Treaty of Stettin (1630)
The Treaty of Stettin or Alliance of Stettin was the legal framework for the occupation of the Duchy of Pomerania by the Swedish Empire during the Thirty Years' War. Concluded on 25 August or 4 September 1630, it was predated to 10 July or 20 July 1630, the date of the Swedish Landing. Sweden assumed military control, used the Pomeranian bridgehead for campaigns into Central and Southern Germany. After the death of the last Pomeranian duke in 1637, forces of the Holy Roman Empire invaded Pomerania to enforce Brandenburg's claims on succession, but they were defeated by Sweden in the ensuing battles; some of the Pomeranian nobility had supported Brandenburg. By the end of the war, the treaty was superseded by the Peace of Westphalia and the subsequent Treaty of Stettin, when Pomerania was partitioned into a western, Swedish part, an eastern, Brandenburgian part. Following the Capitulation of Franzburg in 1627, the Duchy of Pomerania was occupied by forces of Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor, under command of Albrecht von Wallenstein.
The Swedish intervention in the Thirty Years' War began with the active military support of Stralsund, a Pomeranian Hanseatic port which since the Battle of Stralsund resisted imperial occupation with Danish and Swedish support. Sweden and Stralsund concluded an alliance scheduled for twenty years; the Danish campaigns in Pomerania and other parts of the Holy Roman Empire ended with the Battle of Wolgast in 1628 and the subsequent Treaty of Lübeck in 1629. Except for Stralsund, all of Northern Germany was occupied by forces of the emperor and the Catholic League. In 1629, the emperor initiated the Re-Catholization of these Protestant territories by issuing the Edict of Restitution; the Truce of Altmark ended the Polish–Swedish War in September 1629, releasing the military capacities needed for an invasion of the Holy Roman Empire. Plans of Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden for such an intervention were approved of by a Riksdag commission in the winter of 1627/28, approval by the Riksråd followed in January 1629.
On 26 June or 6 July 1630, Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden with a fleet of 27 ships arrived at the island of Usedom and made landfall near Peenemünde with 13,000 troops. The core of the invasion force consisted of trained peasants, recruited to the Swedish army following Gustavus Adolphus' military reforms of 1623; the western flank of the Swedish invasion force was cleared from Stralsund, which served as the basis for Swedish forces clearing Rügen and the adjacent mainland from 29 March until June 1630. The stated Swedish motives were: Exclusion of Sweden from the Treaty of Lübeck, Imperial support for Poland in the Polish–Swedish War, Liberation of German Protestantism, Restitution of German liberty; the Swedish landing force faced Albrecht von Wallenstein's imperial occupation forces in Pomerania, commanded by Torquato Conti. Large parts of the imperial army were unable to react. Wallenstein, who two years before had expelled the Danish landing forces at the same place was about to be dismissed.
On 9 July, Swedish forces took Stettin, but throughout 1630 were content with establishing themselves in the Oder estuary. The first draft of a Swedish-Pomeranian alliance, which the Pomeranian ducal councillors had worked out since 20 July 1630, was rejected by Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden. A second draft was returned to the council together with a list of modifications Sweden insisted on. On 22 August, actual Swedish-Pomeranian negotiations started, which Gustavus Adolphus on 1 September joined in person; the final negotiations lasted from 2–4 September. The actual agreement was made on 25 August or 4 September, but pre-dated to 10 July or 20 July 1630; the alliance was to be "eternal". The treaty included the alliance with Stralsund of 1628, concluded when the town resisted the Capitulation of Franzburg and was thus besieged by Albrecht von Wallenstein's army. Subsequent treaties were the "Pomeranian Defense Constitution" of 30 August 1630, the "Quartering Order" of 1631; the Swedish king and the high-ranking officers were given absolute control over the duchy's military affairs, while the political and ecclesial power remained with the dukes and towns.
The duchy's foreign affairs were to be within the responsibility of the Swedish crown. The amending treaties were necessary because the Pomeranian nobility had insisted on having the shift in military control of the duchy to Sweden separate from the Swedish-Pomeranian alliance; the Pomeranian contributions detailed in the treaties amounted to an annual 100,000 Talers. Furthermore, Pomerania was obliged to supply four Swedish garrisons; when Bogislaw XIV, Duke of Pomerania had concluded the alliance, he wrote a letter to Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor, reading "This union is not directed against the majesty of the Emperor or the Empire, but is rather designed to maintain the constitution of the Empire in its ancient state of liberty and tranquillity, to protect the religious and secular settlements against the ravagers and disturbers of the public peace, thereby not only to leave intact the relationship which binds us, Bogislaw XIV to His Imperial Roman Majesty but to preserve our lawful duty and obligations to the same."
Bogislaw XIV further blamed the "barbarities and cruelties of the Imperial soldiers" for leaving him no choice. Yet, Ferdinand II d
Early history of Pomerania
After the glaciers of the Ice Age in the Early Stone Age withdrew from the area, which since about 1000 AD is called Pomerania, in what are now northern Germany and Poland, they left a tundra. First humans appeared. A climate change in 8000 BC allowed hunters and foragers of the Ertebølle-Ellerbek culture to continuously inhabit the area; these people became influenced by farmers of the Linear Pottery culture who settled in southern Pomerania. The hunters of the Ertebølle-Ellerbek culture became farmers of the Funnelbeaker culture in 3000 BC; the Havelland culture dominated in the Uckermark from 2500 to 2000 BC. In 2400 BC, the Corded Ware culture introduced the domestic horse. Both Linear Pottery and Corded Ware culture have been associated with Indo-Europeans. Except for Western Pomerania, the Funnelbeaker culture was replaced by the Globular Amphora culture a thousand years later. During the Bronze Age, Western Pomerania was part of the Nordic Bronze Age cultures, while east of the Oder river the Lusatian culture dominated.
Throughout the Iron Age, the people of the western Pomeranian areas belonged to the Jastorf culture, while the Lusatian culture of the East was succeeded by the Pomeranian culture in 150 BC by the Oksywie culture, at the beginning of the first millennium by the Wielbark culture. While the Jastorf culture is associated with Germanic peoples, the ethnic category of the Lusatian culture and its successors is debated. Veneti, Germanic peoples like Goths and Gepids, Slavs are assumed to have been the bearers of these cultures or parts thereof. From the 3rd century onwards, many settlements were abandoned, marking the beginning of the migration period in Pomerania, it is assumed that Burgundians and Gepids with parts of the Rugians left Pomerania during that stage, while some Veneti and other, Germanic groups remained, formed the Gustow and late Wielbark cultures, which existed in Pomerania until the 6th century. The name Pomerania comes from Slavic po more, which means " by the sea". 20,000 years ago the territory of present-day Pomerania was covered with ice, which did not start to recede until the late period of the Old Stone Age or Paleolithic some 13,000 years BC, when the Scandinavian glacier receded northwards.
At the site of the Baltic Sea was the cold, saline Yoldia Sea, succeeded by the fresh water Ancylus Lake. Hamburgian reindeer hunters were the first humans to occupy the plains freed from the retreating glaciers in north-central Europe. However, whether they roamed Pomerania is uncertain: though there are finds in neighboring regions of Denmark and Poland, there are no finds from Pomerania which can be associated to the Hamburgian techno-complex without doubt. Though finds resembling Hamburgian typology were made in Tanowo, these finds stem from a era; the Federmesser and related Bromme techno-complexes are archaeologically traceable in Pomerania, but finds are sparse. That may be due to Pomerania's location within the fall-out zone of the Laacher See eruption, which in 10970 BC covered the area with a tephra layer and is responsible for the emergence of the Bromme techno-complex from the Federmesser one by separating it from the southern groups. A worked giant deer antler and a sharpened horse rib from the Endingen IV Federmesser site were 14C-dated to 11555 ±100 BP and 11830 ±50 BP and together with a giant deer skull from Mecklenburg represent the oldest dated human traces in northeastern Germany.
About 8000 BC, the climate started to change, the former subarctic tundra was transformed into woodlands. About 7,500 years ago, the Litorina Sea, a predecessor of the Baltic Sea evolved, with its southern coastline being close to the current one; the paleolithic Ahrensburg culture was succeeded by the early mesolithic Maglemosian culture, whose members were not only hunters, but foragers and fishermen. According to their tools, they are grouped as first belonging to the Komornica and Duvensee culture to the Chojnice-Pienki culture, they used flint stone microliths. Flintstone tools of hunters and foragers from the Mesolithic Age were found at various sites. Most of the artefacts date back to the late Mesolithic Age, they belong to the Ertebølle-Ellerbek culture, a culture that settled the coastline and used ceramics. While hunters, it is assumed that the mesolithic people were foraging and farming on a most primitive scale, they knew how to build dugout canoes, with these they travelled down the rivers into the hinterlands.
The starting point for these expeditions was Rügen. The move from Middle to Late Stone Age is marked by the change in the way of life from hunting and foraging to farming and livestock breeding; this took place over a long period. The people of the Ertebølle culture were thereby inspired by the Middle German Linear Pottery culture, whose northernmost frontier was southern Pomerania. From 3000 to 1900 BC Pomerania was settled by farmers and herders of the Funnelbeaker culture, that had evolved from the previous Mesolithic cultures and Linear Pottery culture influence. During this period, Western Pomerania was more densely settled than before on smooth hills near the water. Artefacts and settlements from this periods have been found at various sites in Western Pomerania, e.g. around the Bay of Greifswald. The Funnelbeaker culture people erected numerous Megalith tombs. From 2500 to 2000 BC, the Ucker
Treaty of Stettin (1653)
The Treaty of Stettin of 4 May 1653 settled a dispute between Brandenburg and Sweden, who both claimed succession in the Duchy of Pomerania after the extinction of the local House of Pomerania during the Thirty Years' War. Brandenburg's claims were based on the Treaty of Grimnitz, while Sweden's claims were based on the Treaty of Stettin; the parties had agreed on a partition of the Swedish-held duchy in the Peace of Westphalia, with the Treaty of Stettin determined the actual border between the partitions. Western Pomerania became Swedish Pomerania, Farther Pomerania became Brandenburgian Pomerania. During the war, Sweden had occupied the Duchy of Pomerania in 1630; the last Griffin duke Bogislaw XIV died in 1637, his duchy was supposed to be inherited by Brandenburg, who based her claims on in the Treaty of Grimnitz. This however was hindered by the Swedish presence; the 1648 Peace of Westphalia ended the war, Pomerania was to be partitioned between Brandenburg and Sweden. The 1650 Treaty of Nuremberg defined the areas that should be under control of Sweden and Brandenburg, respectively.
The precise border was drawn in the 1653 Treaty of Stettin, partitioning the Duchy of Pomerania along a line running east of the Oder river. The areas west of this line hence were referred to as Swedish Pomerania; the areas east of the line were to be transferred to Brandenburg. Half of the customs revenues of the Farther Pomeranian towns were the prerogative of Sweden after her withdrawal; the border was determined to run north from the Brandenburg-Pomeranian border, leaving Komturei Greifenhagen and Komturei Wildenbruch with Sweden, to run towards Woltiner See between Wierow and Schönfeld, from there run north between Damerow and Greifenhagen, Klebow and Brünken, Hökendorf and Buchholz meet the Plöne river, from there run through the Friedrichswalde forest, cross the Ihna, circumvent Gollnow and Hohenbrück, meet the Martinscher See, circumvent Kammin and Fritzow and meet the Baltic Sea between Raddack and Lüchentin. On 19 July 1653, the first Landtag in Brandenburgian Pomerania assembled in Stargard.
In 1654, the Swedish withdrawal from Farther Pomerania was complete. The treaty consolidated Sweden's control of the Oder estituary, adding to Sweden's gain of control at the lower Weser and Elbe rivers from the Peace of Westphalia. Thus, the treaty consolidated Sweden's control over the mouths of all major German rivers, except for the Rhine. Swedish Pomerania became the largest territorial foothold of Sweden in Germany; the border as agreed on in the treaty was shifted westwards after the Scanian War in the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, shifted far west to the Peene and Peenestrom rivers after the Great Northern War in the Treaty of Stockholm. Treaty of Stettin Treaty of Stettin Treaty of Stettin Annotated edition of the treaty at IEG Mainz
Thirty Years' War
The Thirty Years' War was a war fought in Central Europe between 1618 and 1648. One of the most destructive conflicts in human history, it resulted in eight million fatalities not only from military engagements but from violence and plague. Casualties were overwhelmingly and disproportionately inhabitants of the Holy Roman Empire, most of the rest being battle deaths from various foreign armies. In terms of proportional German casualties and destruction, it was surpassed only by the period January to May 1945. A war between various Protestant and Catholic states in the fragmented Holy Roman Empire, it developed into a more general conflict involving most of the European great powers; these states employed large mercenary armies, the war became less about religion and more of a continuation of the France–Habsburg rivalry for European political pre-eminence. The war was preceded by the election of the new Holy Roman Emperor, Ferdinand II, who tried to impose religious uniformity on his domains, forcing Roman Catholicism on its peoples.
The northern Protestant states, angered by the violation of their rights to choose, granted in the Peace of Augsburg, banded together to form the Protestant Union. Ferdinand II was a devout Roman Catholic and much more intolerant than his predecessor, Rudolf II, who ruled from the Protestant city of Prague. Ferdinand's policies were considered pro-Catholic and anti-Protestant; these events caused widespread fears throughout northern and central Europe, triggered the Protestant Bohemians living in the relatively loose dominion of Habsburg Austria to revolt against their nominal ruler, Ferdinand II. After the so-called Defenestration of Prague deposed the Emperor's representatives in Prague, the Protestant estates and Catholic Habsburgs started gathering allies for war; the Protestant Bohemians ousted the Habsburgs and elected the Calvinist Frederick V, Elector of the Rhenish Palatinate as the new king of the Kingdom of Bohemia. Frederick took the offer without the support of the Protestant Union.
The southern states Roman Catholic, were angered by this. Led by Bavaria, these states formed the Catholic League to expel Frederick in support of the Emperor; the Empire soon crushed the perceived Protestant rebellion in the Battle of White Mountain, executing leading Bohemian aristocrats shortly after. Protestant rulers across Europe unanimously condemned the Emperor's action. After the atrocities committed in Bohemia, Saxony gave its support to the Protestant Union and decided to fight back. Sweden, at the time a rising military power, soon intervened in 1630 under its king Gustavus Adolphus, transforming what had been the Emperor's attempt to curb the Protestant states into a full-scale war in Europe. Habsburg Spain, wishing to crush the Dutch rebels in the Netherlands and the Dutch Republic, intervened under the pretext of helping its dynastic Habsburg ally, Austria. No longer able to tolerate the encirclement of two major Habsburg powers on its borders, Catholic France entered the coalition on the side of the Protestants in order to counter the Habsburgs.
The Thirty Years' War devastated entire regions, resulting in high mortality among the populations of the German and Italian states, the Crown of Bohemia, the Southern Netherlands. Both mercenaries and soldiers in fighting armies traditionally looted or extorted tribute to get operating funds, which imposed severe hardships on the inhabitants of occupied territories; the war bankrupted most of the combatant powers. The Dutch Republic enjoyed contrasting fortune; the Thirty Years' War ended with the Treaty of Osnabrück and the Treaties of Münster, part of the wider Peace of Westphalia. The war altered the previous political order of European powers; the rise of Bourbon France, the curtailing of Habsburg ambition, the ascendancy of Sweden as a great power created a new balance of power on the continent, with France emerging from the war strengthened and dominant in the latter part of the 17th century. The Peace of Augsburg, signed by Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, confirmed the result of the Diet of Speyer, ending the war between German Lutherans and Catholics, establishing that: Rulers of the 224 German states could choose the religion of their realms.
Subjects had to follow that emigrate. Prince-bishoprics and other states ruled by Catholic clergy were excluded and should remain Catholic. Prince-bishops who converted to Lutheranism were required to give up their territories. Lutherans could keep the territory they had taken from the Catholic Church since the Peace of Passau in 1552. Although the Peace of Augsburg created a temporary end to hostilities, it did not resolve the underlying religious conflict, made yet more complex by the spread of Calvinism throughout Germany in the years that followed; this added a third major faith to the region, but its position was not recognized in any way by the Augsburg terms, to which only Catholicism and Lutheranism were parties. The rulers of the nations neighboring the Holy Roman Empir
Imperial immediacy was a privileged constitutional and political status rooted in German feudal law under which the Imperial estates of the Holy Roman Empire such as Imperial cities, prince-bishoprics and secular principalities, individuals such as the Imperial knights, were declared free from the authority of any local lord and placed under the direct authority of the Emperor, of the institutions of the Empire such as the Diet, the Imperial Chamber of Justice and the Aulic Council. The granting of immediacy began in the Early Middle Ages, for the immediate bishops and cities the main beneficiaries of that status, immediacy could be exacting and meant being subjected to the fiscal and hospitality demands of their overlord, the Emperor. However, with the gradual exit of the Emperor from the centre stage from the mid-13th century onwards, holders of imperial immediacy found themselves vested with considerable rights and powers exercised by the emperor; as confirmed by the Peace of Westphalia in 1648, the possession of imperial immediacy came with a particular form of territorial authority known as territorial superiority.
In today's terms, it would be understood as a limited form of sovereignty. Several immediate estates held the privilege of attending meetings of the Reichstag in person, including an individual vote: the seven Prince-electors designated by the Golden Bull of 1356 the other Princes of the Holy Roman Empire secular: Dukes, Landgraves et al. ecclesiastical: Prince-Bishops, Prince-Abbots and Prince-Provosts. They formed the Imperial Estates, together with 100 immediate counts, 40 Imperial prelates and 50 Imperial Cities who only enjoyed a collective vote. Further immediate estates not represented in the Reichstag were the Imperial Knights as well as several abbeys and minor localities, the remains of those territories which in the High Middle Ages had been under the direct authority of the Emperor and since had been given in pledge to the princes. At the same time, there were classes of "princes" with titular immediacy to the Emperor but who exercised such privileges if at all. For example, the Bishops of Chiemsee and Seckau were subordinate to the prince-bishop of Salzburg, but were formally princes of the Empire.
Additional advantages might include the rights to collect taxes and tolls, to hold a market, to mint coins, to bear arms, to conduct legal proceedings. The last of these might include the so-called Blutgericht through which capital punishment could be administered; these rights varied according to the legal patents granted by the emperor. As pointed out by Jonathan Israel in 1528 the Dutch province of Overijssel tried to arrange its submission to Emperor Charles V in his capacity as Holy Roman Emperor rather than as his being the Duke of Burgundy. If successful, that would have evoked Imperial immediacy and would have put Overijssel in a stronger negotiating position, for example given the province the ability to appeal to the Imperial Diet in any debate with Charles. For that reason, the Emperor rejected and blocked Overijssel's attempt. Disadvantages might include direct intervention by imperial commissions, as happened in several of the south-western cities after the Schmalkaldic War, the potential restriction or outright loss of held legal patents.
Immediate rights might be lost if the Emperor and/or the Imperial Diet could not defend them against external aggression, as occurred in the French Revolutionary wars and the Napoleonic Wars. The Treaty of Lunéville in 1801 required the emperor to renounce all claims to the portions of the Holy Roman Empire west of the Rhine. At the last meeting of the Imperial Diet in 1802–03 called the German Mediatisation, most of the free imperial cities and the ecclesiastic states lost their imperial immediacy and were absorbed by several dynastic states; the practical application of the rights of immediacy was complex. Such contemporaries as Goethe and Fichte called the Empire a monstrosity. Voltaire wrote of the Empire as something neither Holy nor Roman, nor an Empire, in comparison to the British Empire, saw its German counterpart as an abysmal failure that reached its pinnacle of success in the early Middle Ages and declined thereafter. Prussian historian Heinrich von Treitschke described it in the 19th century as having become "a chaotic mess of rotted imperial forms and unfinished territories".
For nearly a century after the publication of James Bryce's monumental work The Holy Roman Empire, this view prevailed among most English-speaking historians of the Early Modern period, contributed to the development of the Sonderweg theory of the German past. A revisionist view popular in Germany but adopted elsewhere argued that "though not powerful politically or militarily, was extraordinarily diverse and free by the standards of Europe at the time". Pointing out that people like Goethe meant "monster" as a compliment in modern understanding, The Economist has called the Empire "a great place to live... a union with which its subjects identified, whose loss distressed them greatly" and praised its cultural and religious diversity, saying that it "allowed a degree of liberty and diversity, unimaginable in the neighbouring kingdoms" and that "ordinary folk, including women, had
Peace of Westphalia
The Peace of Westphalia was a series of peace treaties signed between May and October 1648 in the Westphalian cities of Osnabrück and Münster ending the European wars of religion, including the Thirty Years' War. The treaties of Westphalia brought to an end a calamitous period of European history which caused the deaths of eight million people. Scholars have identified Westphalia as the beginning of the modern international system, based on the concept of Westphalian sovereignty, though this interpretation has been challenged; the negotiation process was complex. Talks took place in two different cities, as each side wanted to meet on territory under its own control. A total of 109 delegations arrived to represent the belligerent states, but not all delegations were present at the same time. Three treaties were signed to end each of the overlapping wars: the Peace of Münster, the Treaty of Münster, the Treaty of Osnabrück; these treaties ended the Thirty Years' War in the Holy Roman Empire, with the Habsburgs and their Catholic allies on one side, battling the Protestant powers allied with France.
The treaties ended the Eighty Years' War between Spain and the Dutch Republic, with Spain formally recognising the independence of the Dutch. The Peace of Westphalia established the precedent of peace established by diplomatic congress. A new system of political order arose in central Europe, based upon peaceful coexistence among sovereign states. Inter-state aggression was to be held in check by a balance of power, a norm was established against interference in another state's domestic affairs; as European influence spread across the globe, these Westphalian principles the concept of sovereign states, became central to international law and to the prevailing world order. Peace negotiations between France and the Habsburgs began in Cologne in 1641; these negotiations were blocked by Cardinal Richelieu of France, who insisted on the inclusion of all his allies, whether sovereign countries or states within the Holy Roman Empire. In Hamburg and Lübeck and the Holy Roman Empire negotiated the Treaty of Hamburg with the intervention of Richelieu.
The Holy Roman Empire and Sweden declared the preparations of Cologne and the Treaty of Hamburg to be preliminaries of an overall peace agreement. The main peace negotiations took place in Westphalia, in the neighboring cities of Münster and Osnabrück. Both cities were maintained as demilitarized zones for the negotiations. In Münster, negotiations took place between the Holy Roman Empire and France, as well as between the Dutch Republic and Spain. Münster had been, since its re-Catholicisation in 1535, a mono-denominational community, it housed the Chapter of the Prince-Bishopric of Münster. Only Roman Catholic worship was permitted, while Lutheranism were prohibited. Sweden preferred to negotiate with the Holy Roman Empire in Osnabrück, controlled by the Protestant forces. Osnabrück was a bidenominational Lutheran and Catholic city, with two Lutheran churches and two Catholic churches; the city council was Lutheran, the burghers so, but the city housed the Catholic Chapter of the Prince-Bishopric of Osnabrück and had many other Catholic inhabitants.
Osnabrück had been subjugated by troops of the Catholic League from 1628 to 1633 and taken by Lutheran Sweden. The peace negotiations had no exact beginning and ending, because the 109 delegations never met in a plenary session. Instead, various delegations arrived between 1643 and 1646 and left between 1647 and 1649; the largest number of diplomats were present between January 1646 and July 1647. Delegations had been sent by 16 European states, 66 Imperial States representing the interests of 140 Imperial States, 27 interest groups representing 38 groups; the French delegation was headed by Henri II d'Orléans, Duke of Longueville and further comprised the diplomats Claude d'Avaux and Abel Servien. The Swedish delegation was headed by Count Johan Oxenstierna and was assisted by Baron Johan Adler Salvius; the Imperial delegation was headed by Count Maximilian von Trautmansdorff. His aides were: In Münster, Johann Ludwig von Nassau-Hadamar and Isaak Volmar. In Osnabrück, Johann Maximilian von Lamberg and Reichshofrat Johann Krane.
Philip IV of Spain was represented by two delegations: The Spanish delegation was headed by Gaspar de Bracamonte y Guzmán, notably included the diplomats and writers Diego de Saavedra Fajardo, Bernardino de Rebolledo. The Franche Comté and the Spanish Netherlands were represented by Antoine Brun; the papal nuncio in Cologne, Fabio Chigi, the Venetian envoy Alvise Contarini acted as mediators. Various Imperial States of the Holy Roman Empire sent delegations. Brandenburg sent several representatives, including Vollmar; the Dutch Republic sent a delegation of six, including two delegates from the province of Holland and Willem Ripperda from one of the other provinces. The Swiss Confederacy was represented by Johann Rudolf Wettstein. Three separate treaties constituted the peace settlement; the Peace of Münster was signed by the Dutch Republic and the Kingdom of Spain on 30 January 1648, was ratified in Münster on 15 May 1648. Two complementary treaties were signed on 24 October 1648: The Treaty of Münster, between the Holy Roman Emperor and France, along with their respective allies The Treaty of Osnabrück, between the Holy Roman Empire and Sweden, along with their respective allies.
The power asserted by Ferdinand III was stripped from him and re
Province of Pomerania (1653–1815)
The Province of Pomerania was a province of Brandenburg-Prussia, the Kingdom of Prussia. After the Thirty Years' War, the province consisted of Farther Pomerania. Subsequently, the Lauenburg and Bütow Land and Swedish Pomerania south of the Peene river were joined into the province; the province was succeeded by the Province of Pomerania set up in 1815. The name Pomerania comes from Slavic po more, which means "Land at the Sea". Farther Pomerania was made a province of Prussia after the Peace of Westphalia ended the Thirty Years' War in 1648. During the war, the noble House of Pomerania, ruling Pomerania since the 1120s as Dukes of Pomerania, became extinct in the male line with the death of Bogislaw XIV in 1637. Throughout the existence of the Griffin duchy, Brandenburg claimed overlordship and was asserted of Pomerania inheritance in numerous treaties. Yet, Sweden had been one of the most important players in the war and as such, she was awarded some of her territorial gains in Pomerania, after the war by the Peace of Westphalia, thwarting Brandenburg-Prussia's ambitions for inheritance of the whole former Duchy of Pomerania.
During the Second Northern War, Brandenburg-Prussia and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth concluded the Treaty of Wehlau on 19 September 1657, the subsequent Treaty of Bromberg. The Commonwealth therein gave Brandeburg-Prussia the Lauenburg and Bütow Land as a fief, pawned Draheim to Brandenburg; the Peace of Oliva on 3 May 1660, confirmed Brandenburg's rights in the Lauenburg and Bütow Land as well as in Draheim. Swedish Pomerania was occupied by Denmark and Brandenburg in the Brandenburg-Swedish theater of the Scanian War from 1675–1679, whereby Denmark claimed Rügen and Brandenburg the rest of Pomerania. Sweden reestablished control after the Peace of Saint-Germain-en-Laye on 28 June 1679; this tempted Frederick William, Elector of Brandenburg, to utter "Exoriare aliquis nostris ex ossibus ultor! ". The strip of land on the east side of the Oder, except for Gollnow and Altdamm, was given to Brandenburg. Gollnow and Altdamm were held by Brandenburg as a pawn in exchange for reparations, until these were paid in 1693.
During the Great Northern War, Stettin was sieged by Russian and Saxon forces led by prince Menschikov, surrendered on 29 September. According to the Treaty of Schwedt on 6 October, Menschikov was paid his war costs by Prussia, Stettin was occupied by Holstein and Brandenburg troops. On 12 June 1714, king Friedrich Wilhelm I of Brandenburg-Prussia concluded a treaty with the Russian Empire confirming her gains in Swedish Ingermanland and Estonia, in turn received Russian confirmation of his gains in southern Swedish Pomerania. On 22 November 1714, King Charles XII of Sweden returned from Turkey to lead the Swedish defense in Pomerania in person. In turn, Holstein's forces in Stettin were arrested as a Swedish ally by Prussia. In February 1715, Charles seized Wolgast in an advance to reestablish Swedish control in Western Pomerania. On 1 May 1715, Prussia declared war on Sweden. In the same month and Denmark joined the Russian-Prussian treaty of 1714; the allied forces subsequently occupied all of Pomerania except for Stralsund.
In the Battle of Stralsund Charles XII of Sweden led the defense until 22 December 1715, when he evacuated to Lund. In the Treaty of Stockholm, concluded on 21 January 1720, Prussia was allowed to retain its conquest, including Stettin. By this, Sweden ceded the parts east of the Oder River, won in 1648 as well as Western Pomerania south of the Peene river and the islands of Wollin and Usedom to Brandenburg-Prussia in turn for a 2 million Taler payment; the capital was moved to Stettin. After the Battle of Zorndorf in 1759, Russian troops made their way into Pomerania and laid a siege on Kolberg; when Kolberg withstood, the Russian troops ravaged Farther Pomerania. Sweden and Russia invaded Brandenburgian Pomerania throughout the years 1760 and 1761. Kolberg was again made a target, withstood a second siege, but not the third one in 1761. In the winter of the same year, the Russian troops made Farther Pomerania their winter refuge. In 1762, Prussia made peace with Russia. Brandenburgian Pomerania was left ravaged and the civilian death toll amounted to 72,000.
The Swedish forces left Kolberg and were replaced by Brandenburgian troops on 6 June 1653. Three days the prince elector called the nobility to assemble at a Landtag in Stargard, that constituted on 19 July 1654, to decide on the further administrative system of the province; the Landtag decrees along with a constitution were issued on 11 July 1654. Kolberg was made the new capital. Troops were to be permanently garrisoned in the town, this was to be paid for by the province; the province was to be governed by a "Regierung", a "Kammer", a "Rentei", for administration of the domains), a "Hofgericht" and a "Konsistorium". The first president was Ewald von Kleist; because the president was occupied with diplomatic missions and representation of the province in Berlin, the chancellor was instead supervising the province's administration. The province was divided into seven knightly districts the territories of eight local noble houses, the County of Naugard. Furthermore, there were the ducal domains ("Amt"