasy Christians are Protestant or Roman Catholic, but there are smaller groups such as members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Jehovah's Witnesses, Seventh-day Adventists, Eastern Orthodox Christians. Many incorporate the cult of the dead with their other religious beliefs and bless their dead at church before proceeding with the traditional burial rites, they may invite a pastor to attend a famadihana. A historical rivalry exists between the predominantly Catholic masses, considered to be underprivileged, the predominantly Protestant Merina aristocrats, who tend to prevail in the civil service and professions. Followers of Islam constitute 7% of the population, according to the US Department of State in 2011, or 3% according to the Pew Research Center in 2010, they are concentrated in the north and southeast. There are a small number of Hindus; the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints has more than 8.000 members in 33 congregati
Vice Admiral Didier Ignace Ratsiraka is a Malagasy politician and naval officer, President of Madagascar from 1975 to 1993 and from 1997 to 2002. Ratsiraka, who seized power in a 1975 coup, is nicknamed "Deba", which translates to the Big Man, in Madagascar. Born in Vatomandry, Atsinanana Region, Ratsiraka served as Minister of Foreign Affairs under Gabriel Ramanantsoa from 1972 until 1975. Known as the "Red Admiral", he was made head of state, as President of the Supreme Revolutionary Council, by the military leadership on June 15, 1975, he began setting up a socialist system, guided by the Charter of the Malagasy Socialist Revolution, approved in a referendum held on December 21, 1975, establishing the Second Republic. The political party Vanguard of the Malagasy Revolution was founded. In the midst of a poor economic situation, Ratsiraka began to abandon socialist policies after a few years in power and implemented reforms recommended by the International Monetary Fund, he was re-elected as President with 80% of the vote in 1982 and with 63% of the vote in 1989.
The latter election was condemned as fraudulent by the opposition, which protested, at least 75 people were killed in the resulting violence. Ratsiraka faced intense opposition to his rule in 1991. On August 10, 1991, about 400,000 people marched on the Presidential Palace, the Presidential Guard attacked the demonstrators with gunfire and grenades; the government placed the death toll at 11. Ratsiraka said that he had not ordered the Presidential Guard to open fire, but Ratsiraka's orders have been recorded and in these records, he orders the helicopter to shoot the car of the HAS president and open fire on the strikers The incident undermined his precarious position. On 31 October, he signed the Panorama Convention, which established a transitional government and stripped him of most of his powers. Ratsiraka ran in the multiparty November 1992 presidential election, placing second behind Zafy in the first round. In the second round, held in February 1993, Ratsiraka lost to Zafy, taking about one-third of the vote, left office on March 27.
Zafy was impeached in 1996, Ratsiraka, in exile in France, achieved a political comeback in late 1996 when he won that year's presidential election, running as the candidate of the AREMA party. He came in first place in the first round with 36.6% of the vote, ahead of his three main opponents: Zafy, Herizo Razafimahaleo, Prime Minister/Acting President Norbert Ratsirahonana. He narrowly defeated Zafy in the runoff with 50.7% of the vote and took office again on February 9, 1997. Members of the opposition, including Zafy, unsuccessfully attempted to impeach Ratsiraka in February 1998, accusing him of violating the constitution through decentralizing reforms that would increase his own power at the expense of that of the National Assembly; the impeachment motion accused him of perjury and failing to act as supreme arbiter of disputes, it cited his ill-health. In the National Assembly vote on February 4, 60 deputies voted for the impeachment motion, well short of the required 92. On March 15, 1998, a constitutional referendum was approved by a narrow majority of voters.
It provided for decentralization, with the provinces gaining autonomy. By 2001, Ratsiraka had become unpopular again, he announced on June 26, 2001 that he would be a candidate for the presidential election to be held in December of that year. In the election, he took second place. Because, according to the official results, no candidate won a majority, a runoff was to take place, but due to disputes over the election it was never held. Ravalomanana claimed to have won over 50 percent of the vote, enough to win the presidency in a single round. Ravalomanana was sworn in as President by his supporters on February 22, 2002, the two governments fought for control of the country. By the end of February 2002, Ravalomanana had control over the capital, which had always been his base, but Ratsiraka maintained control over the provinces and established himself at Toamasina, his primary support base. However, within a few months Ravalomanana had gained the upper hand in a struggle. In mid-June Ratsiraka went to France, leading many to believe he had fled into exile and lowering the morale of his supporters, although Ratsiraka said he would return.
He did return to Madagascar after more than a week, but his position was continuing to weaken militarily. On July 5, Ratsiraka fled Toamasina. Two days he arrived in France. On August 6, 2003, Ratsiraka—who was accused of stealing nearly eight million dollars in public funds from the annex of the central bank in Toamasina in June 2002, just before going into exile—was sentenced to ten years of hard labor in Madagascar; because he was living in France, he had been tried in absentia. The lawyer appointed for Ratsiraka by the court accepted the verdict and sentence as "fair" and said he would not appeal. On August 4, 2009, Ratsiraka met
Madagascar the Republic of Madagascar, known as the Malagasy Republic, is an island country in the Indian Ocean 400 kilometres off the coast of East Africa. The nation comprises the island of Madagascar and numerous smaller peripheral islands. Following the prehistoric breakup of the supercontinent Gondwana, Madagascar split from the Indian subcontinent around 88 million years ago, allowing native plants and animals to evolve in relative isolation. Madagascar is a biodiversity hotspot; the island's diverse ecosystems and unique wildlife are threatened by the encroachment of the growing human population and other environmental threats. The first archaeological evidence for human foraging on Madagascar may have occurred as much as 10,000 years ago. Human settlement of Madagascar occurred between 350 BC and 550 AD by Austronesian peoples, arriving on outrigger canoes from Borneo; these were joined around the 9th century AD by Bantu migrants crossing the Mozambique Channel from East Africa. Other groups continued to settle on Madagascar over time, each one making lasting contributions to Malagasy cultural life.
The Malagasy ethnic group is divided into 18 or more subgroups, of which the largest are the Merina of the central highlands. Until the late 18th century, the island of Madagascar was ruled by a fragmented assortment of shifting sociopolitical alliances. Beginning in the early 19th century, most of the island was united and ruled as the Kingdom of Madagascar by a series of Merina nobles; the monarchy ended in 1897 when the island was absorbed into the French colonial empire, from which the island gained independence in 1960. The autonomous state of Madagascar has since undergone four major constitutional periods, termed republics. Since 1992, the nation has been governed as a constitutional democracy from its capital at Antananarivo. However, in a popular uprising in 2009, president Marc Ravalomanana was made to resign and presidential power was transferred in March 2009 to Andry Rajoelina. Constitutional governance was restored in January 2014, when Hery Rajaonarimampianina was named president following a 2013 election deemed fair and transparent by the international community.
Madagascar is a member of the United Nations, the African Union, the Southern African Development Community, the Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie. Madagascar belongs according to the United Nations. Malagasy and French are both official languages of the state; the majority of the population adheres to traditional beliefs, Christianity, or an amalgamation of both. Ecotourism and agriculture, paired with greater investments in education and private enterprise, are key elements of Madagascar's development strategy. Under Ravalomanana, these investments produced substantial economic growth, but the benefits were not evenly spread throughout the population, producing tensions over the increasing cost of living and declining living standards among the poor and some segments of the middle class; as of 2017, the economy has been weakened by the 2009–2013 political crisis, quality of life remains low for the majority of the Malagasy population. In the Malagasy language, the island of Madagascar is called Madagasikara and its people are referred to as Malagasy.
The island's appellation "Madagascar" is not of local origin but rather was popularized in the Middle Ages by Europeans. The name Madageiscar was first recorded in the memoirs of 13th-century Venetian explorer Marco Polo as a corrupted transliteration of the name Mogadishu, the Somali port with which Polo had confused the island. On St. Laurence's Day in 1500, Portuguese explorer Diogo Dias landed on the island and named it São Lourenço. Polo's name popularized on Renaissance maps. No single Malagasy-language name predating Madagasikara appears to have been used by the local population to refer to the island, although some communities had their own name for part or all of the land they inhabited. At 592,800 square kilometres, Madagascar is the world's 47th largest country and the fourth-largest island; the country lies between latitudes 12°S and 26°S, longitudes 43°E and 51°E. Neighboring islands include the French territory of Réunion and the country of Mauritius to the east, as well as the state of Comoros and the French territory of Mayotte to the north west.
The nearest mainland state is Mozambique, located to the west. The prehistoric breakup of the supercontinent Gondwana separated the Madagascar–Antarctica–India landmass from the Africa–South America landmass around 135 million years ago. Madagascar split from India about 88 million years ago during the late Cretaceous period allowing plants and animals on the island to evolve in relative isolation. Along the length of the eastern coast runs a narrow and steep escarpment containing much of the island's remaining tropical lowland forest. To the west of this ridge lies a plateau in the center of the island ranging in altitude from 750 to 1,500 m above sea level; these central highlands, traditionally the homeland of the Merina people and the location of their historic capital at Antananarivo, are the most densely populated part of the island and are characterized by terraced, rice-growing valleys lying between grassy hills and patches of the subhumid forests that covered the highland region. To the west of the highlands, the arid terrain slope
A constituent assembly or constitutional assembly is a body or assembly of popularly elected representatives composed for the purpose of drafting or adopting a constitutional-type document. The constituent assembly is a subset of a constitutional convention elected by popular vote; as the fundamental document constituting a state, a constitution cannot be modified or amended by the state's normal legislative procedures. A constituent assembly is set up for its specific purpose, which it carries out in a short time, after which the assembly is dissolved. A constituent assembly is a form of representative democracy. Unlike forms of constitution-making in which a constitution is unilaterally imposed by a sovereign lawmaker, the constituent assembly creates a constitution through "internally imposed" actions, in that members of the constituent assembly are themselves citizens, but not the rulers, of the country for which they are creating a constitution; as described by Columbia University Social Sciences Professor Jon Elster: Constitutions arise in a number of different ways.
At the non-democratic extreme of the spectrum, we may imagine a sovereign lawgiver laying down the constitution for all generations. At the democratic extreme, we may imagine a constituent assembly elected by universal suffrage for the sole task of writing a new constitution, and there are all sorts of intermediate arrangements. Right after the 1948 Costa Rican Civil War that overthrow Rafael Angel Calderón Government, the leaders of the victorious side call for an election of a Constituent Assembly in the same year; the Assembly drafted and approved the current Costa Rican Constitution. The Danish Constituent Assembly established the Constitution of Denmark in 1849. During the French Revolution a National Constituent Assembly was formed when representatives assembled at the only location available – a tennis court – and swore the Tennis Court Oath on June 20, 1789, promising that they would not adjourn until they had drafted a new constitution for France. Louis XVI recognized the validity of the National Constituent Assembly on June 27, 1789.
See French Constituent Assembly election, 1848 On 27 November 2010, Iceland held an election for a constitutional assembly, with 522 people vying for 25 delegate seats. The constitutional assembly, in session for four months from early April until late July 2011, drafted a new constitution and passed it unanimously with 25 votes against zero with no abstentions. Parliament put the bill to a national referendum 20 October 2012 in which 67% of the voters declared their support for the bill. Further, 67% of the voters declared their support for equal voting rights and 83% declared their support for national ownership of natural resources, two key provisions of the bill. Parliament has failed to ratify the bill, inviting accusations that the political class is trying to thwart the will of the people by disrespecting the result of the 2012 constitutional referendum; the Constituent Assembly of India was elected to write the Constitution of India, served as its first Parliament as an independent nation.
It was set up as a result of negotiations between the leaders of the Indian independence movement and members of the British Cabinet Mission. The constituent assembly was elected indirectly by the members of the Provincial legislative assembly, which existed under the British Raj, it first met on December 1946, in Delhi. On August 15, 1947, India became an independent nation, the Constituent Assembly started functioning as India's Parliament. Dr. Ambedkar drafted the Constitution of India in conjunction with the requisite deliberations and debates in the Constituent Assembly; the Assembly approved the Constitution on November 26, 1949, it took effect on January 26, 1950 — a day now commemorated as Republic Day in India. Once the Constitution took effect, the Constituent Assembly became the Provisional Parliament of India The Constitutional Assembly of Indonesia was established to draw up a permanent constitution, its membership was elected in November 1955, it met for the first time in November 1956.
After four sessions, it failed to agree on the fundamental basis for the state. It was dissolved in 1959, the original constitution imposed by presidential decree; the Constituent Assembly of Italy was established in 1946 in the wake of Fascist Italy's defeat during World War II. It was elected with universal suffrage with a referendum about the adoption of Republic or the continuation of monarchy. Voters chose Republic, the new assembly had the task to approve the new republic governments, as well as to write a new constitution; this was approved on 22 December 1947. It was dissolved on 31 January 1948. Nepal has had two Constituent assemblies, the current one being elected after its predecessor failed to deliver a constitution, despite multiple extensions, it serves as the country's parliament. Nepal had made constitution with 89% majority. Nepal is adopting Federal states soon; the Russian Constituent Assembly was established in Russia in the wake of the October Revolution of 1917 to form a new constitution after the overthrow of the Russian Provisional Government.
The Sri Lankan Parliament approved the creation of a Sri Lankan Constitutional Assembly on March 9, 2016 proposed by Prime Minister