Krishna in the Mahabharata
This article describes Krishna's role in the Mahabharata. For the main article on Krishna, see Krishna. Within the Indian epic Mahabharata, Krishna was the son of the Yadava chief Vasudeva and his wife Devaki. Hence he was known as Vasudeva Vaasudeva. Krishna was the key political figure in the king of Surasena Kingdom; the kingdom of Surasena was the native kingdom of Yadava clans constituted by the Andhakas and Bhojas. By overthrowing Kansa, Krishna re-established the old king Ugrasena on the throne and stabilized the kingdom from collapse due to factional fighting within the kingdom; the next threat came from the Magadha Kingdom. The ruler of Magadha, attacked Surasena many times and weakened its military. Krishna and other Yadava chiefs all tried their best to hold on. At last they had to flee from their native kingdom to the west. With the initiative of Krishna, the Yadavas who fled from Surasena formed a new kingdom called Dwaraka, its capital was Dwaravati, a city well protected by mountains on all sides, in an island, not far from the Gujarat coast.
This made it immune to attacks from land. The kingdom prospered by sea trade with seafaring kingdoms. Krishna established a tie-up of Yadavas with the Pandavas, a faction of Kurus, who were fighting against the established Kuru Kingdom; this tie up benefited the Yadavas, strategically. With the help of the Pandavas they overthrew the Magadha king Jarasandha, their biggest enemy. For this assistance, Krishna in turn helped the Pandavas to win the Kurukshetra War against the Kurus headed by Duryodhana, thus the rule of the Pandava Yudhishthira was re-established by Krishna at Indraprastha, the modern-day Delhi. However, The Yadava chiefs fought the Kurukshetra War, on both sides, after the war ended, the enmity among the Yadava leaders continued. After 36 years, since the Kurukshetra War, another war broke among the Yadavas, in their own kingdom; this resulted in the absolute destruction of the Yadava kingdom in Dwaraka, with Balarama and Krishna departing due to grief. This fight among Yadava is attributed to a curse from Gandhari, mother of Duryodhana to Krishna.
But the help Krishna extended to the Pandava Yudhishthira, paid off. When the rule of Yudhishthira ended, he established the Yadava prince Vajra on the throne of Indraprastha along with the Kuru prince Parikshit, at Hastinapura, thus the royal lineage of the Yadavas continued through Aniruddha's son, prince Vajra, great grandson of Krishna and grandson of Pradhyumna. Parikshit was the grandson of Arjuna. Late Sri. Kulapati K. M. Munshi's famous narration of the life of Lord Krishna, Krishnavatara published by Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan is a good read into the political aspects of Lord Krishna, painting Krishna not as the God Almighty but as a human Hero and a Great Leader. A interesting read between the lines into the inner aspects of politics by Krishna as a human being; the following sections shows glimpses of Krishna's political life, as a supporter of the Pandava cause, as a mediator among his own kinsmen. (Mahabharata, Book 1, As we are desirous of adopting a politic course, this is, no doubt, our first duty.
But our relationship to both the Kurus and the Pandus is equal, howsoever these two parties may behave with each other. If that chief of the Kuru race should make peace on equitable terms the brotherly feelings between the Kuras and the Pandus will sustain no injury. If on the other hand, the son of Dhritarashtra should wax haughty and from folly refuse to make peace having summoned others, summon us too; the holder of Gadiva will be fired with wrath and the dull-headed and wicked Duryodhana, with his partisans and friends that will meet his fate. There is a large body of cowherds numbering ten lakhs, rivalling me in strength and known as the Narayanas, all of whom are able to fight in the thick of battle; these soldiers, irresistible in battle, shall be sent to one of you and I alone, resolved not to fight on the field, laying down my arms, will go to the other. You may, first select. I will go to king Dhritarashtra, desirous of accomplishing what is consistent with righteousness, what may be beneficial to us, what is for the good of the Kurus.
I never behave with slavish obsequiousness towards my kinsmen by flattering speeches about their prosperity. I give them half of what I have, forgive their evil speeches; as a fire-stick is ground by a person desirous of obtaining fire so my heart is ground by my kinsmen with their cruel speeches. Indeed, those cruel speeches burn my heart every day. Might resides in Sankarshana. Although I have all these on my side yet I am helpless. Many others among the Andhakas and the Vrishnis are possessed of great prosperity and might, during courage and constant perseverance, he on whose side they do not range themselves meets with destruction. He, on the other hand, on, achieves everything. Dissuaded by both I do not side either of them. What can be more painful for a person than to have both Ahuka and Akrura on his side? What, can be more painful for one than not to have both of them on his side I am like the mother of two brothers gambling against each other, invoking victory to both. I am thus; the epic Mahabharata describes many battles fought by Krishna, his conquest of vari
The Himalayas, or Himalaya, form a mountain range in Asia, separating the plains of the Indian subcontinent from the Tibetan Plateau. The range has many including the highest, Mount Everest; the Himalayas include over fifty mountains exceeding 7,200 m in elevation, including ten of the fourteen 8,000-metre peaks. By contrast, the highest peak outside Asia is 6,961 m tall. Lifted by the subduction of the Indian tectonic plate under the Eurasian Plate, the Himalayan mountain range runs west-northwest to east-southeast in an arc 2,400 km long, its western anchor, Nanga Parbat, lies just south of the northernmost bend of Indus river. Its eastern anchor, Namcha Barwa, is just west of the great bend of the Yarlung Tsangpo River; the Himalayan range is bordered on the northwest by the Hindu Kush ranges. To the north, the chain is separated from the Tibetan Plateau by a 50–60 km wide tectonic valley called the Indus-Tsangpo Suture. Towards the south the arc of the Himalaya is ringed by the low Indo-Gangetic Plain.
The range varies in width from 350 km in the west to 150 km in the east. The Himalayas are distinct from the other great ranges of central Asia, although sometimes the term'Himalaya' is loosely used to include the Karakoram and some of the other ranges; the Himalayas are inhabited by 52.7 million people, are spread across five countries: Nepal, Bhutan and Pakistan. Some of the world's major rivers – the Indus, the Ganges and the Tsangpo-Brahmaputra – rise in the Himalayas, their combined drainage basin is home to 600 million people; the Himalayas have a profound effect on the climate of the region, helping to keep the monsoon rains on the Indian plain and limiting rainfall on the Tibetan plateau. The Himalayas have profoundly shaped the cultures of the Indian subcontinent; the name of the range derives from himá and ā-laya. They are now known as the "Himalaya Mountains" shortened to the "Himalayas", they were described in the singular as the Himalaya. This was previously transcribed Himmaleh, as in Emily Dickinson's poetry and Henry David Thoreau's essays.
The mountains are known as the Himālaya in Nepali and Hindi, the Himalaya or'The Land of Snow' in Tibetan, the Hamaleh Mountain Range in Urdu and the Ximalaya Mountain Range in Chinese. In the middle of the great curve of the Himalayan mountains lie the 8,000 m peaks of Dhaulagiri and Annapurna in Nepal, separated by the Kali Gandaki Gorge; the gorge splits the Himalayas into Western and Eastern sections both ecologically and orographically – the pass at the head of the Kali Gandaki, the Kora La is the lowest point on the ridgeline between Everest and K2. To the east of Annapurna are the 8,000 m peaks of Manaslu and across the border in Tibet, Shishapangma. To the south of these lies Kathmandu, the capital of Nepal and the largest city in the Himalayas. East of the Kathmandu Valley lies valley of the Bhote/Sun Kosi river which rises in Tibet and provides the main overland route between Nepal and China – the Araniko Highway/China National Highway 318. Further east is the Mahalangur Himal with four of the world's six highest mountains, including the highest: Cho Oyu, Everest and Makalu.
The Khumbu region, popular for trekking, is found here on the south-western approaches to Everest. The Arun river drains the northern slopes of these mountains, before turning south and flowing through the range to the east of Makalu. In the far east of Nepal, the Himalayas rise to the Kanchenjunga massif on the border with India, the third highest mountain in the world, the most easterly 8,000 m summit and the highest point of India; the eastern side of Kanchenjunga is in the Indian state of Sikkim. An independent Kingdom, it lies on the main route from India to Lhasa, which passes over the Nathu La pass into Tibet. East of Sikkim lies the ancient Buddhist Kingdom of Bhutan; the highest mountain in Bhutan is Gangkhar Puensum, a strong candidate for the highest unclimbed mountain in the world. The Himalayas here are becoming rugged with forested steep valleys; the Himalayas continue, turning northeast, through the Indian State of Arunachal Pradesh as well as Tibet, before reaching their easterly conclusion in the peak of Namche Barwa, situated in Tibet inside the great bend of the Yarlang Tsangpo river.
On the other side of the Tsangpo, to the east, are the Kangri Garpo mountains. The high mountains to the north of the Tsangpo including Gyala Peri, are sometimes included in the Himalayas. Going west from Dhaulagiri, Western Nepal is somewhat remote and lacks major high mountains, but is home to Rara Lake, the largest lake in Nepal; the Karnali River cuts through the center of the region. Further west, the border with India follows the Sarda River and provides a trade route into China, where on the Tibetan plateau lies the high peak of Gurla Mandhata. Just across Lake Manasarovar from this lies the sacred Mount Kailash, which stands close to the source of the four main rivers of Himalayas and is revered in Hinduism, Sufism and Bonpo. In the newly created Indian state of Uttarkhand, the Himalayas rise again as the Garhwal Himalayas with the high peaks of Nanda Devi and Kamet; the state is an important pilgrimage destination, with
The Mahābhārata is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India, the other being the Rāmāyaṇa. It narrates the struggle between two groups of cousins in the Kurukshetra War and the fates of the Kaurava and the Pāṇḍava princes and their succession. Along with the Rāmāyaṇa, it forms the Hindu Itihasa; the Mahābhārata is an epic legendary narrative of the Kurukṣetra War and the fates of the Kaurava and the Pāṇḍava princes. It contains philosophical and devotional material, such as a discussion of the four "goals of life" or puruṣārtha. Among the principal works and stories in the Mahābhārata are the Bhagavad Gita, the story of Damayanti, an abbreviated version of the Rāmāyaṇa, the story of Ṛṣyasringa considered as works in their own right. Traditionally, the authorship of the Mahābhārata is attributed to Vyāsa. There have been many attempts to unravel compositional layers; the oldest preserved parts of the text are thought to be not much older than around 400 BCE, though the origins of the epic fall between the 8th and 9th centuries BCE.
The text reached its final form by the early Gupta period. According to the Mahābhārata itself, the tale is extended from a shorter version of 24,000 verses called Bhārata; the Mahābhārata is the longest epic poem known and has been described as "the longest poem written". Its longest version consists of over 100,000 śloka or over 200,000 individual verse lines, long prose passages. At about 1.8 million words in total, the Mahābhārata is ten times the length of the Iliad and the Odyssey combined, or about four times the length of the Rāmāyaṇa. W. J. Johnson has compared the importance of the Mahābhārata in the context of world civilization to that of the Bible, the works of William Shakespeare, the works of Homer, Greek drama, or the Quran. Within the Indian tradition it is sometimes called the Fifth Veda; the epic is traditionally ascribed to the sage Vyāsa, a major character in the epic. Vyāsa described it as being itihāsa, he describes the Guru-shishya parampara, which traces all great teachers and their students of the Vedic times.
The first section of the Mahābhārata states that it was Gaṇeśa who wrote down the text to Vyasa's dictation. The epic employs the story within a story structure, otherwise known as frametales, popular in many Indian religious and non-religious works, it is first recited at Takshashila by the sage Vaiśampāyana, a disciple of Vyāsa, to the King Janamejaya, the great-grandson of the Pāṇḍava prince Arjuna. The story is recited again by a professional storyteller named Ugraśrava Sauti, many years to an assemblage of sages performing the 12-year sacrifice for the king Saunaka Kulapati in the Naimiśa Forest; the text was described by some early 20th-century western Indologists as chaotic. Hermann Oldenberg supposed that the original poem must once have carried an immense "tragic force" but dismissed the full text as a "horrible chaos." Moritz Winternitz considered that "only unpoetical theologists and clumsy scribes" could have lumped the parts of disparate origin into an unordered whole. Research on the Mahābhārata has put an enormous effort into recognizing and dating layers within the text.
Some elements of the present Mahābhārata can be traced back to Vedic times. The background to the Mahābhārata suggests the origin of the epic occurs "after the early Vedic period" and before "the first Indian'empire' was to rise in the third century B. C." That this is "a date not too far removed from the 8th or 9th century B. C." is likely. Mahābhārata started as an orally-transmitted tale of the charioteer bards, it is agreed that "Unlike the Vedas, which have to be preserved letter-perfect, the epic was a popular work whose reciters would conform to changes in language and style," so the earliest'surviving' components of this dynamic text are believed to be no older than the earliest'external' references we have to the epic, which may include an allusion in Panini's 4th century BCE grammar Aṣṭādhyāyī 4:2:56. It is estimated that the Sanskrit text reached something of a "final form" by the early Gupta period. Vishnu Sukthankar, editor of the first great critical edition of the Mahābhārata, commented: "It is useless to think of reconstructing a fluid text in a original shape, on the basis of an archetype and a stemma codicum.
What is possible? Our objective can only be to reconstruct the oldest form of the text which it is possible to reach on the basis of the manuscript material available." That manuscript evidence is somewhat late, given its material composition and the climate of India, but it is extensive. The Mahābhārata itself distinguishes a core portion of 24,000 verses: the Bhārata proper, as opposed to additional secondary material, while the Aśvalāyana Gṛhyasūtra makes a similar distinction. At least three redactions of the text are recognized: Jaya with 8,800 verses attributed to Vyāsa, Bhārata with 24,000 verses as recited by Vaiśampāyana, the Mahābhārata as recited by Ugraśrava Sauti with over 100,000 verses. However, some scholars, such as John Brockington, argue that Jaya and Bharata refer to the same text, ascribe the theory of Jaya with 8,800 verses to a misreading of a verse in Ādiparvan; the redaction of this large body of text was carried out after formal principles, emphasizing the numbers 18 and 12.
The addition of the latest parts may be dated by the absence of the Anuśāsana-parva and the Virāta parva from the "Spitzer manuscript". The oldest surviving
For the national airline of Indonesia, see Garuda Indonesia, for the giant wasp, see Megalara garuda The Garuda is a legendary bird or bird-like creature in Hindu and Jain mythology. He is variously the vehicle mount of the Hindu god Vishnu, a dharma-protector and Astasena in Buddhism, the Yaksha of the Jain Tirthankara Shantinatha. Garuda is described as the king of a kite-like figure, he is shown either in an anthropomorphic form. Garuda is a protector with power to swiftly go anywhere watchful and an enemy of the serpent, he is known as Tarkshya and Vynateya. Garuda is a part of state insignia in India, Thailand and Indonesia; the Indonesian official coat of arms is centered on the Garuda. The national emblem of Indonesia is called Garuda Pancasila; the Indian Air Force uses the Garuda in their coat of arms and named their special operations unit after it as Garud Commando Force. In Hinduism, Garuda is the king of birds. A Garutman is mentioned in the Rigveda, described as celestial deva with wings.
The Shatapatha Brahmana embedded inside the Yajurveda text mentions Garuda as the personification of courage. In the Mahabharata, Garutman is stated to be same as Garuda described as the one, fast, who can shapeshift into any form and enter anywhere, he is a powerful creature in the epics, whose wing flapping can stop the spinning of heaven and hell. He is described to be the vehicle mount of the Hindu god Vishnu, they are shown together. According to George Williams, Garuda speak, he is a metaphor in the Vedic literature for Rik, Saman and the atman. In the Puranas, states Williams, Garuda becomes a literal embodiment of the idea, the Self who attached to and inseparable from the Supreme Self. Though Garuda is an essential part of the Vaishnavism mythology, he features prominently in Shaivism mythology, Shaiva texts such as the Garuda Tantra and Kirana Tantra, Shiva temples as a bird and as a metaphor of atman; the Hindu texts on Garuda iconography vary in their details. If in the bird form, he is eagle-like with the wings open as if ready and willing to fly wherever he needs to.
In part human-form, he may have an eagle-like nose, beak or legs, his eyes are open and big, his body is the color of emerald, his wings are golden-yellow. He may be shown with either four hands. If he is not carrying Vishnu, he holds a jar of amrita in one hand in the rear and an umbrella in the other, while the front pair of hands are in anjali posture. If he is carrying Vishnu, the rear hands provide the support for Vishnu's feet. According to the text Silparatna, states Rao, Garuda is best depicted with only two hands and with four bands of colors: "golden yellow color from feet to knees, white from knees to navel, scarlet from navel to neck, black above the neck", his hands, recommends the text, should be in abhaya posture. In Sritatvanidhi text, the recommended iconography for Garuda is a kneeling figure, who wears one or more serpents, pointed bird-beak like nose, his two hands in namaste posture; this style is found in Hindu temples dedicated to Vishnu. In some iconography, Garuda carries his two consorts by his side: Lakshmi and Bhūmi.
Garuda iconography is found in early temples of India, such as on the underside of the eave at Cave 3 entrance of the Badami cave temples. Garuda mythology is linked to that of Aruna – the charioteer of Surya. However, these Indian mythologies are inconsistent across the texts. Both and Garuda, developed from egg. According to one version, states George Williams, Kashyapa Prajapati's two wives Vinata and Kadru wanted to have children. Kashyapa granted them a boon. Kadru asked for one thousand Nāga sons, while Vinata wanted two, each equal to Kadru's thousand naga sons. Kashyapa blessed them, went away to a forest to meditate. Kadru gave birth to one thousand eggs, while Vinata gave birth to two eggs; these incubated for five hundred years, upon which Kadru's eggs broke open and out came her 1,000 sons. Vinata eager for her sons, impatiently broke one of the eggs from which emerged the formed Aruna, who looked radiant and reddish as the morning sun but not as bright as the midday sun. Aruna chided his mother, Vinata for her impatience since he was born without legs and warned her to not break open the second egg but wait.
Aruna left to become the charioteer of Surya, the sun god. Vinata waited, after many years the second egg hatched, Garuda was born. Garuda went to war with his step brothers, the Nagas; some myths present Garuda as so massive. The text Garuda Purana is named after him. Garuda is presented in the Mahabharata mythology as one who eats snake meat, such as the story about him planning to kill and eat Sumukha snake, where Indra attempts to intervene. Garudas are a race of birds who devour snakes in the epic; the Suparṇākhyāna, a late Vedic period poem considered to be among the "earliest traces of epic poetry in India," relates the legend of Garuda, provides the basis for a expanded version which appears within the Mahābhārata. Garuda's links to Vishnu – the Hindu god who fights injustice and destroys evil in his various avatars to preserve dharma, has made him an iconic symbol of king's duty and power, an insignia of royalty or dharma, his eagle-like form is shown either alone or with Vishnu
Yaudheya was a kingdom that lay close to the kingdom of the Pandavas. They have taken part in the Kurukshetra War, siding with the Kauravas. Pandava king Yudhishthira had a son named Yaudheya. Kingdoms of Ancient India Mahabharata of Krishna Dwaipayana Vyasa, translated to English by Kisari Mohan Ganguli
Karna known as Vasusena, Anga-Raja and Radheya, is one of the major characters in the Hindu epic Mahābhārata. He is the son of princess Kunti, he was conceived and born to unmarried teenage Kunti, who hides the pregnancy out of shame abandons the new born Karna in a basket on a river. The basket is discovered floating on the Ganges River, he is adopted and raised by foster Suta parents named Radha and Adhiratha Nandana of the charioteer and poet profession working for king Dhritarashtra. Karna grows up to be an accomplished warrior of extraordinary abilities, a gifted speaker and becomes a loyal friend of Duryodhana, he is appointed the king of Anga by Duryodhana. Karna joins the losing Duryodhana side of the Mahabharata war, he is a key antagonist who aims to kill Arjuna but dies in a battle with him during the Kurushetra war. He is a tragic hero in the Mahabharata, in a manner similar to Aristotle's literary category of "flawed good man", he meets his biological mother late in the epic discovers that he is the older half-brother of those he is fighting against.
Karna is a symbol of someone, rejected by those who should love him but do not given the circumstances, yet becomes a man of exceptional abilities willing to give his love and life as a loyal friend. His character is developed in the epic to discuss major emotional and dharma dilemmas, his story has inspired many secondary works and dramatic plays in the Hindu arts tradition, both in India and in southeast Asia. A regional tradition believes. Karṇa is a word found in the Vedic literature, where it means "the ear", "chaff or husk of a grain" or the "helm or rudder". In another context, it refers to a spondee in Sanskrit prosody. In the Mahabharata and the Puranas, it is the name of a warrior character. Called Vasusena as a child by his foster parents, he became known by the name Karna because of the golden earrings of Surya he used to wear, according to the Sanskrit epics scholar David Slavitt; the word Karna, states the Indologist Kevin McGrath, signifies "eared, or the ear-ringed one". In section 3.290.5 of the Mahabharata, Karna is described as a baby born with the ear-rings and armored breastplate, like his father Surya.
The second meaning of Karna as "rudder and helm" is an apt metaphor given Karna's role in steering the war in Book 8 of the epic, where the good Karna confronts the good Arjuna, one of the climax scenes wherein the Mahabharata authors deploy the allegories of ocean and boat to embed layers of meanings in the poem. For example, his first entry into the Kurukshetra battlefield is presented as the Makara movement; as Duryodhana's army crumbles each day, the sea and vessel metaphor appears in the epic when Karna is mentioned. As a newborn, Karna's life begins in a basket without a rudder on a river, in circumstances that he neither chose nor had a say. In Book 1, again in the context of Karna, Duryodhana remarks, "the origins of heroes and rivers are indeed difficult to understand"; the name Karna is symbolically connected to the central aspect of Karna's character as the one, intensely preoccupied with what others hear and think about him, about his fame, a weakness that others exploit to manipulate him.
This "hearing" and "that, heard", states McGrath makes "Karna" an apt name and subtle reminder of Karna's driving motivation. The story of Karna is told in the Mahābhārata, one of the Sanskrit epics from the Indian subcontinent; the work is written in Classical Sanskrit and is a composite work of revisions and interpolations over many centuries. The oldest parts in the surviving version of the text date to about 400 BCE. Within Mahabharata, which follows the story within a story style of narration, the account of Karna's birth has been narrated four times. Karna appears for the first time in the Mahabharata in the verse 1.1.65 of Adi Parvan where he is mentioned through the metaphor of a tree, as someone, refusing to fight or help in the capture of Krishna. He is presented again in sections 1.2.127–148, chapter 1.57 of the Adi Parvan. It is here that his earrings "that make his face shine", as well as the divine breastplate he was born with, are mentioned for the first time; this sets him apart with gifts no ordinary mortal has.
However in the epic, the generous Karna gives the "earrings and breastplate" away in charity, thereby becomes a mortal and dies in a battle with Arjuna. The story of his young mother getting pregnant due to her curiosity, his divine connection to the Hindu sun god Surya his birth appears for the first time in the epic in section 1.104.7. The epic uses glowing words to describe Karna, but the presentation here is compressed in 21 shlokas unlike the books which expand the details; these sections with more details on Karna's birth and childhood include 3.287, 5.142 and 15.38. According to McGrath, the early presentation of Karna in the Mahabharata is such as if the poets expect the audience to know the story and love the character of Karna; the text does not belabor the details about Karna in the early sections, rather uses metaphors and metonyms to colorfully remind the audience of the fabric of a character they are assumed to be aware of. The complete narrative of his life appears for the first time in chapter 1.125.
The Mahabharata manuscripts exist in numerous versions, wherein the specifics and details of major characters and episodes vary significantly. Except for the sections containing the Bhagavad Gita which i
The Vedic period, or Vedic age, is the period in the history of the northern Indian subcontinent between the end of the urban Indus Valley Civilisation and a second urbanisation which began in the central Indo-Gangetic Plain c. 600 BCE. It gets its name from the Vedas, which are liturgical texts containing details of life during this period that have been interpreted to be historical and constitute the primary sources for understanding the period; these documents, alongside the corresponding archaeological record, allow for the evolution of the Vedic culture to be traced and inferred. The Vedas were composed and orally transmitted with precision by speakers of an Old Indo-Aryan language who had migrated into the northwestern regions of the Indian subcontinent early in this period; the Vedic society was patrilineal. Early Vedic Aryans were a Late Bronze Age society centred in the Punjab, organised into tribes rather than kingdoms, sustained by a pastoral way of life. Around c. 1200–1000 BCE, Vedic Aryans spread eastward to the fertile western Ganges Plain and adopted iron tools which allowed for clearing of forest and the adoption of a more settled, agricultural way of life.
The second half of the Vedic period was characterised by the emergence of towns, a complex social differentiation distinctive to India, the Kuru Kingdom's codification of orthodox sacrificial ritual. During this time, the central Ganges Plain was dominated by a related but non-Vedic Indo-Aryan culture; the end of the Vedic period witnessed the rise of true cities and large states as well as śramaṇa movements which challenged the Vedic orthodoxy. The Vedic period saw the emergence of a hierarchy of social classes. Vedic religion developed into Brahmanical orthodoxy, around the beginning of the Common Era, the Vedic tradition formed one of the main constituents of the so-called "Hindu synthesis". Archaeological cultures identified with phases of Vedic material culture include the Ochre Coloured Pottery culture, the Gandhara grave culture, the Black and red ware culture and the Painted Grey Ware culture; the accepted period of earlier Vedic age is dated back to the second millennium BCE. After the collapse of the Indus Valley Civilisation, which ended c. 1900 BCE, groups of Indo-Aryan peoples migrated into north-western India and started to inhabit the northern Indus Valley.
The Indo-Aryans were a branch of the Indo-Iranians, which—according to the most widespread hypothesis—have originated in the Andronovo culture in the Bactria-Margiana area, in present northern Afghanistan. Some writers and archaeologists have opposed the notion of a migration of Indo-Aryans into India. Edwin Bryant and Laurie Patton used the term "Indo-Aryan Controversy" for an oversight of the Indo-Aryan Migration theory, some of its opponents; these ideas are outside the academic mainstream. Mallory and Adams note that two types of models "enjoy significant international currency" as to the Indo-European homeland, namely the Anatolian hypothesis, a migration out of the Eurasian steppes. According to Upinder Singh, "The original homeland of the Indo-Europeans and Indo-Aryans is the subject of continuing debate among philologists, historians and others; the dominant view is. Another view, advocated by some Indian scholars, is that they were indigenous to the subcontinent."The knowledge about the Aryans comes from the Rigveda-samhita, i. e. the oldest layer of the Vedas, composed c.
1500–1200 BCE. They brought with them practices; the Vedic beliefs and practices of the pre-classical era were related to the hypothesised Proto-Indo-European religion, the Indo-Iranian religion. According to Anthony, the Old Indic religion emerged among Indo-European immigrants in the contact zone between the Zeravshan River and Iran, it was "a syncretic mixture of old Central Asian and new Indo-European elements", which borrowed "distinctive religious beliefs and practices" from the Bactria–Margiana culture. The Rigveda contains accounts of conflicts between the Dasas and Dasyus, it describes Dasas and Dasyus as people who do not perform sacrifices or obey the commandments of gods. Their speech is described as mridhra which could variously mean soft, hostile, scornful or abusive. Other adjectives which describe their physical appearance are subject to many interpretations. However, some modern scholars such as Asko Parpola connect the Dasas and Dasyus to Iranian tribes Dahae and Dahyu and believe that Dasas and Dasyus were early Indo-Aryan immigrants who arrived into the subcontinent before the Vedic Aryans.
Accounts of military conflicts between the various tribes of Vedic Aryans are described in the Rigveda. Most notable of such conflicts was the Battle of Ten Kings, which took place on the banks of the river Parushni; the battle was fought between the tribe Bharatas, led by their chief Sudas, against a confederation of ten tribes. The Bharatas lived around the upper regions of the river Saraswati, while the Purus, their western neighbours, lived along the lower regions of Saraswati; the other tribes dwelt north-west of the Bharatas in the region of Punjab. Division of the waters of Ravi could have been a reason for the war; the confederation of tribes tried to inundate the Bharatas by opening the embankments of Ravi, yet Sudas emerged victorious in the Battle of Ten Kings. Purukutsa, the chief of the Purus, was killed in the battle and the Bharatas and the Purus merged into a new tribe, the Kuru, after the war. After the 12th