Memorial Day is a federal holiday in the United States for remembering and honoring persons who have died while serving in the United States Armed Forces. The holiday, observed every year on the last Monday of May, was most held on May 28, 2018. Memorial Day was observed on May 30 from 1868 to 1970. Memorial Day is considered the unofficial start of the summer vacation season in the United States, while Labor Day marks its end on the first Monday of September. In Canada, Victoria Day is a public holiday observed on a Monday one week before Memorial Day and indicates the start of summer. Many people visit cemeteries and memorials on Memorial Day to honor those who died in military service. Many volunteers place an American flag on each grave in national cemeteries. Two other days celebrate those who serve or have served in the U. S. military: Veterans Day, which celebrates the service of all U. S. military veterans. S. remembrance celebrated earlier in May honoring those serving in the U. S. military.
The history of Memorial Day in the United States is so controversial that it constitutes an area of research. At Columbus State University there is a Center for Memorial Day Research. It, together with the University of Mississippi's Center for Civil War Research, are excellent starting points for investigating the topic; the practice of decorating soldiers' graves with flowers is an ancient custom. Soldiers' graves were decorated in the U. S. before and during the American Civil War. Some believe that an annual cemetery decoration practice began before the American Civil War and thus may reflect the real origin of the "memorial day" idea. Annual Decoration Days for particular cemeteries are still held on a Sunday in late spring or early summer in some rural areas of the American South, notably in the mountain areas. In cases involving a family graveyard where remote ancestors, as well as those who died more are buried, this may take on the character of an extended family reunion to which some people travel hundreds of miles.
People gather, put flowers on graves, renew contacts with relatives and others. There is a religious service and a picnic-like "dinner on the grounds", the traditional term for a potluck meal at a church. On June 3, 1861, Virginia, was the location of the first Civil War soldier's grave to be decorated, according to a Richmond Times-Dispatch newspaper article in 1906. In 1862, women in Savannah, Georgia decorated Confederate soldiers' graves according to the Savannah Republican; the 1863 cemetery dedication at Gettysburg, was a ceremony of commemoration at the graves of dead soldiers. Some have therefore claimed. On July 4, 1864, ladies decorated soldiers' graves according to local historians in Boalsburg, yet the principal grave they claim to have decorated was of a man, not dead yet. Nonetheless, Boalsburg promotes itself as the birthplace of Memorial Day. In April 1865, following President Abraham Lincoln's assassination, commemorations were widespread; the more than 600,000 soldiers of both sides who died in the Civil War meant that burial and memorialization took on new cultural significance.
Under the leadership of women during the war, an formal practice of decorating graves had taken shape. In 1865, the federal government began creating national military cemeteries for the Union war dead. On May 1, 1865, in Charleston, South Carolina freed African-Americans held a parade of 10,000 people to honor 257 dead Union Soldiers, whose remains they had reburied from a mass grave in a Confederate prison camp. Historian David W. Blight cites contemporary news reports of this incident in the Charleston Daily Courier and the New-York Tribune. Although Blight claimed that "African Americans invented Memorial Day in Charleston, South Carolina", in 2012, Blight stated that he "has no evidence" that the event in Charleston inspired the establishment of Memorial Day across the country. Accordingly, investigators for Time Magazine, LiveScience, RealClearLife and Snopes have called this conclusion into question. In 1868, copying the Southern annual observance of the previous three years, General John A. Logan of the Grand Army of the Republic, an organization of Union veterans founded in Decatur, established Decoration Day as a time for the nation to decorate the graves of the Union war dead with flowers.
By the 20th century, various Union and Confederate memorial traditions, celebrated on different days and Memorial Day extended to honor all Americans who died while in the military service. On May 26, 1966, President Lyndon B. Johnson designated an "official" birthplace of the holiday by signing the presidential proclamation naming Waterloo, New York, as the holder of the title; this action followed House Concurrent Resolution 587, in which the 89th Congress had recognized that the patriotic tradition of observing Memorial Day had begun one hundred years prior in Waterloo, New York. The village credits druggist Henry C. Welles and county clerk John B. Murray as the founders of the holiday. Scholars have determined. Snopes and Live Science discredit the Waterloo account. On May 5, 1868, General John A. Logan issued a proclamation calling for "Decoration Day" to be observed annually and nationwide. With his proclamation, Logan adopted the Memorial Day practice that had begun in the Southern states three years earlier.
The first Northern Memorial Day was observed on May 30, 1868. One author claims that the date wa
Altadena is an unincorporated area and census-designated place in Los Angeles County, United States 14 miles from the downtown Los Angeles Civic Center, directly north of the city of Pasadena, California. The population was 42,777 at the 2010 census, up from 42,610 at the 2000 census. In the mid-1860s, Benjamin Eaton first developed water sources from the Arroyo Seco and Eaton Canyon to irrigate his vineyard near the edge of Eaton Canyon; this made possible the development of Altadena and South Pasadena. He did the construction for B. D. Wilson and Dr. John Griffin, who jointly owned the Mexican land grant of Rancho San Pascual, about 14,000 acres, the future sites of these three communities, they hoped to sell this land in a real estate plan called the San Pasqual Plantation. Their efforts failed by 1870, despite Eaton's irrigation ditch that drew water from the site of present-day Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Arroyo Seco, they had failed because the land was inaccessible and few believed crops could thrive that close to the mountains.
Eaton tried to sell the land for the partners, in late 1873 he helped broker a deal with Daniel Berry, who represented a group of investors from Indiana, to buy 4,000 acres of the rancho. This included the land of present-day Altadena, but they developed a 2,500 acres section further south as Pasadena. In 1881, the land that would become Altadena was sold to John and Fred Woodbury, brothers who launched the subdivision of Altadena in 1887; the land remained agricultural, though several eastern millionaires built mansions along Mariposa Street, a small community developed through the 1890s and into the next century. In 1880, Capt. Frederick Woodbury, his brother, John Woodbury of Marshalltown, purchased 937 acres known as the Woodbury Ranch. John Woodbury established the Pasadena Improvement Company in 1887, with a plot plan of residential development referred to as the Woodbury Subdivision, they contacted Byron O. Clark, who established a nursery in the foothills in 1875, had since moved away.
He called his nursery "Altadena Nursery", a name he coined from the Spanish "alta" meaning "upper", "dena" from Pasadena. Woodbury asked if he could use the name "Altadena" for his subdivision and Clark agreed; the newly sprouted community of Altadena began to attract millionaires from the East. In 1887 Andrew McNally, the printing magnate from Chicago, his good friend Col. G. G. Green, had built mansions on what was to become Millionaire's Row. Newspaper moguls William Armiger Scripps and William Kellogg built homes side by side just east of Fair Oaks Avenue. A bit farther east, Zane Grey bought a home from Arthur Herbert Woodward, added a second-floor study; the famous Benziger Publishing Company built a mansion on the corner of Santa Rosa Avenue and Mariposa. Mariposa was taken from the Spanish name for a butterfly; the grandson of Andrew McNally, Wallace Neff, became a famous Southern California architect. He started his career in Altadena with the design and construction of St. Elizabeth of Hungary Catholic Church (parish est.1918, dedicated in October 1926.
Redlining policies prevented African Americans from acquiring land or purchasing property in much of California. One of the areas exempt from these policies was Altadena Meadows which thrived and became one of first middle-class African American neighborhoods in the area. Over the years Altadena has been subject to attempted annexation by Pasadena. Annexation was stopped in 1956 by community campaigns, though it has been resurrected several times since by Pasadena without success. Had the annexation succeeded, Pasadena would be the 108th largest city in the United States. While Altadena long refused wholesale annexation by neighboring Pasadena, the larger community nibbled at its edges in several small annexations of neighborhoods through the 1940s. With early 1960s redevelopment in Pasadena, the routing of extensions of 134 and 210 freeways, lawsuits over the desegregation of Pasadena Unified School District, there was white flight and convulsive racial change in Altadena. In 1960, its black population was under four percent.
The name Altadena derives from the Spanish alta, meaning "upper", dena from Pasadena. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 8.7 square miles, over 99% of it land. Altadena experiences dry summers that are followed by warm and windy falls. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Altadena has a hot-summer Mediterranean climate, abbreviated "Csa" on climate maps; the wettest calendar year was the driest 1947 with 5.37 inches. The most rainfall in one month was 19.70 inches in February 1980. The most rainfall in 24 hours was 7.70 inches on March 2, 1938. Altadena averages 21.09 inches of rain a year, over 6 inches more than nearby Los Angeles due to the orographic effect created by the San Gabriel Mountains. Because of the slope on which the city is built, sewer lines in the city's northern section have been known to overflow significantly; the 2010 United States Census reported that Altadena had a population of 42,777. The population density was 4,900.4 people per square mile.
The racial makeup of Altadena was 22,569 White, 10,136 Afri
Norton Simon Museum
The Norton Simon Museum is an art museum located in Pasadena, United States. It was known as the Pasadena Art Institute and the Pasadena Art Museum; the Norton Simon collections include: European paintings and tapestries. The museum contains the Norton Simon Theater which shows film programs daily, hosts lectures and dance and musical performances year-round; the museum is located along the route of the Tournament of Roses's Rose Parade, where its distinctive, brown tile-exterior can be seen in the background on TV. After receiving 400 German Expressionist pieces from collector Galka Scheyer in 1953, the Pasadena Art Institute changed its name to the Pasadena Art Museum in 1954 and occupied the Chinoiserie-style “The Grace Nicholson Treasure House of Oriental Art” building on North Los Robles Avenue until 1970; the Museum filled a void, being the only modern art museum between San Francisco and La Jolla in California at the time. It was renowned for progressive art exhibits and supported the work of local contemporary artists such as Helen Lundeberg, John McLaughlin, Sam Francis.
In 1962, curator Walter Hopps arrived from the Ferus gallery, organizing an early Pop art show in 1962 and a Marcel Duchamp retrospective in 1963, as well as solo shows of the work of Kurt Schwitters and Joseph Cornell. Hopps drew up a short list of California architects for a new museum building, including Richard Neutra, Charles Eames, John Lautner, Craig Ellwood, Thornton Ladd. Hopps insisted on a local architect because he expected a high level of interaction throughout the design process. A new Pasadena Art Museum building was completed in 1969, designed by Pasadena architects Thornton Ladd and John Kelsey of the firm Ladd + Kelsey; the distinctive and modern curvilinear exterior facade is faced in 115,000 glazed tiles, in varying rich brown tones with an undulating surface, made by renowned ceramic artisan Edith Heath. Hopps resigned. In the early 1970s, due to an ambitious schedule of exhibits and the new building project, the museum began to experience serious financial hardships. By that time industrialist Norton Simon, who had risen to become one of the pre-eminent art collectors in the world during the 1960s, was searching for a permanent location for his growing collection of over 4,000 objects.
He was first approached for financial assistance in 1971 by trustees of the museum. In 1974, the museum and Simon came to an agreement. According to the agreed five-year plan, Simon took over an $850,000 loan on the building and other financial obligations, including a $1 million accumulated operating deficit, in return for using 75% of the gallery space for his collection; the remainder was used to display the Pasadena museum's contemporary collection. A new 10-member board of trustees was formed, consisting of four members from Simon's group, three from the Pasadena museum board and three public members nominated by Simon. Simon became responsible for the collection and building projects; this move criticized by the local community as it represented the closing of the only contemporary art museum between San Francisco and La Jolla, led indirectly to the founding of the Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles in 1979, a project driven by Norton Simon's sister Marcia Weisman. Simon died in 1993, the actress Jennifer Jones, his widow and chairwoman of the board, made corrective, conciliatory moves that have repositioned the museum and its two collections.
In 1995, the museum began a major $5 million renovation with the architect Frank Gehry, a longtime trustee of the museum. The redesign resulted in a procession of medium-size, more intimate galleries with raised ceilings and improved lighting, increased rotating exhibition space, an entire floor devoted to Asian art, restored access to the gardens; the gardens were redesigned by Power and Associates to house the 20th-century sculpture collection in an engaging setting. The new Norton Simon Theater was the final element of the renovation, designed by Gensler & Associates, is used for lectures, dance performances and concerts; the Norton Simon Museum, which comprises more than 11,000 objects, contains a significant permanent collection, regarded internationally. The museum does not own the works; as of 2014, their public filings placed the combined fair-market value of the artworks at about $2.5 billion. The museum makes little effort to expand the collection amassed by its founder, but it still receives gifts.
However, no more than 800 or 900 of those pieces are on display at any one time. The museum mounts temporary exhibitions that focus on a particular artist, an art movement or artistic period, or art, created in a specific region or country. For more than three decades after it was founded in 1975, the Norton Simon Museum maintained a no-loans policy. In 2007 the board agreed to circulate select works to museums including the National Gallery in Washington, saying it wanted the museum to become better known. In 2009, it entered into a reciprocal loan agreement with New York; the museum has a world-renowned collection of art from South Asia and Southeast Asia, with examples of this region’s sculptural and painting traditions. On display are holdings from India, Nepal, Tibet and Tha
A transit bus is a type of bus used on shorter-distance public transport bus services. Several configurations are used, including low-floor buses, high-floor buses, double-decker buses, articulated buses and midibuses; these are distinct from all-seated coaches used for longer distance journeys and smaller minibuses, for more flexible services. A transit bus will have: large and sometimes multiple doors for ease of boarding and exiting minimal or no luggage space bench or bucket seats, with no coachlike head-rests destination blinds / displays such as headsigns or rollsigns or electronic dot matrix/LED signs legal standing-passenger capacity fare taking/verification equipment pull cord or bus stop request buttonModern transit buses are increasingly being equipped with passenger information systems, multimedia, WiFi, USB charging points, entertainment/advertising, passenger comforts such as heating and air-conditioning; some industry members and commentators promote the idea of making the interior of a transit bus as inviting as a private car, recognising the chief competitor to the transit bus in most markets.
As they are used in a public transport role, transit buses can be operated by publicly run transit authorities or municipal bus companies, as well as private transport companies on a public contract or independent basis. Due to the local authority use, transit buses are built to a third-party specification put to the manufacturer by the authority. Early examples of such specification include the Greater Manchester Leyland Atlantean, DMS-class London Daimler Fleetline. New transit buses may be purchased each time a route/area is contracted, such as in the London Buses tendering system; the operating area of a transit bus may be defined as a geographic metropolitan area, with the buses used outside of this area being more varied with buses purchased with other factors in mind. Some regional-size operators for capital cost reasons may use transit buses interchangeably on short urban routes as well as longer rural routes, sometimes up to 2 or 3 hours. Transit bus operators have a selection of'dual-purpose' fitted buses, standard transit buses fitted with coach-type seating, for longer-distance routes.
Sometimes transit buses may be used as express buses on a limited-stopping or non-stop service at peak times, but over the same distance as the regular route. Fare payment is done via Smart card single or multi-ride coupon/ticket cash and is done upon Pre-payment, done at ticket machines located at the bus stops or at other locations, before getting on the bus. Boarding departing both, e.g. after crossing fare zone boundaries in transit, via an attendant or bus conductor Depending on payment systems in different municipalities, there are different rules with regard to which door, front or rear, one must use when boarding/exiting. For rear doors, most buses have doors opened by patron. Most doors on buses use air-assist technology, the driver controlled doors, use air pressure to force them open, patron-operated doors, can push them open, the doors are heavy, so the touch-to-open or push bar mechanism, sends pressurized air to open the doors. Most doors will signify that they are unlocked and open with lights, this gives guide to those who are going up or down the door steps to not trip and fall.
Unlocked or open doors, will trigger a brake locking mechanism on the bus to prevent it from moving while someone could be entering or exiting the bus, when the door is closed, the lock will release, this is implemented on rear doors, not on front doors, since the driver will be paying attention to the front door. Transit buses can be double-decker, rigid or articulated. Selection of type has traditionally been made on a regional as well as operational basis. Depending on local policies, transit buses will usually have two, three or four doors to facilitate rapid boarding and alighting. In cases of low-demand routes, or to navigate small local streets, some models of minibus and small midibuses have been used as transit type buses; the development of the midibus has given many operators a low-cost way of operating a transit bus service, with some midibuses such as the Plaxton SPD Super Pointer Dart resembling full size transit type vehicles. Due to their public transport role, transit buses were the first type of bus to benefit from low-floor technology, in response to a demand for equal access public service provision.
Transit buses are now subject to various disability discrimination acts in several jurisdictions which dictate various design features applied to other vehicles in some cases. Due to the high number of high-profile urban operations, transit buses are at the forefront of bus electrification, with hybrid electric bus, all-electric bus and fuel cell bus development and testing aimed at reducing fuel usage, shift to green electricity and decreasing environmental impact. Developments of the transit bus towards higher capacity bus transport include tram-like vehicles such as guided buses, longer bi-articulated buses and tram-like buses such as the Wright StreetCar as part of Bus Rapid Transit schemes. Fare collection is seeing a shift to off-bus payment, with either the driver or an inspector verifying fare payments. A commuter or express bus service is a fixed-route bus characterized by service predominantly in on
Super Bowl XVII
Super Bowl XVII was an American football game between the American Football Conference champion Miami Dolphins and the National Football Conference champion Washington Redskins to decide the National Football League champion for the 1982 season. The Redskins defeated the Dolphins 27–17 to win their first Super Bowl championship; the game was played on January 30, 1983 at the Rose Bowl in Pasadena, California. This Super Bowl came at the end of a season, shortened by a players' strike. Teams ended up only playing nine regular season games, the league conducted a special 16-team, four-round playoff tournament where divisions were ignored in the seeding; the Redskins had an NFC-best 8–1 regular season record, while the Dolphins finished at 7–2. Both teams advanced through the first three postseason rounds to Super Bowl XVII; the game became a rematch of Super Bowl VII played in the Los Angeles area at the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum ten years before, where the Dolphins completed their 17–0 perfect season at the Redskins’ expense by a score of 14–7.
This was the second Super Bowl to rematch teams, the first being Super Bowl XIII. The Redskins scored 17 unanswered points in the second half and gained a Super Bowl record 276 yards on the ground, while holding the Dolphins to just 47 offensive plays for 176 total yards, 76 of which came on a single play. Miami built a 17–10 halftime lead with Jimmy Cefalo's 76-yard touchdown catch and Fulton Walker's 98-yard kickoff return; the turning point in the game came with 10:10 remaining: facing fourth down and 1-yard to go at the Dolphins' 43-yard line, trailing 17–13, Washington running back John Riggins broke through the Miami defense and ran into the end zone for a touchdown to take the lead. Wide receiver Charlie Brown added an insurance touchdown with his 6-yard scoring reception. Riggins was named Super Bowl MVP, finishing the game with 2 Super Bowl records: the most rushing yards in a Super Bowl game, the most rushing attempts, he was the first player from an NFC team to rush for 100 yards in a Super Bowl.
Riggins recorded a reception for 15 yards, giving him more total yards than the entire Miami team. The NFL awarded Super Bowl XVII to Pasadena on March 1979 at the owners meetings in Honolulu; this was the first Super Bowl. A temporary Sony Diamond Vision screen was installed in northeast corner of the stadium just above the last row seats. A 57-day-long players' strike reduced the 1982 regular season from a 16-game schedule to 9; because of the shortened season, the NFL adopted a special 16-team playoff tournament. Division standings were ignored. Eight teams from each conference were seeded 1–8 based on their regular season records; the modified schedule forced the league to extend the regular season into January for the first time. After the 57-day strike, the NFL extended the regular season one weekend, moving back the start of the playoffs and eliminating the week off for the first time since Super Bowl IV; the strike-shortened season impacted 4 teams. The San Francisco 49ers, winners of Super Bowl XVI, suffered a 3–6 record.
The Buffalo Bills, the New York Giants, the Philadelphia Eagles did not qualify for the playoffs either. The Cleveland Browns and Detroit Lions qualified for the playoffs despite 4–5 records, the only sub-.500 teams to reach the NFL playoffs until the 7–9 Seattle Seahawks reached the playoffs following the 2010 season. The Dolphins finished the strike-shortened regular season with a 7–2 record, ranking them second in the AFC; the club's main strength was their defense, nicknamed the "Killer Bees" because 6 of their 11 starters had last names that began with the letter "B". The "Killer Bees", anchored by Pro Bowl defensive tackle Bob Baumhower, led the league in fewest total yards allowed and fewest passing yards allowed. Linebacker A. J. Duhe was effective at blitzing and in pass coverage, and the Dolphins' secondary, consisting of defensive backs Don McNeal, Gerald Small and brothers Lyle and Glenn Blackwood, combined for 11 interceptions. However, the Dolphins' passing attack, led by quarterback David Woodley, ranked last in the league with 1,401 total yards, 8 touchdowns, 13 interceptions.
One of the few bright spots in the Dolphins' passing attack was wide receiver Jimmy Cefalo, who gained 356 yards off of just 17 receptions, an average of 20.9 yards per catch. Wide receiver Duriel Harris provided a deep threat with 22 receptions for 331 yards, but Miami's strength on offense was ranking 3rd in the league with 1,344 yards. Pro Bowl running back Andra Franklin was the team's top rusher with 7 touchdowns. Running back Tony Nathan rushed for 233 yards, caught 16 passes for another 114 yards. Woodley himself recorded 207 rushing yards and 2 touchdowns. One reason for the Dolphins' rushing success was the blocking of their offensive line, led by future Hall of Fame center Dwight Stephenson, along with Pro Bowlers Bob Kuechenberg and Ed Newman. Super Bowl XVII was the Redskins' first Super Bowl victory, their second Super Bowl appearance, since they were defeated by the Dolphins, 14–7 in Super Bowl VII; this was the second rematch in Super Bowl history. Washington finished the strike-shortened regular season with an 8–1 record, the best in the NFC, led the NFL in fewest points allowed
Pasadena is a city in Los Angeles County, United States, located 10 miles northeast of Downtown Los Angeles. The estimated population of Pasadena was 142,647 in 2017, making it the 183rd-largest city in the United States. Pasadena is the ninth-largest city in Los Angeles County. Pasadena was incorporated on June 19, 1886, becoming one of the first cities to be incorporated in what is now Los Angeles County, following the city of Los Angeles, it is one of the primary cultural centers of the San Gabriel Valley. The city is known for hosting Tournament of Roses Parade. In addition, Pasadena is home to many scientific and cultural institutions, including Caltech, Pasadena City College, Fuller Theological Seminary, ArtCenter College of Design, the Pasadena Playhouse, the Ambassador Auditorium, the Norton Simon Museum, the USC Pacific Asia Museum; the original inhabitants of Pasadena and surrounding areas were members of the Native American Hahamog-na tribe, a branch of the Tongva Nation. They had lived in the Los Angeles Basin for thousands of years.
Tongva dwellings lined the Arroyo Seco in present day Pasadena and south to where it joins the Los Angeles River and along other natural waterways in the city. The native people lived in dome-shape lodges, they lived on a diet of acorn meal and herbs, other small animals. They traded for ocean fish with the coastal Tongva, they made cooking vessels from steatite soapstone from Catalina Island. The oldest transportation route still in existence in Pasadena is the old Tongva foot trail known as the Gabrielino Trail, that follows the west side of the Rose Bowl and the Arroyo Seco past the Jet Propulsion Laboratory into the San Gabriel Mountains; the trail has been in continuous use for thousands of years. An arm of the trail is still in use in what is now known as Salvia Canyon; when the Spanish occupied the Los Angeles Basin they built the San Gabriel Mission and renamed the local Tongva people "Gabrielino Indians," after the name of the mission. Today, several bands of Tongva people live in the Los Angeles area.
Pasadena is a part of the original Mexican land grant named Rancho del Rincon de San Pascual, so named because it was deeded on Easter Sunday to Eulalia Perez de Guillén Mariné of Mission San Gabriel Arcángel. The Rancho comprised the lands of today's communities of Pasadena and South Pasadena. Before the annexation of California in 1848, the last of the Mexican owners was Manuel Garfias who retained title to the property after statehood in 1850. Garfias sold sections of the property to the first Anglo settlers to come into the area: Dr. Benjamin Eaton, the father of Fred Eaton. Much of the property was purchased by Benjamin Wilson, who established his Lake Vineyard property in the vicinity. Wilson, known as Don Benito to the local Indians owned the Rancho Jurupa and was mayor of Los Angeles, he was the grandfather of Jr. and the namesake of Mount Wilson. In 1873, Wilson was visited by Dr. Daniel M. Berry of Indiana, looking for a place in the country that could offer a mild climate for his patients, most of whom suffered from respiratory ailments.
Berry claimed that he had his best three night's sleep at Rancho San Pascual. To keep the find a secret, Berry code-named the area "Muscat" after the grape. To raise funds to bring the company of people to San Pascual, Berry formed the Southern California Orange and Citrus Growers Association and sold stock in it; the newcomers were able to purchase a large portion of the property along the Arroyo Seco and on January 31, 1874, they incorporated the Indiana Colony. As a gesture of good will, Wilson added 2,000 acres of then-useless highland property, part of which would become Altadena. Colonel Jabez Banbury opened the first school on South Orange Grove Avenue. Banbury had twin daughters, named Jessie; the two became the first students to attended Pasadena’s first school on Orange Grove. At the time, the Indiana Colony was a narrow strip of land between the Arroyo Seco and Fair Oaks Avenue. On the other side of the street was Wilson's Lake Vineyard development. After more than a decade of parallel development on both sides, the two settlements merged into the City of Pasadena.
The popularity of the region drew people from across the country, Pasadena became a stop on the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway, which led to an explosion in growth. From the real estate boom of the 1880s until the Great Depression, as great tourist hotels were developed in the city, Pasadena became a winter resort for wealthy Easterners, spurring the development of new neighborhoods and business districts, increased road and transit connections with Los Angeles, culminating with the opening of the Arroyo Seco Parkway, California's first freeway. By 1940, Pasadena had become the eighth-largest city in California and was considered a twin city to Los Angeles; the first of the great hotels to be established in Pasadena was the Raymond atop Bacon Hill, renamed Raymond Hill after construction. Pasadena was served by the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway at the Santa Fe Depot in downtown when the Second District was opened in 1887; the original Mansard Victorian 200-room facility burned down on Easter morning of 1895, was rebuilt in 1903, razed during the Great Depression to make way for residential development.
The Maryland Hotel existed from the early 1900s and was demolished in 1934. The world-famous Mount Lowe Railway and associated mountain hotels shu
Brookside Park/Arroyo Terrace, Pasadena, California
Brookside Park is a major neighborhood in Pasadena, California. Its northern end is sometimes called Arroyo Terrace, it is Pasadena's second largest neighborhood by area, its second most sparsely populated. The neighborhood is bordered by Oak Grove Drive to the north, the Arroyo Seco Canyon wall to the south, Linda Vista Avenue to the West, Forest and Rosemont Avenues to the East; the Arroyo Seco runs the length of the Brookside Park. At the center of the neighborhood is the Rose Bowl, at the southern end is Brookside Park and the Gamble House, at the northern end is the Brookside Golf Course. Colorado Street Bridges runs over Brookside Park; the Jackie Robinson Field is located at Brookside Park, next to the Rose Bowl where the UCLA Bruins play home football games Brookside Golf Course Kidspace Children's Museum Rose Bowl Aquatics Center Rosemont Pavilion and Brookside Pavilion where Rose Parade floats are decorated and viewed Despite its odd shape all of Brookside Park is served by Grover Cleveland Elementary School and Washington Middle Schools, John Muir High School.
Chandler School is a private school in the neighborhood. Brookside Park is served by Pasadena ARTS routes 51 and 52