2012 Guinea-Bissau presidential election
Presidential elections were held in Guinea-Bissau on 18 March 2012 following the death of President Malam Bacai Sanhá on 9 January. A run-off was set to be held on 29 April after being postponed by a week as announced by electoral commission chief Desejado Lima Dacosta. However, after a military coup, the leading candidates were arrested and the election was cancelled; the junta's spokesman announced plans to hold an election in two years, despite condemnation. General elections were subsequently held in April 2014. Following the death of Malam Bacai Sanhá on 9 January 2012, an early presidential elections were scheduled to be held within 90 days, in accordance with the constitution. No president in the history of independent Guinea-Bissau has completed his term in office: Three presidents have been ousted, one was assassinated, another died in office. Prime Minister Carlos Gomes Júnior resigned on 10 February to run for the presidency. A total of nine candidates contested the elections, five of whom ran in the previous elections in 2009.
Their campaign literature was said to be "largely recycled." Carlos Gomes Júnior and Kumba Ialá were said to be the frontrunners in the election. Ialá's support base was based on his Balanta ethnic group. Gomes Júnior had indicated he wanted to reform the armed forces, with which he had a tense relationship. Campaigning for the second round was due to start on 13 April and end on 27 April. UNIOGBIS spokesman Vladimir Monteiro said: "The election was held in a peaceful manner. In the morning, participation was weak but, all day long, leaders of the electoral body encouraged the people to go and vote, it seems that people listened and went to vote because the participation increased." He added that the election commission is mandated by the constitution to release the result within 10 days of the election. However, the same night fears of military-linked violence increased with the assassination of the former head of military intelligence, Colonel Samba Diallo, just before midnight at a bar in the national capital of Bissau.
The Guardian reported witnesses as saying that soldiers had fired at him and taken his body away to a hospital. No candidate was able to attain a 50% majority in the first round; the leading two candidates, Carlos Gomes Júnior and Kumba Ialá were set to face each other in a runoff election to be held on 22 April. Five of the first round candidates complained that the poll had been fraudulent despite independent, international observers stating that it was conducted fairly. Despite a peaceful campaign, there were fears of possible violence or a coup d'état if the army did not approve of the winner. UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon called for a "peaceful and transparent" election. Opposition leaders, led by Ialá, called for a boycott of the second round because they considered the election fraudulent,with Ialá calling for new voter registration to take place and warned against campaigning; the Director General of the Judicial Police Joao Biague announced that the former head of intelligence, Samba Diallo, was assassinated shortly after the polls closed.
On 12 April, elements within the factionalised army staged a coup d'état, leading to the arrest of both second round candidates, amongst others, by the Military Command and calls for a national unity government
African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde
The African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde is a political party in Guinea-Bissau. Formed to peacefully campaign for independence from Portugal, the party turned to armed conflict in the 1960s and was one of the belligerents in the Guinea-Bissau War of Independence. Towards the end of the war, the party established a Marxist–Leninist one-party state, which remained intact until multi-party democracy was introduced in the early 1990s. Although the party won the first multi-party elections in 1994, it was removed from power in the 1999–2000 elections. However, it returned to office after winning parliamentary elections in 2004 and presidential elections in 2005, since which it has remained the largest party in the National People's Assembly; the PAIGC governed Cape Verde, from its independence in 1975 to 1980. After the military coup in Guinea-Bissau in 1980, the Cape Verdean branch of the PAIGC was converted into a separate party, the African Party for the Independence of Cape Verde.
The party was established in Bissau on 19 September 1956 as the African Party of Independence, was based on the Movement for the National Independence of Portuguese Guinea founded in 1954 by Henri Labéry and Amílcar Cabral. The party had six founding members. Rafael Paula Barbosa became its first president, whilst Amílcar Cabral was appointed secretary-general; the Pijiguiti Massacre in 1959 saw Portuguese soldiers opened fire on protesting dockworkers, killing 50. The massacre caused a large segment of the population to swing towards the PAIGC's push for independence, although the Portuguese authorities still considered the movement to be irrelevant, took no serious action in trying to suppress it. However, the massacre convinced the PAIGC leadership to resort to armed struggle against the Portuguese, in September 1959 the party established a new headquarters in Conakry in neighbouring Guinea. In 1961, the PAIGC combined with the Mozambican FRELIMO and Angolan MPLA to establish the Conference of Nationalist Organizations of the Portuguese Colonies, a common party to coordinate the struggles for independence of Portuguese colonies across Africa.
The three groups were represented at international events by the CONCP. Armed struggle against the Portuguese began in March 1962 with an abortive attack by PAIGC guerrillas on Praia. Guerrilla warfare was concentrated to the mainland Guinea, however, as logistical reasons prevented an armed struggle on the Cape Verde islands. On the Cape Verde islands PAIGC worked in a clandestine manner. After being nearly crippled militarily, Amílcar Cabral ordered that sabotage be the PAIGC's main weapon until military strength could be regained. On 23 January 1963 the PAIGC started the Guinea-Bissau War of Independence by attacking a Portuguese garrison in Tite. Frequent attacks in the north took place. In that same month, attacks on police stations in Fulacunda and Buba were carried out not only by the PAIGC but by the FLING. In January 1966, Amílcar Cabral attended the Conferencia Tricontinental Enero in Havana and made a great impression on Fidel Castro; as a result of this, Cuba agreed to supply artillery experts and technicians to assist in the independence struggle.
The head of the Cuban Military Mission was Victor Dreke. In the context of the ongoing Cold War, PAIGC guerrillas received Kalashnikovs from the USSR and recoilless rifles from the People's Republic of China, with all three countries helping train guerilla troops; the first party congress took place at liberated Cassaca in February 1964, in which both the political and military arms of the PAIGC were assessed and reorganized, with a regular army to supplement the guerilla forces. Como Island was the site of a major battle between PAIGC and Portuguese forces, in which the PAIGC took control of the island and resisted fierce counterattacks by the Portuguese, including airstrikes by FAP F-86 Sabres. Following the loss of Como Island, the Portuguese army and the air force began the Operation Tridente, a combined arms operation to retake the island; the PAIGC fought fiercely, the Portuguese took heavy casualties and gained ground slowly. After 71 days of fighting and 851 FAP combat sorties, the island was taken back by the Portuguese.
However, less than two months the PAIGC would retake the island, as the Portuguese operation to capture it had depleted much of their invasion force, leaving the island vulnerable. However, Como Island ceased to be of strategic importance to Portugal following establishment of new PAIGC positions in the south on the Cantanhez and Quitafine Peninsulas. Large numbers of Portuguese troops on these peninsulas were besieged by guerrillas. Throughout the war, the Portuguese handled themselves poorly, it took them a long time to take the PAIGC diverting aircraft and troops based in Guinea to the conflicts in Mozambique and Angola, by the time that the Portuguese government began to realise that the PAIGC was a significant threat to their continued rule over Guinea, it was too late. Little was done to curtail the guerrilla operations. By 1967, the PAIGC had carried out 147 attacks on Portuguese barracks and army enc
2014 Guinea-Bissau general election
General elections were held in Guinea-Bissau on 13 April 2014, with a second round for the presidential elections held on 18 May since no candidate received a majority in the first round. Several logistic problems and delays caused the elections to be postponed, having been scheduled for 24 November 2013 and 16 March 2014. In the second round, José Mário Vaz of the African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde was declared the president-elect with 62% of the vote; the elections were the result of a military coup in 2012 cancelling the elections that year. On 26 February 2014, the UN Security Council urged Guinea-Bissau's transitional government to abide by announced election plans, warning of sanctions against those opposing a return to constitutional order. Former President Kumba Ialá died a few weeks before the elections; the President will be elected using the two-round system, whilst the 102 members of the National People's Assembly were elected using proportional representation from 27 multi-member constituencies.
Article 33 of Guinea-Bissau's Electoral Law prohibits the publishing of any opinion polls. Thirteen presidential candidates were confirmed by the High Court of Justice, whilst eight candidates were rejected; the Court approved fifteen parties to contest the National People's Assembly election, but rejected applications from seven other parties.
Social democracy is a political and economic ideology that supports economic and social interventions to promote social justice within the framework of a liberal democratic polity and a capitalist economy. The protocols and norms used to accomplish this involve a commitment to representative and participatory democracy, measures for income redistribution and regulation of the economy in the general interest and welfare state provisions. Social democracy thus aims to create the conditions for capitalism to lead to greater democratic and solidaristic outcomes. Due to longstanding governance by social democratic parties and their influence on socioeconomic policy development in the Nordic countries, in policy circles social democracy has become associated with the Nordic model in the latter part of the 20th century. Social democracy originated as a political ideology that advocated an evolutionary and peaceful transition from capitalism to socialism using established political processes in contrast to the revolutionary approach to transition associated with orthodox Marxism.
In the early post-war era in Western Europe, social democratic parties rejected the Stalinist political and economic model current in the Soviet Union, committing themselves either to an alternative path to socialism or to a compromise between capitalism and socialism. In this period, social democrats embraced a mixed economy based on the predominance of private property, with only a minority of essential utilities and public services under public ownership; as a result, social democracy became associated with Keynesian economics, state interventionism and the welfare state while abandoning the prior goal of replacing the capitalist system with a qualitatively different socialist economic system. With the rise of popularity for neoliberalism and the New Right by the 1980s, most social democratic parties have incorporated Third Way ideology, which aims to fuse liberal economics with social democratic welfare policies. Modern social democracy is characterized by a commitment to policies aimed at curbing inequality, oppression of underprivileged groups and poverty, including support for universally accessible public services like care for the elderly, child care, health care and workers' compensation.
The social democratic movement has strong connections with the labour movement and trade unions which are supportive of collective bargaining rights for workers as well as measures to extend decision-making beyond politics into the economic sphere in the form of co-determination for employees and other economic stakeholders. During late 19th and early 20th centuries, social democracy was a movement that aimed to replace private ownership with social ownership of the means of production, taking influences from both Marxism and the supporters of Ferdinand Lassalle. By 1868–1869, Marxism had become the official theoretical basis of the first social democratic party established in Europe, the Social Democratic Workers' Party of Germany. In the early 20th century, the German social democratic politician Eduard Bernstein rejected the ideas in classical and orthodox Marxism that proposed a specific historical progression and revolution as a means to achieve social equality, advanced the position that socialism should be grounded in ethical and moral arguments for social justice and egalitarianism, was to be achieved through gradual legislative reform.
Influenced by Bernstein, following the split between reformists and revolutionary socialists in the Second International social democratic parties rejected revolutionary politics in favor of parliamentary reform while remaining committed to socialization. In this period, social democracy became associated with reformist socialism. Under the influence of politicians like Carlo Rosselli in Italy, social democrats began disassociating themselves from Marxism altogether and embraced liberal socialism, appealing to morality instead of any consistent systematic, scientific or materialist worldview. Social democracy made appeals to communitarian and sometimes nationalist sentiments while rejecting the economic and technological determinism characteristic of both Marxism and economic liberalism. By the post-World War II period, most social democrats in Europe had abandoned their ideological connection to Marxism and shifted their emphasis toward social policy reform in place of transition from capitalism to socialism.
The origins of social democracy have been traced to the 1860s, with the rise of the first major working-class party in Europe, the General German Workers' Association founded by Ferdinand Lassalle. 1864 saw the founding of the International Workingmen's Association known as the First International. It brought together socialists of various stances and occasioned a conflict between Karl Marx and the anarchists led by Mikhail Bakunin over the role of the state in socialism, with Bakunin rejecting any role for the state. Another issue in the First International was the role of reformism. Although Lassalle was not a Marxist, he was influenced by the theories of Marx and Friedrich Engels and he accepted the existence and importance of class struggle. However, unlike Marx's and Engels's The Communist Manifesto, Lassalle promoted class struggle in a more moderate form. While Marx viewed the state negatively as an instrument of class rule that should only exist temporarily upon the rise to power of the proletariat and dismantled, Lassalle accepted the state.
Lassalle viewed the state as a means through which workers could enhance their interests and transform the society to create an economy based on worker-run cooperatives. Lassalle's strategy was electoral and reformist, with Lassalleans contending that the working c
2009 Guinea-Bissau presidential election
Presidential elections were held in Guinea-Bissau on 28 June 2009 following the assassination of President João Bernardo Vieira on 2 March 2009. As no candidate won a majority in the first round, a second round was held on 26 July 2009 between the two leading candidates, Malam Bacai Sanhá of the governing African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde and opposition leader Kumba Ialá. Sanhá won with a substantial majority according to official results. At Vieira's funeral on 10 March 2009, interim President Raimundo Pereira said that meeting the 60-day deadline for holding a new election was "one of our greatest challenges." Cape Verde's Prime Minister, Jose Maria Neves, stated on 27 March 2009 that it was logistically and economically impossible for Guinea-Bissau to hold the election on time, that it should aim to hold them in June or November. Prime Minister Carlos Gomes Junior announced on 31 March that the election would be held on 28 June, with the agreement of "all the parties, the government, the interim president and political classes".
Foreign donors paid the entire cost of about 5.1 million euros. In April 2009, the Social Renewal Party, Guinea-Bissau's main opposition party, designated its President, Kumba Ialá, as its candidate for the presidential election; some in the party who opposed Ialá's "system of monopoly" instead proposed the candidacy of Baltizar Lopes Fernandes, but they were unsuccessful. Six candidates sought the presidential nomination of the African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde, the ruling party. PAIGC President Carlos Gomes Junior backed Pereira. On 25 April 2009, the PAIGC Central Committee chose Malam Bacai Sanhá, interim President of Guinea-Bissau from 1999 to 2000, as the party's presidential candidate, he received 144 votes, while Pereira received 118. Aristides Gomes, Prime Minister from 2005 to 2007 and led the Republican Party for Independence and Development, submitted a candidate application. Francisco Fadul, Prime Minister from 1999 to 2000 and is the President of the Tribunal of Accounts submitted an application to stand as the candidate of his party, the African Party for Development and Citizenship.
Henrique Rosa, Interim President from 2003 to 2005, sought to run as an independent candidate, as did the Minister of Internal Administration, Baciro Dabó. In total, 20 candidates submitted applications to the Supreme Court of Justice, 13 representing political parties and seven independents. Zinha Vaz ran as the candidate of the Guinean Patriotic Union, was the only female candidate in the election. On 14 May, the Supreme Court announced that 12 candidacies had been approved and eight had been rejected; the candidacies of Sanhá, Ialá, Rosa were among those accepted. Fadul's candidacy was rejected on the grounds that he was still President of the Tribunal of Accounts and a member of the Bar, which the Supreme Court judged to be incompatible with his presidential candidacy; the candidacy of Aristides Gomes was rejected on the grounds that he had been out of the country during the 90 days before he filed his candidacy. Prior to the election, three of the 11 remaining candidates were considered the key contenders for the Presidency: PAIGC candidate Sanhá, PRS candidate Ialá, independent candidate Rosa.
Doubting that Ialá would be able to garner much more support than he obtained in the first round, analysts judged that Sanhá was the clear favorite for the second round. Various minor candidates—Luis Nancassa, Paulo Mendonça, Francisca Vaz Turpin, Braima Alfa Djalo—endorsed Sanhá after the first round. In mid-July, New Democracy Party candidate Iaia Djalo, who placed fourth with 3.11% urged his supporters to vote for Sanhá in the second round. During the second round campaign, Ialá blamed PAIGC for Guinea-Bissau's problems and alleged that it was responsible for Vieira's assassination. Warning against the use of such inflammatory rhetoric, the army stressed that it would not allow national stability to be endangered. On 5 June, one day before election campaigning was due to start, Dabó was fatally shot in his home in order to prevent him from ordering a prosecution against President Vieira's killers if he won the election, it was decided that the election would proceed as planned on 28 June.
Another independent candidate, Paulo Mendonça, said that the election could not go ahead on schedule because the constitution required a delay in case of the death of a candidate, he took the matter to the Supreme Court. Rosa said that his campaign would be subdued and would not begin in earnest until seven days after Dabó's death. Turnout was low when voting took place on 28 June. Electoral observers from the European Union were present at 80 of the 2,700 polling stations, the head of the EU mission, Johan Van Hecke, said that "rain played a role" but that it was not to blame for the low turnout, he said that voting proceeded "in a calm and orderly way" and that "not a single incident or complaint was reported to us". Desejado Lima da Costa, the head of the National Electoral Commission, announced provisional results on 2 July 2009; these results showed Sanhá with 133,786 votes or 39.59% of the vote, Ialá with 99,428 votes or 29.42%, Rosa with 24.19%. As a result, Sanhá and Ialá were to proceed to a second round on 2 August.
Although Rosa was positioned to make a crucial endorsement for the second r
A political party is an organized group of people with common views, who come together to contest elections and hold power in the government. The party agrees on some proposed policies and programmes, with a view to promoting the collective good or furthering their supporters' interests. While there is some international commonality in the way political parties are recognized and in how they operate, there are many differences, some are significant. Many political parties have an ideological core, but some do not, many represent ideologies different from their ideology at the time the party was founded. Many countries, such as Germany and India, have several significant political parties, some nations have one-party systems, such as China and Cuba; the United States is in practice a two-party system but with many smaller parties participating and a high degree of autonomy for individual candidates. Political factions have existed in democratic societies since ancient times. Plato writes in his Republic on the formation of political cliques in Classical Athens, the tendency of Athenian citizens to vote according to factional loyalty rather than for the public good.
In the Roman Republic, Polybius coined the term ochlocracy to describe the tendency of politicians to mobilise popular factionalist sentiment against their political rivals. Factional politics remained a part of Roman political life through the Imperial period and beyond, the poet Juvenal coined the phrase "bread and circuses" to describe the political class pandering to the citizenry through diversionary entertainments rather than through arguments about policy. "Bread and circuses" survived as part of Byzantine political life - for example, the Nika revolt during the reign of Justinian was a riot between the "Blues" and the "Greens"—two chariot racing factions at the Hippodrome, who received patronage from different Senatorial factions and religious sects. The patricians who sponsored the Blues and the Greens competed with each other to hold grander games and public entertainments during electoral campaigns, in order to appeal to the citizenry of Constantinople; the first modern political factions, can be said to have originated in early modern Britain.
The first political factions, cohering around a basic, if fluid, set of principles, emerged from the Exclusion Crisis and Glorious Revolution in late 17th century England. The Whigs supported Protestant constitutional monarchy against absolute rule, they were interested in the citizens of United Kingdom being free from the aristocracy and opposed to any tyranny, however they supported the constitutional aristocracy and does not consider the British nobility abusive because of its limits; the leader of the Whigs was Robert Walpole, who maintained control of the government in the period 1721–1742. As the century wore on, the factions began to adopt more coherent political tendencies as the interests of their power bases began to diverge; the Whig party's initial base of support from the great aristocratic families widened to include the emerging industrial interests and wealthy merchants. As well as championing constitutional monarchy with strict limits on the monarch's power, the Whigs adamantly opposed a Catholic king as a threat to liberty, believed in extending toleration to nonconformist Protestants, or dissenters.
A major influence on the Whigs were the liberal political ideas of John Locke, the concepts of universal rights employed by Locke and Algernon Sidney. Although the Tories were out of office for half a century, for most of this period the Tories retained party cohesion, with occasional hopes of regaining office at the accession of George II and the downfall of the ministry of Sir Robert Walpole in 1742, they acted as a united, though unavailing, opposition to Whig corruption and scandals. At times they cooperated with the "Opposition Whigs", Whigs who were in opposition to the Whig government, they regained power with the accession of George III in 1760 under Lord Bute. When they lost power, the old Whig leadership dissolved into a decade of factional chaos with distinct "Grenvillite", "Bedfordite", "Rockinghamite", "Chathamite" factions successively in power, all referring to themselves as "Whigs". Out of this chaos, the first distinctive parties emerged; the first such party was the Rockingham Whigs under the leadership of Charles Watson-Wentworth and the intellectual guidance of the political philosopher Edmund Burke.
Burke laid out a philosophy that described the basic framework of the political party as "a body of men united for promoting by their joint endeavours the national interest, upon some particular principle in which they are all agreed". As opposed to the instability of the earlier factions, which were tied to a particular leader and could disintegrate if removed from power, the party was centred around a set of core principles and remained out of power as a united opposition to government. A coalition including the Rockingham Whigs, led by the Earl of She
National People's Assembly (Guinea-Bissau)
The unicameral National People's Assembly is Guinea-Bissau's legislative body. The current National People's Assembly, formed following elections held on 28 March 2004, has a total of 102 seats. 100 members are elected through a system of party-list proportional representation. The remaining two seats are reserved for Guinea-Bissau citizens living overseas, but they were not filled in the most recent election. Members serve four-year terms. History of Guinea-Bissau Politics of Guinea-Bissau List of Presidents of the National People's Assembly of Guinea-Bissau Official website