Miramichi, New Brunswick
Miramichi is the largest city in northern New Brunswick, Canada. It is situated at the mouth of the Miramichi River; the Miramichi Valley is the second longest valley in New Brunswick, after the Saint John River Valley. The city of Miramichi was formed in 1995 through the forced amalgamation of two towns and Chatham, several smaller communities, including Douglastown and Nelson; the local service districts of Nordin, Chatham Head, Douglasfield. The amalgamation included portions of the former local service district of Ferry Road-Russellville and portions of Chatham Parish, Glenelg Parish and Nelson Parish. Long prior to European settlement, the Miramichi region was home to members of the Mi'kmaq first nation. For the Mi'kmaq, Beaubears Island, at the junction of the Northwest and Main Southwest branches of the Miramichi River was a natural meeting point. Following the European discovery of the Americas, the Miramichi became part of the French colony of Acadia. About 1648, Nicolas Denys, Sieur de Fronsac, established a fort and trading post, Fort Fronsac, on the Miramichi.
This establishment was constructed "on the North side of the Miramichi, at the forks of the river". According to W. F. Ganong, a Recollet Mission was established in 1686 on the Miramichi "in Nelson", "probably near Beaubear's Island". Nicolas Denys' son, Richard Denys, was placed in charge of the fort and trading post, in 1688 Richard states, "Miramichi is the principal place of my residence", describes his establishment as including about a dozen French and more than 500 indigenous inhabitants. In 1691 Richard died at sea; the following account from the Dictionary of Miramichi Biography describes in greater detail the extent of the Denys' Miramichi base:"The domain of Nicholas Denys, governor of Acadia, extended along the southerly side of the Gulf of St Lawrence, from Miscou Island to Cape Breton. It may have included a trading post at Miramichi in the 1640s, but the first extensive French establishment on the river was that of Denys's son Richard Denys, he began to cultivate land along the Miramichi in 1684.
In 1688 he had a fort with gun emplacements, a house built of freestone, a storehouse. There were three French families at the fort, he had men employed catching fish. Nearby there were eighty Micmac wigwams."The site of Denys's establishment, considered to have been on the north side of the Miramichi opposite the Point - that is, near the pulp mill site in Newcastle - was abandoned by 1691. In August of that year, when he was thirty-seven years old, Denys set sail for Quebec in the ship Saint-François-Xavier, never heard of again, his estate passed to his widow in 1694 and was still owned by members of the family in Quebec in the 1750s."By about 1740 French villages were well established on Miramichi Bay at Bay du Vin and Neguac. In the current city of Miramichi, a larger village existed at Canadian Point, a town comprising 200 houses, a chapel, provision stores occupied "Beaubear's Point"; the French maintained batteries of guns at French Fort Cove. The French and Indian War erupted in 1754.
During the war many Acadian homes were destroyed by the British, their residents were deported. In 1757 the French general, Charles Deschamps de Boishébert et de Raffetot attempted to evade British troops in the Saint John River Valley and the Bay of Fundy, by leading 900 French refugees up the northeast coast of New Brunswick to Miramichi, establishing a camp, "Camp de l’Espérance", on Beaubears Island. After the Siege of Louisbourg, Boishebert led a group of Acadians from St. Peter's, Nova Scotia to Miramichi. Over 200 of the refugees died at the camp. On 13 August 1758 French officer Boishebert left Miramichi with 400 soldiers, including Acadians from Port Toulouse, for Fort St George, his detachment was caught in an ambush and had to withdraw. They went on to raid Friendship, where British settlers were killed and others taken prisoner; this was Boishébert’s last Acadian expedition. From there and the Acadians went to Quebec and fought in the Battle of Quebec. In September 1758 Colonel James Murray reported spending two days in Miramichi Bay during the Gulf of St. Lawrence Campaign looking unsuccessfully for Acadians, but destroying anything he found.
This included burning the first stone church built in New Brunswick. Murray did not sail as far west as Beaubear's Island. Most of the surviving Beaubear's Island refugees soon left the Miramichi; some Acadians, however and escaped British attempts at deportation. They established a host of small Acadian communities along the northern and eastern coasts of present-day New Brunswick; the French were defeated at Quebec and Montreal, the remaining Miramichi settlement was subsequently burned to the ground by British Commodore John Byron in 1760. The French North American colonies were ceded to the British in the 1763 Treaty of Paris; the Miramichi thus became a part of the British colony of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick. Benjamin Marston, a surveyor and the first sheriff, reported in 1785 that "a considerable French Village" had existed on Wilson's Point. Although they were preceded by the Mi'kmaq and Acadian peoples, credit for the first permanent white settlement at Miramichi is gr
The Celtic cross is a form of Christian cross featuring a nimbus or ring that emerged in Ireland and Britain in the Early Middle Ages. A type of ringed cross, it became widespread through its use in the stone high crosses erected across the islands in regions evangelized by Irish missionaries, from the 9th through the 12th centuries. A staple of Insular art, the Celtic cross is a Latin cross with a nimbus surrounding the intersection of the arms and stem. Scholars have debated its exact origins; the form gained new popularity during the Celtic Revival of the 19th century. The shape decorated with interlace and other motifs from Insular art, became popular for funerary monuments and other uses, has remained so, spreading well beyond Ireland. Ringed crosses similar to older Continental forms appeared in Ireland and Scotland in incised stone slab artwork and artifacts like the Ardagh chalice. However, the shape achieved its greatest popularity by its use in the monumental stone high crosses, a distinctive and widespread form of Insular art.
These monuments, which first appeared in the 9th century take the form of a ringed cross on a stepped or pyramidal base. The form has obvious structural advantages, reducing the length of unsupported side arms. There are a number of theories as to its origin in Britain; some scholars consider the ring a holdover from earlier wooden crosses, which may have required struts to support the crossarm. Others have seen it as deriving from indigenous Bronze Age art featuring a wheel or disc around a head, or from early Coptic crosses based on the ankh. However, Michael W. Herren, Shirley Ann Brown, others believe it originates in earlier ringed crosses in Christian art. Crosses with a ring representing the celestial sphere developed from the writings of the Church Fathers; the "cosmological cross" is an important motif in Coelius Sedulius's poem Carmen Paschale, known in Ireland by the 7th century. It is not clear; the first examples date to about the 9th century and occur in two groups: at Ahenny in Ireland, at Iona, an Irish monastery off the Scottish coast.
The Ahenny group is earlier. However, it is possible. A variety of crosses bear inscriptions in an early medieval Irish alphabet. Standing crosses in Ireland and areas under Irish influence tend to be shorter and more massive than their Anglo-Saxon equivalents, which have lost their headpieces. Irish examples with a head in cross form include the Cross of Kells, Ardboe High Cross, the crosses at Monasterboice, the Cross of the Scriptures and those in Scotland at Iona and the Kildalton Cross, which may be the earliest to survive in good condition. Surviving, free-standing crosses are in Cornwall, including St Piran's cross at Perranporth, Wales. Other stone crosses are found in the former Northumbria and Scotland, further south in England, where they merge with the similar Anglo-Saxon cross making tradition, in the Ruthwell Cross for example. Most examples in Britain were destroyed during the Protestant Reformation. By about A. D. 1200 the initial wave of cross building came to an end in Ireland.
Popular legend in Ireland says that the Christian cross was introduced by Saint Patrick or Saint Declan, though there are no examples from this early period. It has been claimed that Patrick combined the symbol of Christianity with the sun cross to give pagan followers an idea of the importance of the cross. By linking it with the idea of the life-giving properties of the sun, these two ideas were linked to appeal to pagans. Other interpretations claim that placing the cross on top of the circle represents Christ's supremacy over the pagan sun. Notable high crosses with the Celtic shape in Ireland Ahenny, County Tipperary Ardboe County Tyrone Carndonagh, County Donegal Drumcliff, County Sligo Dysert O'Dea Monastery, County Clare Glendalough County Wicklow St. Kevin's Cross Killamery, County Kilkenny Fahan, County Donegal Monasterboice, County Louth Clonmacnoise Cross of the Scriptures, County Offaly Clonmacnoise North Cross, County Offaly Clonmacnoise South Cross, County Offaly Kells, County Meath Moone, County KildareNotable high crosses in Scotland Iona Abbey Crosses Inchbraoch Cross Kildalton Cross Meigle 1 Cross St. Martin's Cross at Iona AbbeyNotable Celtic crosses in India Mateer Memorial Church, India The Celtic Revival of the mid-19th century led to an increased use and creation of Celtic crosses in Ireland.
In 1853, casts of several historical high crosses were exhibited at the Dublin Industrial Exhibition. In 1857, Henry O'Neill published Illustrations of the Most Interesting of the Sculptured Crosses of Ancient Ireland; these two events stimulated interest in the Celtic cross as a symbol for a renewed sense of heritage within Ireland. New versions of the high cross were designed for fashionable cemetery monuments in Victorian Dublin in the 1860s. From Dublin, the revival spread to the rest of the country and beyond. Since the Celtic Revival, the ringed cross became an emblem of Celtic identity, in addition to its more traditional religious symbolism. Modern interest in the symbol increased because of Euphemia Ritchie; the two worked on the Isle of Iona in Scotland from 1899 to 1940 and popularised use of the Celtic cross in jewelry. Using the Celtic cross in fashion is still popular today. Since its revival in the 1850s, the Celtic cross has been used extensively as grave markers. Straying fr
The Miꞌkmaq or Miꞌgmaq are a First Nations people indigenous to Canada's Atlantic Provinces and the Gaspé Peninsula of Quebec as well as the northeastern region of Maine. They call their national territory Miꞌkmaꞌki; the nation has a population of about 170,000, of whom nearly 11,000 speak Miꞌkmaq, an Eastern Algonquian language. Once written in Miꞌkmaq hieroglyphic writing, it is now written using most letters of the Latin alphabet; the Santé Mawiómi, or Grand Council, was the traditional senior level of government for the Miꞌkmaq people until Canada passed the Indian Act to require First Nations to establish representative elected governments. After implementation of the Indian Act, the Grand Council took on a more spiritual function; the Grand Council was made up of chiefs of the seven district councils of Miꞌkmaꞌki. In 2011, the Government of Canada announced recognition to a group in Newfoundland and Labrador called the Qalipu First Nation; the new band, landless, had accepted 25,000 applications to become part of the band by October 2012.
In total over 100,000 applications were sent in to join the Qalipu, equivalent of 1/5 of the province's population. The Qalipu band's Miꞌkmaq heritage has been considered illegitimate by several Miꞌkmaq institutions, including the Grand Council; the ethnonym has traditionally been spelled Micmac in English. The people themselves have used different spellings: Miꞌkmaq in Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia and Newfoundland; until the 1980s, "Micmac" remained the most common spelling in English. Although still referred to, this spelling has fallen out of favour in recent years. Most scholarly publications now use the spelling Miꞌkmaq, as preferred by the people; the media have adopted this spelling practice, acknowledging that the Miꞌkmaq consider the spelling Micmac as "colonially tainted". The Miꞌkmaq prefer to use one of the three current Miꞌkmaq orthographies. Lnu is the term the Miꞌkmaq use for themselves, their autonym, meaning "human being" or "the people". Various explanations exist for the origin of the term Miꞌkmaq.
The Miꞌkmaw Resource Guide says that "Miꞌkmaq" means "the family": The definite article "the" suggests that "Miꞌkmaq" is the undeclined form indicated by the initial letter "m". When declined in the singular it reduces to the following forms: nikmaq - my family; the variant form Miꞌkmaw plays two grammatical roles: 1) It is the singular of Miꞌkmaq and 2) it is an adjective in circumstances where it precedes a noun The Anishinaabe refer to the Miꞌkmaq as Miijimaa, meaning "The Brother/Ally", with the use of the nX prefix m-, opposed to the use of n1 prefix n- or the n3 prefix w-. Other hypotheses include the following: The name "Micmac" was first recorded in a memoir by de La Chesnaye in 1676. Professor Ganong in a footnote to the word megamingo, as used by Marc Lescarbot, remarked "that it is altogether probable that in this word lies the origin of the name Micmac." As suggested in this paper on the customs and beliefs of the Micmacs, it would seem that megumaagee the name used by the Micmacs, or the Megumawaach, as they called themselves, for their land, is from the words megwaak, "red", magumegek, "on the earth", or as Rand recorded, "red on the earth", megakumegek, "red ground", "red earth".
The Micmacs must have thought of themselves as the Red Earth People, or the People of the Red Earth. Others seeking a meaning for the word Micmac have suggested that it is from nigumaach, my brother, my friend, a word, used as a term of endearment by a husband for his wife... Still another explanation for the word Micmac suggested by Stansbury Hagar in "Micmac Magic and Medicine" is that the word megumawaach is from megumoowesoo, the name of the Micmacs' legendary master magicians, from whom the earliest Micmac wizards are said to have received their power. Members of the Miꞌkmaq referred to themselves as Lnu, but used the term níkmaq as a greeting; the French referred to the Miꞌkmaq as Souriquois and as Gaspesiens, or Mickmakis. The British referred to them as Tarrantines. Archaeologist Dean Snow says that the deep linguistic split between the Miꞌkmaq and the Eastern Algonquians to the southwest suggests the Miꞌkmaq developed an independent prehistoric sequence in their territory, it emphasized maritime orientation, as the area had few major river systems.
According to ethnologist T. J. Brasser, as the indigenous people lived in a climate unfavorable for agriculture, small semi-nomadic bands of a few patrilineally related families subsisted on fishing and hunting. Developed leadership did not extend beyond hunting parties; the Miꞌkmaq lived in an annual cycle of seasonal movement between living in dispersed interior winter camps and larger coastal communities during the summer. The spawning runs of March began, they next harvested spawning herring, gathered waterfowl eggs, hunted geese. By May, the seashore offered abundant cod and shellfish, coastal breezes brought relief from the biting black flies, stouts and mosquitoes of the interior. Autumn frost killed the biti
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
Campobello Island is an island located at the entrance to Passamaquoddy Bay, adjacent to the entrance to Cobscook Bay, within the Bay of Fundy. The island is part of Charlotte County, New Brunswick, Canada. Campobello Island is the name of a rural community including the entire Parish of Campobello; the island's permanent population in 2011 was 925. The island has no road connection to the rest of Canada. Reaching mainland Canada by car without crossing an international border is possible only during the summer season and requires two separate ferry trips, the first to nearby Deer Island from Deer Island to L'Etete; the ferry to Deer Island stopped in 2017 leaving the island without a direct connection to the rest of Canada. Measuring 14 kilometres long and about 5 kilometres wide, it has an area of 39.6 square kilometres. On the north is a high bluff headland, East Quoddy Point. On the west is the Mulholland Point navigation light; the island has several good harbours, the majority of residents are employed in the fishing/aquaculture or tourism industries.
The two major tourist attractions on the island are Herring Cove Provincial Park and Roosevelt Campobello International Park. The latter was created in 1964 and was opened by U. S. President Lyndon Johnson and Canadian Prime Minister Lester Pearson in 1966; the island has Campobello Island Consolidated School, for all school grades. The island's only highway, Route 774, is connected by the Franklin Delano Roosevelt Bridge to Lubec, Maine — the easternmost town in the continental United States; the only transportation link with the rest of Canada is a seasonal ferry service to Cummings Cove on Deer Island. The island was settled by the Passamaquoddy Nation, who called it Ebaghuit; the first Europeans were from the French expedition of Pierre Dugua de Mons and Samuel de Champlain, who founded the short-lived nearby St. Croix Island settlement in 1604. France named the island Port aux Coquilles. Following the War of the Spanish Succession, under terms of the Treaty of Utrecht, the island came under British control and was placed in the colony of Nova Scotia, having ceased to be included in the French colony of Acadia.
In 1770, a grant of the island was made to Captain William Owen of the Royal Navy, who renamed it Campobello. The island's name was derived from Britain's Governor of Nova Scotia, Lord William Campbell, by Italianizing/Hispanicizing his name Campbell, alluding to campo bello, which in Italian means "beautiful field" and in Spanish "beautiful country"; the creation of the colony of New Brunswick in 1784 saw the island transferred to the new jurisdiction, by the end of the 18th century the small island had a thriving community and economy aided by Loyalist refugees fleeing the American Revolutionary War. Smuggling was a major part of the island's prosperity after the Revolution, a custom to which local officials turned a blind eye. During the War of 1812 the Royal Navy seized coastal lands of Maine as far south as the Penobscot River but returned them following the war, except for offshore islands. In 1817 the U. S. relinquished its claim to the Fundy Isles, the British returned islands in Cobscook Bay including Moose Island but notably did not return Machias Seal Island.
By the mid-19th century, Campobello Island had a population in excess of 1,000. In 1910, 1,230 people lived there. In 1866, a band of more than 700 members of the Fenian Brotherhood arrived at the Maine shore opposite the island with the intention of seizing Campobello from the British. British warships from Halifax, Nova Scotia were on the scene and a military force dispersed the Fenians; this action served to reinforce the idea of protection for New Brunswick by joining with the British North American colonies of Nova Scotia, Canada East, Canada West in Confederation to form the Dominion of Canada. Campobello has always relied on fishing as the mainstay of the island economy. Campobello Island became home to a similar, although much smaller and more exclusive, development following the acquisition of some island properties by several private American investors. A luxurious resort hotel was built and the island became a popular summer colony for wealthy Canadians and Americans, many of whom built grand estates there.
Among those with estates were Sara Delano and her husband James Roosevelt Sr. from New York City. Sara Delano had a number of Delano cousins living in Maine, Campobello offered a beautiful summer retreat where their family members could visit. From 1883 onward, the Roosevelt family made Campobello Island their summer home, their son Franklin D. Roosevelt would spend his summers on Campobello from the age of one until, as an adult, he acquired a larger property — a 34-room "cottage" — which he used as a summer retreat until 1939, it was at Campobello, in August 1921, that the future president fell ill and was diagnosed with polio, which resulted in his total and permanent paralysis from the waist down. Roosevelt did strive to regain use of his legs but never again walked unassisted, his visits were as a child, only staying overnight once while president. During the 20th century, the island's prosperity from its wealthy visitors declin
Ministers Island is an historic Canadian island in New Brunswick's Passamaquoddy Bay near the town of St. Andrews; the 200-hectare island stands several hundred metres offshore northeast of the town and is a geographical novelty in that it is accessible at low tide by a wide gravel bar suitable for vehicular travel. Ministers Island became famous in the last decade of the nineteenth century as the summer home of Sir William Van Horne, the president of the Canadian Pacific Railway. By the time of Van Horne’s death in 1915, the island had been transformed into a small Xanadu, sporting a sandstone mansion furnished in the most lavish late Edwardian manner, manicured grounds, scenic roads, greenhouses turning out exotic fruits and vegetables, as well as a breeding farm producing prize-winning Clydesdale horses and Dutch Belted cattle, it was the most spectacular of many palatial summer homes in St. Andrews, which since the creation of the St. Andrews Land Company in 1888 and the arrival of Van Horne in 1891, had become a watering place of note on the Canadian east coast.
Consquamcook or Quanoscumcook Island had been inhabited by Passamaquoddy centuries earlier, traces of their occupation evidenced by the presence of shell middens. Today the Ministers Island Pre-Columbian shell middens are designated as a National Historic Site and commemorated by a cairn; the first European colonists on the island, John Hanson and Ephraim Young, arrived in 1777. At the time, the St. Andrews area consisted of a trading post operated from Saint John and an Indigenous presence. Hanson and Young were the first United Empire Loyalists to arrive in the area following the American Revolutionary War, settling on Consquamcook Island with their families. Traces of early European buildings were excavated in the 1970s. Following a further influx of Loyalists in 1783, Hanson and Young petitioned Governor General Carleton in Halifax for the title to the island. Hanson and Young left the island by 1784. In 1791, the island was sold to the Town's minister, the Reverend Samuel Andrews, for whom the island was named.
Though Andrews built a small stone cottage on the island, still standing today, by 1798 he had put the property up for sale once again. There were, however no takers, as the island was still in his possession upon his death in 1818; the land was passed on to his son Elisha Andrews, St. Andrew's Sheriff to Elisha's son Marshall, to Marshall's son Edwin. Edwin and Marshall Andrews lived on the island until 1891, at which point it was sold to Sir William Van Horne. In 1889 Van Horne, President of the Canadian Pacific Railway, arrived in St. Andrews on tour of inspection of the New Brunswick Railway, newly purchased by the CPR. Van Horne was impressed with the town and in 1891, purchased 150 acres from Edwin Andrews and began construction of Covenhoven, his summer home. Designed by Van Horne himself, Covenhoven was constructed of red sandstone quarried on the island and was relatively small. Between 1892 and 1901, Van Horne continued to expand, making two major additions to the house, with an eventual floor space of 10,000 square feet.
Van Horne was assisted in these renovations by Edward Maxwell, celebrated Montreal architect responsible for many renowned designs across Canada, including numerous CPR commissions such as the Chateau Frontenac. When completed, the house had 50 rooms, of which around 26 made up the family's main living quarters; the varying stages of construction created unique features, including the three roof pitches arranged serially, numerous staircases, unusual connections between rooms, multi-levelled attics. As an avid and knowledgeable antique collector, the walls of Covenhoven were hung with an approximate eighty works of art, many of which were completed by Van Horne himself. A common theme was birch trees, while other paintings included various landscapes of scenery from across the island. 21 of Van Horne's works can still be seen in the home today. The home and surrounding buildings and gardens became renowned, the island became a tourist attraction during Van Horne's lifetime, with visitors- tourists and dignitaries alike- considering the island a must-see.
In 1898, Maxwell designed a large chateau-style barn for Van Horne, one of the largest in the Maritimes, regarded as one of the most beautiful. This barn was used for breeding of Van Horne's prizewinning Clydesdale horses and Dutch Belted cattle, one of the only such herds in North America; this farm served as a nursery for his larger operations in Manitoba. The farm was home to pigs, ducks and turkeys; the produce of the farm and gardens was shipped to Montreal by night train during the winter months, providing the family with fresh food throughout the year. The barn was surrounded by several outbuildings, including a creamery, smaller barns, living quarters for the workers. Adjacent to Covenhoven were several large greenhouses, providing the Van Hornes with grapes, nectarines and cucumbers. An expert gardener, Van Horne's grounds became famous for their extensive parterres of flowers and orchards, miles of manicured roads that bordered the island. Cultivated gardens surrounded Covenhoven, while paths were maintained across the island for walking and carriage rides.
In addition to the barns and greenhouses, Covenhoven was supported by numerous outbuildings, including a windmill, a gas house, a carriage house, a gardener's cottage. At the southern tip of the island, Van Horne constructed a bathhouse: a round, two-level building, the upper level offering panoramic views of the bay while the lower level contained changing rooms and pro
Phytophthora infestans is an oomycete or water mold, a microorganism that causes the serious potato and tomato disease known as late blight or potato blight. Late blight was a major culprit in the 1840s European, the 1845 Irish, the 1846 Highland potato famines; the organism can infect some other members of the Solanaceae. The pathogen is favored by moist, cool environments: sporulation is optimal at 12–18 °C in water-saturated or nearly saturated environments, zoospore production is favored at temperatures below 15 °C. Lesion growth rates are optimal at a warmer temperature range of 20 to 24 °C; the genus name Phytophthora comes from the Greek φυτό-, meaning: "plant" - plus the Greek φθορά, meaning: "decay, perish". The species name infestans is the present participle of the Latin verb infestare, meaning: "attacking, destroying", from which we get the word "to infest"; the asexual life cycle of Phytophthora infestans is characterized by alternating phases of hyphal growth, sporangia germination, the re-establishment of hyphal growth.
There is a sexual cycle, which occurs when isolates of opposite mating type meet. Hormonal communication triggers the formation of called oospores; the different types of spores play major roles in the survival of P. infestans. Sporangia are spread by wind or water and enable the movement of P. infestans between different host plants. The zoospores released from sporangia are biflagellated and chemotactic, allowing further movement of P. infestans on water films found on leaves or soils. Both sporangia and zoospores are short-lived, in contrast to oospores which can persist in a viable form for many years; the color of potato sign is white. People can observe Phytophthora infestans produce sporangia and sporangiophores on the surface of potato stems and leaves; these sporangia and sporangiophores always appear on the lower surface of the foliage. As for tuber blight, the white mycelium shows on the tubers' surface. Under ideal conditions, the life cycle can be completed on potato or tomato foliage in about five days.
Sporangia develop on the leaves, spreading through the crop when temperatures are above 10 °C and humidity is over 75–80% for 2 days or more. Rain can wash spores into the soil where they infect young tubers, the spores can travel long distances on the wind; the early stages of blight are missed. Symptoms include the appearance of dark blotches on plant stems. White mold will appear under the leaves in humid conditions and the whole plant may collapse. Infected tubers develop grey or dark patches that are reddish brown beneath the skin, decay to a foul-smelling mush caused by the infestation of secondary soft bacterial rots. Healthy tubers may rot when in store. P. infestans survives poorly in nature apart from its plant hosts. Under most conditions, the hyphae and asexual sporangia can survive for only brief periods in plant debris or soil, are killed off during frosts or warm weather; the exceptions involve oospores, hyphae present within tubers. The persistence of viable pathogen within tubers, such as those that are left in the ground after the previous year's harvest or left in cull piles is a major problem in disease management.
In particular, volunteer plants sprouting from infected tubers are thought to be a major source of inoculum at the start of a growing season. This can have devastating effects by destroying entire crops. P. infestans is diploid, with about 11-13 chromosomes, in 2009 scientists completed the sequencing of its genome. The genome was found to be larger than that of most other Phytophthora species whose genomes have been sequenced. About 18,000 genes were detected within the P. infestans genome. It contained a diverse variety of transposons and many gene families encoding for effector proteins that are involved in causing pathogenicity; these proteins are split into two main groups depending on whether they are produced by the water mould in the symplast or in the apoplast. Proteins produced in the symplast included RXLR proteins, which contain an arginine-X-leucine-arginine sequence at the amino terminus of the protein; some RXLR proteins are avirulence proteins, meaning that they can be detected by the plant and lead to a hypersensitive response which restricts the growth of the pathogen.
P. infestans was found to encode around 60% more of these proteins than most other Phytophthora species. Those found in the apoplast include hydrolytic enzymes such as proteases and glycosylases that act to degrade plant tissue, enzyme inhibitors to protect against host defence enzymes and necrotizing toxins. Overall the genome was found to have an high repeat content and to have an unusual gene distribution in that some areas contain many genes whereas others contain few; the highlands of central Mexico are considered by many to be the center of origin of P. infestans, although others have proposed its origin to be in the Andes, the origin of potatoes. A recent study evaluated these two alternate hypotheses and found conclusive support for central Mexico being the center of origin. Support for Mexico comes from multiple observations including the fact that populations are genetically most diverse in Mexico, late blight is observed in native tuber-bearing Solanum species, population