Partisans in the Korean War

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Partisans were active before, during and after the Korean War in the South Korean peninsula.

They are considered as the remnants of the Korean People's Army of North Korea, some local civilians who are in favor of North Korea, some voluntary participants out of curiosity or in the reason of vengeance, and some local civilians in the region of the partisan occupying areas, they could be considered as belligerent forces behind the 38th parallel before the Korean War, behind the front lines during the Korean War, and behind the demilitarized zone after the Korean War.

Terminology[edit]

They are usually called by the name of:

  • palchitan(빨치산; a transliteration of partisan),
  • nambugun(남부군),
  • kongsan bijuk(공산비적) like Viet Cong,
  • kongbi(공비)(abbreviation of 공산비적),
  • communist guerrillas(공산 게릴라).

The KongBi has now become a general term for any armed North Korean infiltrators.

Background[edit]

Japanese rule (1910–1945)[edit]

Korea divided (1945–1949)[edit]

  • 1945 July Potsdam Conference (July–August 1945), the Allies unilaterally decided to divide Korea—without consulting the Koreans
  • 1945 August Japanese Surrender
  • 1945 Soviet invasion of Manchuria
  • 1945 Chinese Civil War (1945–1949)
  • 1945, 10 August 1945, the Soviet forces occupied the northern part of the Korean peninsula.
  • 1945, 26 August 1945, the Soviet forces halted at the 38th parallel for 3 weeks to await the arrival of US forces in the south
  • 1945, 8 September 1945, an army of the United States arrived in Incheon to accept the Japanese surrender south of the 38th parallel, and the United States Army Military Government in Korea(미군정;USMGIK) began.
  • 1945 December, Moscow Conference (1945) decided that a four-power trusteeship of up to five years would be needed before Korea attained independence

Against this decision, turmoil in the south begins, and USMGIK tried to calm down civil violence in the south by banning strikes on December 8 and outlawing the revolutionary government and the people's committees on December 12, 1945.

  • 1946 March, Kim Il-sung initiated a sweeping land reform program in the north.
  • 1946, August 28, Workers' Party of North Korea(북조선노동당) was established in the north.
  • 1946, September 23, A massive strike on by 8,000 railway workers in Busan which quickly spread to other cities in the South.
  • 1946,October 1, The Autumn Uprising of 1946 (Korean: 대구 10·1 사건). USMGIK declared martial law, and succeeded in putting down the blood sheding uprising
  • 1946, November 23, Workers Party of South Korea(남로당, 남조선노동당), a communist party in the south was established, however, was outlawed by the U.S. occupation authorities, the USMGIK.

References[edit]