A partisan is a member of an irregular military force formed to oppose control of an area by a foreign power or by an army of occupation by some kind of insurgent activity. The term can apply to the field element of resistance movements, examples of which are the civilians who opposed Nazi German, Fascist Italian and Ustaše Croatian rule in several countries during World War II. Rustaham Suren, better known as Surena or Suren was a Parthian spahbed during the 1st century BC, he was the leader of the House of Suren and was best known for defeating the Romans in the Battle of Carrhae. Under his command Parthians decisively defeated a numerically superior Roman invasion force under the command of Marcus Licinius Crassus; the word Partisan is derived from the Italian word Partigiano. The initial concept of partisan warfare involved the use of troops raised from the local population in a war zone who would operate behind enemy lines to disrupt communications, seize posts or villages as forward-operating bases, ambush convoys, impose war taxes or contributions, raid logistical stockpiles, compel enemy forces to disperse and protect their base of operations.
One of the first manuals of partisan tactics in the 18th century was The Partisan, or the Art of Making War in Detachment... published in London in 1760 by de Jeney, a Hungarian military officer who served in the Prussian Army as captain of military engineers during the Seven Years' War of 1756–1763. Johann von Ewald described techniques of partisan warfare in detail in his Abhandlung über den kleinen Krieg; the concept of partisan warfare would form the basis of the "Partisan Rangers" of the American Civil War. In that war, Confederate States Army Partisan leaders, such as John S. Mosby, Jesse James, William Quantrill, or Bloody Bill Anderson, operated along the lines described by von Ewald. In essence, 19th-century American partisans were closer to commando or ranger forces raised during World War II than to the "partisan" forces operating in occupied Europe. Mosby-style fighters would have been considered uniformed members of their state's armed forces. Partisans in the mid-19th century were different from raiding cavalry, or from unorganized/semi-organized guerrilla forces.
Russian partisans played a crucial part in the downfall of Napoleon. Their fierce resistance and persistent inroads helped compel the French emperor to retreat from Russia after invading in 1812. During the Second Boer War, the Boers waged a successful guerrilla campaign against the British. Imperial Russia made use of partisans in World War I, for example Stanisław Bułak-Bałachowicz. In 1922, Benito Mussolini and Fascist troop entered Rome. One of the most important episodes of resistance by Italian armed forces after the armistice was the battle of Piombino, Tuscany. On 10 September 1943, during Operation Achse, a small German flotilla, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Karl-Wolf Albrand, tried to enter the harbour of Piombino but was denied access by the port authorities.. The order to organize partisan groups was issued by Marshal of Poland Rydz-Smigly on the 16th of September, 1939; the first sabotage groups were created in Warsaw on September 18, 1939. Each battalion was to choose 3 soldiers who were to sabotage enemy's war effort behind the front lines.
The sabotage groups were organized. The situation amongst the Polish partisans and the situation of the Polish partisans were both complicated; the founding organizations that lead to the creation of the Home Army or Armia Krajowa known as AK, were themselves organized in 1939. Home Army was the largest Polish partisan organization; the communist Gwardia Ludowa remained indifferent and hostile towards the Home Army, of two Jewish organizations, the Jewish Military Union did cooperate with the Home Army, when the leftist and pro-Soviet Jewish Combat Organization did not. Nota bene, the Polish Socialist Party and the British counterpart were the only two socialist parties in Europe not controlled by Joseph Stalin. Both Jewish combat organizations staged the Ghetto uprising in 1944. Armia Krajowa staged Warsaw Uprising in 1944, amongst other activities. Bataliony Chlopskie fought in Zamosc Uprising; the Polish partisans faced many enemies. The main enemies were the Nazi Germans, Ukrainian nationalists, Lithuanian Nazi collaborators, the Soviets.
In spite of the ideological enmity, the Home Army did launch a massive sabotage campaign after the Germans began Operation Barbarossa. Amongst other acts of sabotage, the Polish partisans damaged nearly 7,000 locomotives, over 19,000 railway cars, over 4,000 German military vehicles and built-in faults into 92,000 artillery projectiles as well as 4710 built-in faults into aircraft engines, just to mention a few and just in between 1941 and 1944. In Ukraine and southeastern Poland, the Poles fought against the Ukrainian nationalists and UPA to protect the ethnic Poles from mass murder visited upon them during Massacres of Poles in Volhynia and Eastern Galicia, they were aided. At least 60,000 Poles lost their lives, the majority of them civilians, men and children; some of the victims were Poles of Jewish descent who had escaped from the death camp. The majority of the Polish partisans in Ukraine assisted the invading Soviet Army. Few o
The Potsdam Conference was held at Cecilienhof, the home of Crown Prince Wilhelm in Potsdam, occupied Germany, from 17 July to 2 August 1945. The participants were the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the United States, represented by Communist Party General Secretary Joseph Stalin, Prime Ministers Winston Churchill and Clement Attlee, President Harry S. Truman. Stalin and Truman gathered to decide how to administer Germany, which had agreed to unconditional surrender nine weeks earlier on 8 May; the goals of the conference included the establishment of postwar order, peace treaty issues, countering the effects of the war. A number of changes had taken place in the five months since the Yalta Conference which affected the relationships among the leaders; the Soviet Union was occupying Eastern Europe. Stalin had set up a puppet Communist government in Poland, he insisted that his control of Eastern Europe was a defensive measure against possible future attacks, claiming that it was a legitimate sphere of Soviet influence.
Second, Britain had a new Prime Minister. Conservative Party leader Winston Churchill had served as Prime Minister in a coalition government. A general election had been held in the UK on 5 July; the outcome became known during the conference when Labour leader Clement Attlee became the new Prime Minister. Third, President Roosevelt had died on 12 April 1945, Vice President Harry Truman assumed the presidency. During the war and in the name of Allied unity, Roosevelt had brushed off warnings of a potential domination by Stalin in part of Europe, he explained, "I just have a hunch that Stalin is not that kind of a man." "I think that if I give him everything I can and ask for nothing from him in return,'noblesse oblige', he won't try to annex anything and will work with me for a world of democracy and peace."Truman had followed the Allied progress of the war. George Lenczowski notes that, "despite the contrast between his modest background and the international glamour of his aristocratic predecessor, had the courage and resolution to reverse the policy that appeared to him naive and dangerous", "in contrast to the immediate ad hoc moves and solutions dictated by the demands of the war".
With the end of the war, the priority of allied unity was replaced with the challenge of the relationship between the two emerging superpowers. The two leading powers continued to sustain a cordial relationship to the public, but suspicions and distrust lingered between them. Truman was much more suspicious of the Communists than Roosevelt had been, he became suspicious of Soviet intentions under Stalin, he and his advisers saw Soviet actions in Eastern Europe as aggressive expansionism, incompatible with the agreements that Stalin had committed to at Yalta the previous February. In addition, Truman became aware of possible complications elsewhere when Stalin objected to Churchill's proposal for an early Allied withdrawal from Iran, ahead of the schedule agreed at the Tehran Conference; the Potsdam Conference was the only time. At the Yalta Conference France had been granted an occupation zone within Germany, France had been a participant in the Berlin Declaration, France was to be an equal member of the Allied Control Council.
At the insistence of the Americans, General de Gaulle was not invited to Potsdam, as he had too been denied representation at Yalta. Reasons for the omissions included the longstanding personal mutual antagonism between Roosevelt and De Gaulle, ongoing disputes over the French and American occupation zones and anticipated conflicts of interest over French Indochina. At the end of the conference, the three Heads of Government agreed on the following actions. All other issues were to be answered by the final peace conference to be called as soon as possible; the Allies issued a statement of aims of their occupation of Germany: demilitarization, democratization, decentralization and decartelization. Germany and Austria were each to be divided into four occupation zones, each capital and Vienna, was to be divided into four zones, it was agreed. All German annexations in Europe were to be reversed, including Sudetenland, Alsace-Lorraine and the westernmost parts of Poland. Germany's eastern border was to be shifted westwards to the Oder–Neisse line reducing Germany in size by 25% compared to its 1937 borders.
The territories east of the new border comprised East Prussia, West Prussia, two thirds of Pomerania. These areas were agricultural, with the exception of Upper Silesia, th
Soviet invasion of Manchuria
The Soviet invasion of Manchuria, formally known as the Manchurian Strategic Offensive Operation or the Manchurian Operation, began on 9 August 1945 with the Soviet invasion of the Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo. It was the last campaign of the Second World War, the largest of the 1945 Soviet–Japanese War, which resumed hostilities between the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the Empire of Japan after six years of peace. Soviet gains on the continent were Manchukuo and northern Korea; the Soviet entry into the war and the defeat of the Kwantung Army was a significant factor in the Japanese government's decision to surrender unconditionally, as it made apparent the Soviet Union had no intention of acting as a third party in negotiating an end to hostilities on conditional terms. Since 1983, the operation has sometimes been called Operation August Storm after U. S. Army historian David Glantz used this title for a paper on the subject; as agreed with the Allies at the Tehran Conference in November 1943 and the Yalta Conference in February 1945, the Soviet Union entered World War II's Pacific Theater within three months of the end of the war in Europe.
The invasion began on 9 August 1945 three months after the German surrender on May 8. Although the commencement of the invasion fell between the American atomic bombing of Hiroshima, on 6 August, only hours before the Nagasaki bombing on 9 August, the timing of the invasion had been planned well in advance and was determined by the timing of the agreements at Tehran and Yalta, the long-term buildup of Soviet forces in the Far East since Tehran, the date of the German surrender some three months earlier. At 11pm Trans-Baikal time on 8 August 1945, Soviet foreign minister Vyacheslav Molotov informed Japanese ambassador Naotake Satō that the Soviet Union had declared war on Japan, that from 9 August the Soviet government would consider itself to be at war with Japan. At one minute past midnight Trans-Baikal time on 9 August 1945, the Soviets commenced their invasion on three fronts to the east and north of Manchuria: the Khingan–Mukden Offensive Operation. Though the battle extended beyond the borders traditionally known as Manchuria—that is, the traditional lands of the Manchus—the coordinated and integrated invasions of Japan's northern territories has been called the Battle of Manchuria.
It has been referred to as the Manchurian Strategic Offensive Operation. The Far East Command, under Marshal of the Soviet Union Aleksandr Vasilevsky, had a plan to conquer Manchuria, simple but huge in scale, calling for a massive pincer movement over all of Manchuria; this was to be performed by the Transbaikal Front from the west and by the 1st Far Eastern Front from the east. The only Soviet equivalent of a theater command that operated during the war, Far East Command, consisted of three Red Army fronts; the Transbaikal Front, under Marshal Rodion Malinovsky, included: 17th Army 36th Army 39th Army 53rd Army 6th Guards Tank Army Soviet Mongolian Cavalry Mechanized Group under Issa Pliyev 12th Air Army. The Transbaikal Front was to form the western half of the Soviet pincer movement, attacking across the Inner Mongolian desert and over the Greater Khingan mountains; these forces had as their objectives firstly to secure Mukden to meet troops of the 1st Far Eastern Front at the Changchun area in south central Manchuria, in doing so finish the double envelopment.
Amassing over one thousand tanks and self-propelled guns, the 6th Guards Tank Army was to serve as an armored spearhead, leading the Front's advance and capturing objectives 350 km inside Manchuria by the fifth day of the invasion. The 36th Army was attacking from the west, but with the objective of meeting forces of the 2nd Far Eastern Front at Harbin and Tsitsihar; the 1st Far Eastern Front, under Marshal Kirill Meretskov, included: 1st Red Banner Army 5th Army 25th Army 35th Army 10th Mechanized Corps 9th Air Army. The 1st Far Eastern Front was to form the eastern half of the pincer movement; this attack involved the 1st Red Banner Army, the 5th Army and the 10th Mechanized Corps striking towards Mudanjiang. Once that city was captured, this force was to advance towards the cities of Jilin and Harbin, its final objective was to link up with the forces of the Transbaikal Front at Changchun and Jilin thus closing the double envelopment movement. As a secondary objective, the 1st Far Eastern Front was to prevent Japanese forces from escaping to Korea, invade the Korean Peninsula up to the 38th parallel, establishing in the process what became North Korea.
This secondary objective was to be carried out by the 25th Army. Meanwhile, the 35th Army was tasked with capturing the cities of Boli and Mishan; the 2nd Far Eastern Front, under General Maksim Purkayev, included: 2nd Red Banner Army 15th Army 16th Army 5th Separate Rifle Corps Chuguevsk Operational Group Amur Military Flotilla 10th Air Army. The 2nd Far Eastern Front was deployed
Korean Demilitarized Zone
The Korean Demilitarized Zone is a strip of land running across the Korean Peninsula. It is established by the provisions of the Korean Armistice Agreement to serve as a buffer zone between North Korea and South Korea; the demilitarized zone is a border barrier that divides the Korean Peninsula in half. It was created by agreement between North Korea, the People's Republic of China and the United Nations Command in 1953; the DMZ is 250 kilometres long, about 4 kilometres wide. Within the DMZ is a meeting point between the two nations in the small Joint Security Area near the western end of the zone, where negotiations take place. There have been various incidents in and around the DMZ, with military and civilian casualties on both sides; the Korean Demilitarized Zone intersects but does not follow the 38th parallel north, the border before the Korean War. It crosses the parallel on an angle, with the west end of the DMZ lying south of the parallel and the east end lying north of it; the DMZ is 250 kilometres long 4 km wide.
Though the zone separating both sides is demilitarized, the border beyond that strip is one of the most militarized borders in the world. The Northern Limit Line, or NLL, is the disputed maritime demarcation line between North and South Korea in the Yellow Sea, not agreed in the armistice; the coastline and islands on both sides of the NLL are heavily militarized. The 38th parallel north—which divides the Korean Peninsula in half—was the original boundary between the United States and Soviet Union's brief administration areas of Korea at the end of World War II. Upon the creation of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea and the Republic of Korea in 1948, it became a de facto international border and one of the most tense fronts in the Cold War. Both the North and the South remained dependent on their sponsor states from 1948 to the outbreak of the Korean War; that conflict, which claimed over three million lives and divided the Korean Peninsula along ideological lines, commenced on 25 June 1950, with a full-front DPRK invasion across the 38th parallel, ended in 1953 after international intervention pushed the front of the war back to near the 38th parallel.
In the Armistice Agreement of 27 July 1953, the DMZ was created as each side agreed to move their troops back 2,000 m from the front line, creating a buffer zone 4 km wide. The Military Demarcation Line goes through the center of the DMZ and indicates where the front was when the agreement was signed. Owing to this theoretical stalemate, genuine hostility between the North and the South, large numbers of troops are stationed along both sides of the line, each side guarding against potential aggression from the other side 65 years after its establishment; the armistice agreement explains how many military personnel and what kind of weapons are allowed in the DMZ. Soldiers from both sides may patrol inside the DMZ, but they may not cross the MDL; however armed ROK soldiers patrol under the aegis of military police, have memorized each line of the armistice. Sporadic outbreaks of violence have killed over 500 South Korean soldiers, 50 US soldiers and 250 soldiers from DPRK along the DMZ between 1953 and 1999.
Daeseong-dong and Kijŏng-dong are the only settlements allowed by the armistice committee to remain within the boundaries of the DMZ. Residents of Tae Sung Dong are governed and protected by the United Nations Command and are required to spend at least 240 nights per year in the village to maintain their residency. In 2008, the village had a population of 218 people; the villagers of Tae Sung Dong are direct descendants of people who owned the land before the 1950–53 Korean War. To continue to deter North Korean incursion, in 2014 the United States government exempted the Korean DMZ from its pledge to eliminate anti-personnel landmines. On 1 October 2018, however, a 20-day process began to remove landmines from both sides of the DMZ. Inside the DMZ, near the western coast of the peninsula, Panmunjom is the home of the Joint Security Area, it was the only connection between North and South Korea but that changed on 17 May 2007, when a Korail train went through the DMZ to the North on the new Donghae Bukbu Line built on the east coast of Korea.
However, the resurrection of this line was short-lived, as it closed again in July 2008 following an incident in which a South Korean tourist was shot and killed. There are several buildings on both the north and the south side of the Military Demarcation Line, there have been some built on top of it; the JSA is the location where all negotiations since 1953 have been held, including statements of Korean solidarity, which have amounted to little except a slight decline of tensions. The MDL goes through the conference rooms and down the middle of the conference tables where the North Koreans and the United Nations Command meet face to face. Within the JSA are a number of buildings for joint meetings called Conference Rooms; these are used for direct talks between the Korean War parties to the armistice. Facing the Conference Row buildings are the North Korean Panmungak and the South Korean Freedom House. In 1994, North Korea enlarged Panmungak by adding a third floor. In 1998, South Korea built a new Freedom House for its Red Cross staff and to host reunions of families separated by the Korean War.
The new building incorporated the old Freedom House Pagoda within its design. Since 1
The Mukden Incident, or Manchurian Incident, was an event staged by Japanese military personnel as a pretext for the Japanese invasion in 1931 of northeastern China, known as Manchuria. On 18 September 1931, Lt. Suemori Kawamoto of the Independent Garrison Unit detonated a small quantity of dynamite close to a railway line owned by Japan's South Manchuria Railway near Mukden; the explosion was so weak that it failed to destroy the track, a train passed over it minutes later. The Imperial Japanese Army accused Chinese dissidents of the act and responded with a full invasion that led to the occupation of Manchuria, in which Japan established its puppet state of Manchukuo six months later; the deception was soon exposed by the Lytton Report of 1932, leading Japan to diplomatic isolation and its March 1933 withdrawal from the League of Nations. The bombing act is known as the Liutiaohu Incident, the entire episode of events is known in Japan as the Manchurian Incident and in China as the September 18 Incident.
Japanese economic presence and political interest in Manchuria had been growing since the end of the Russo-Japanese War. The Treaty of Portsmouth that ended the war had granted Japan the lease of the South Manchuria Railway branch of the China Far East Railway; the Japanese government, claimed that this control included all the rights and privileges that China granted to Russia in the 1896 Li–Lobanov Treaty, as enlarged by the Kwantung Lease Agreement of 1898. This included exclusive administration within the South Manchuria Railway Zone. Japanese railway guards were stationed within the zone to provide security for the trains and tracks. There were many reports of raids on local Chinese villages by bored Japanese soldiers, all complaints from the Chinese government were ignored. Meanwhile, the newly formed Chinese government was trying to recover the rights of nation, they started to claim that treaties between Japan were invalid. China announced new acts, so the Japanese people who settled frontier lands, opened stores or built their own houses in China were expelled without any compensation.
Manchurian warlord Zhang Zuolin tried to deprive Japanese concessions too, but he was assassinated by the Japanese Kwantung Army. Zhang Xueliang, Zhang Zuolin's son and successor, joined the Nanjing Government led by Chiang Kai-shek from anti-Japanese sentiment. Official Japanese objections to the oppression against Japanese nationals within China were rejected by the Chinese authorities; the 1929 Sino-Soviet conflict over the Chinese Eastern Railroad further increased the tensions in the Northeast that would lead to the Mukden Incident. The Soviet Red Army victory over Zhang Xueiliang's forces not only reasserted Soviet control over the CER in Manchuria but revealed Chinese military weaknesses that Japanese Kwantung Army officers were quick to note; the Soviet Red Army performance stunned Japanese officials. Manchuria was central to Japan's East Asia policy. Both the 1921 and 1927 Imperial Eastern Region Conferences reconfirmed Japan's commitment to be the dominant power in Manchuria; the 1929 Red Army victory reopened the Manchurian problem.
By 1930, the Kwantung Army realized they faced a Red Army, only growing stronger. The time to act was drawing Japanese plans to conquer the Northeast were accelerated. In Nanjing in April 1931, a national leadership conference of China was held between Chiang Kai-shek and Zhang Xueliang, they agreed to assert China's sovereignty in Manchuria strongly. On the other hand, some officers of the Kwantung Army began to plot to invade Manchuria secretly. There were other officers. Believing that a conflict in Manchuria would be in the best interests of Japan, acting in the spirit of the Japanese concept of gekokujō, Kwantung Army Colonel Seishirō Itagaki and Lieutenant Colonel Kanji Ishiwara independently devised a plan to prompt Japan to invade Manchuria by provoking an incident from Chinese forces stationed nearby. However, after the Japanese Minister of War Jirō Minami dispatched Major General Yoshitsugu Tatekawa to Manchuria for the specific purpose of curbing the insubordination and militarist behavior of the Kwantung Army and Ishiwara knew that they no longer had the luxury of waiting for the Chinese to respond to provocations, but had to stage their own.
Itagaki and Ishiwara chose to sabotage the rail section in an area near Liutiao Lake. The area had no official name and was not militarily important, but it was only eight hundred metres away from the Chinese garrison of Beidaying, where troops under the command of the "Young Marshal" Zhang Xueliang were stationed; the Japanese plan was to attract Chinese troops by an explosion and blame them for having caused the disturbance in order to provide a pretext for a formal Japanese invasion. In addition, they intended to make the sabotage appear more convincing as a calculated Chinese attack on an essential target, thereby making the expected Japanese reaction appear as a legitimate measure to protect a vital railway of industrial and economic importance; the Japanese press labeled the site "Liǔtiáo Ditch" or "Liǔtiáo Bridge", when in reality, the site was a small railway section laid on an area of fla
Workers' Party of North Korea
The Workers' Party of North Korea was a communist party in North Korea from 1946 to 1949 and was a predecessor of the current Workers' Party of Korea. It was founded at a congress on 28–30 August 1946, by the merger of the North Korean Branch Bureau of the Communist Party of Korea and the New People's Party of Korea. Kim Tu-bong, the leader of the New People's Party, was elected Chairman of the party. Vice Chairmen of the party were Kim Il-sung. At the time of establishment, the party is believed to have had about 366 000 members organized in around 12,000 party cells; the merger of the North Korea Bureau of the Communist Party of Korea and the New People's Party can be seen as analogous to similar mergers taking place in Eastern Europe in the years following the Second World War, such as the formation of the Socialist Unity Party of Germany and the Hungarian Working People's Party. The merger of the two parties was not uncomplicated. Between the two there were differences in terms of social background of cadres and ideological profiles.
The New People's Party had a significant following of intellectuals whereas the Communist Party was based amongst workers and peasants. Moreover, the Korean communists had been riddled by internal differences, different communist factions were present in the new unified party. At the time of the founding of the new party discussions emerged on the role of Marxism-Leninism as the ideological foundation of the party. At the inaugural congress of the party, Kim Il-sung stated that "…the Workers Party is a combat unit and the vanguard of the working masses. We must fight with our utmost to maintain the Party's purity and iron discipline. If we were to fight against the enemy without meeting these conditions within our ranks, it would be nothing less than folly.", arguing in favor of maintaining a Marxist-Leninist orientation. Speaking, the party consisted of four separate internal factions, the Soviet Koreans faction, the Domestic faction, the Yan'an faction and the Guerrilla faction; these factional divisions were inherited from the Communist Party of Korea, one of them was prevalent in the Workers Party of South Korea.
The Soviet Koreans, led by Ho Ka-i, were made up of waves of ethnic Koreans who were born or raised in Russia after their families moved there starting in the 1870s. Some of them had returned to Korea covertly as Communist operatives in the 1920s and 1930s but most were members of the Red Army or civilians who were stationed in North Korea following World War II. Many came as Russian language instructors; this grouping had played an important role in building up the party structure of the Communist Party in Pyongyang directly after the Second World War. The Domestic faction, were Korean communists who never left the country but engaged in a struggle against the Japanese occupation. Many members of the domestic faction had spent time in Japanese military prisons as a result of their activities. Prominent members of this faction were O Ki-sop, Chong Tal-hyon, Yi Chu-ha, Chu Yong-ha, Kim Yong-bom, Pak Chong-ae, Chang Shi-u and Yi Chu-yon; this grouping was politically tied to the old leadership of the Communist Party of Korea based in Seoul, at this point represented by the Workers Party of South Korea led by Pak Hon-yong.
The Yan'an faction, led first by Mu Chong and by Kim Tu-bong and Choe Chang-ik, were those Korean exiles who had lived in China's Shaanxi province and joined the Communist Party of China whose regional headquarters were at Yanan. They had formed their own party, the North-Chinese League for the Independence of Korea, when they returned to North Korea from exile they formed the New People's Party which merged with the Communist Party in 1946. Many members of the Yanan faction had fought in the Chinese 8th and New 4th Armies and thus had close relations with Mao Zedong; the Guerrilla faction, led by Kim Il-sung, was made up of former Korean guerrillas, active in Manchuria after it was occupied by Japan in 1931. Many in this group ended up fleeing Manchuria, as their armed resistance was suppressed, moved to the Soviet Union where many of them, including Kim, were drafted into the Red Army. At about 130 to 140 members, it was the weakest of the factions, but ended up on top as the leading faction.
The factions were represented proportionately in the leading bodies of the party. In the first politburo of the party the Soviet faction had three members, the Yanan faction had six, the domestic faction had two and the guerrilla faction had two; the guerrilla faction was the smallest of the factions in the Central Committee but they had the advantage of having Kim Il-sung, who led the North Korean government and was influential within the party. Moreover, Kim Il-sung was backed by the Soviet Union. Both parties had belonged to the North Korean Fatherland United Democratic Front, the unified party became a dominant force in the front after the merger; the party held 36% of the seats in the People's Assembly of North Korea and Kim Tu-bong became the Chairman of the Assembly. Kim Il-sung became the Chairman of the People's Committee of North Korea, the provisional government structure. In the Village People's Committee and Ward People's Committee elections of 1947, 57.7% of the 70 454 seats were held by members of the Workers Party.
At the meeting of the Presidium of the Central Committee of the Party on September 16, 1947, Kim Il-sung gave a speech of the cultural policy of the party. The speech was published as'On Developing Literature and the Arts and Activating Mass Cultural Work', remains the basis for cultural policy in the DPRK. In early 1947, a purge was undertaken against the'domes