Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Studios Inc. is an American media company, involved in the production and distribution of feature films and television programs. One of the world's oldest film studios, MGM's headquarters are located at 245 North Beverly Drive in Beverly Hills, California. MGM was founded in 1924 when the entertainment entrepreneur Marcus Loew gained control of Metro Pictures, Goldwyn Pictures, Louis B. Mayer Pictures. In 1971, it was announced that MGM was to merge with 20th Century Fox, but the plan never came to fruition. Over the next 39 years, the studio was bought and sold at various points in its history until, on November 3, 2010, MGM filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy. MGM emerged from bankruptcy on December 20, 2010, at which time the executives of Spyglass Entertainment, Gary Barber and Roger Birnbaum, became co-chairmen and co-CEOs of the holding company of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer; as of 2017, MGM co-produces, co-finances, co-distributes a majority of its films with Sony Pictures, Paramount Pictures and Warner Bros.
MGM Resorts International, a Las Vegas-based hotel and casino company listed on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol "MGM", was created in 1973 as a division of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. The company was spun out in 1979, with the studio's owner Kirk Kerkorian maintaining a large share, but it ended all affiliation with Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer in 1986. MGM was the last studio to convert to sound pictures, but in spite of this fact, from the end of the silent film era through the late 1950s, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer was the dominant motion picture studio in Hollywood. Always slow to respond to the changing legal and demographic nature of the motion picture industry during the 1950s and 1960s, although at times its films did well at the box office, the studio lost significant amounts of money throughout the 1960s. In 1966, MGM was sold to Canadian investor Edgar Bronfman Sr. whose son Edgar Jr. would buy Universal Studios. Three years an unprofitable MGM was bought by Kirk Kerkorian, who slashed staff and production costs, forced the studio to produce low-budget fare, shut down theatrical distribution in 1973.
The studio continued to produce five to six films a year that were released through other studios United Artists. Kerkorian did, commit to increased production and an expanded film library when he bought United Artists in 1981. MGM ramped up internal production, as well as keeping production going at UA, which included the lucrative James Bond film franchise, it incurred significant amounts of debt to increase production. The studio took on additional debt as a series of owners took charge in early 1990s. In 1986, Ted Turner bought MGM, but a few months sold the company back to Kerkorian to recoup massive debt, while keeping the library assets for himself; the series of deals left MGM more in debt. MGM was bought by Pathé Communications in 1990, but Parretti lost control of Pathé and defaulted on the loans used to purchase the studio; the French banking conglomerate Crédit Lyonnais, the studio's major creditor took control of MGM. More in debt, MGM was purchased by a joint venture between Kerkorian, producer Frank Mancuso, Australia's Seven Network in 1996.
The debt load from these and subsequent business deals negatively affected MGM's ability to survive as a separate motion picture studio. After a bidding war which included Time Warner and General Electric, MGM was acquired on September 23, 2004, by a partnership consisting of Sony Corporation of America, Texas Pacific Group, Providence Equity Partners, other investors. In 1924, movie theater magnate Marcus Loew had a problem, he had bought Metro Pictures Corporation in 1919 for a steady supply of films for his large Loew's Theatres chain. With Loew's lackluster assortment of Metro films, Loew purchased Goldwyn Pictures in 1924 to improve the quality. However, these purchases created a need for someone to oversee his new Hollywood operations, since longtime assistant Nicholas Schenck was needed in New York headquarters to oversee the 150 theaters. Approached by Louis B. Mayer, Loew addressed the situation by buying Louis B. Mayer Pictures on April 17, 1924. Mayer became head of the renamed Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, with Irving Thalberg as head of production.
MGM produced more than 100 feature films in its first two years. In 1925, MGM released the extravagant and successful Ben-Hur, taking a $4.7 million profit that year, its first full year. In 1925, MGM, Paramount Pictures and UFA formed a joint German distributor, Parufamet; when Samuel Goldwyn left he sued over the use of his name. Marcus Loew died in 1927, control of Loew's passed to Nicholas Schenck. In 1929, William Fox of Fox Film Corporation bought the Loew family's holdings with Schenck's assent. Mayer and Thalberg disagreed with the decision. Mayer was active in the California Republican Party and used his political connections to persuade the Justice Department to delay final approval of the deal on antitrust grounds. During this time, in the summer of 1929, Fox was badly hurt in an automobile accident. By the time he recovered, the stock market crash in the fall of 1929 had nearly wiped Fox out and ended any chance of the Loew's merger going through. Schenck and Mayer had never gotten along, the abortive Fox merger increased the animosity between the two men.
From the outset, MGM tapped into the audience's need for sophistication. Having inherited few big names from their predecessor companies and Thalberg began at once
Harold Eugene Roach Sr. was an American film and television producer and actor, active from the 1910s to the 1990s. He is best known today for producing Our Gang film comedy series. Hal Roach was born in the grandson of Irish immigrants. A presentation by the great American humorist Mark Twain impressed Roach as a young grade school student. After an adventurous youth that took him to Alaska, Hal Roach arrived in Hollywood, California, in 1912 and began working as an extra in silent films. Upon coming into an inheritance, he began producing short film comedies in 1915 with his friend Harold Lloyd, who portrayed a character known as Lonesome Luke. In September 1916, Roach married actress Marguerite Nichols, they had Hal Jr. and Margaret M. Roach. After 25 years of marriage, Marguerite died in March 1941. Roach married a second time on September 1942, to Lucille Prin, a Los Angeles secretary, they were married at the on-base home of Colonel Franklin C. Wolfe and his wife at Wright-Patterson Airfield in Dayton, where Roach was stationed at the time while serving as a major in the United States Army Air Corps.
Roach and Lucille had four children, Elizabeth Carson Roach, Maria May Roach, Jeanne Alice Roach, Kathleen Bridget Roach. Unable to expand his studios in Downtown Los Angeles because of zoning, Roach purchased what became the Hal Roach Studios from Harry Culver in Culver City, California. During the 1920s and 1930s, he employed Lloyd, Will Rogers, Max Davidson, the Our Gang kids, Charley Chase, Harry Langdon, Thelma Todd, ZaSu Pitts, Lupe Vélez, Patsy Kelly and, most famously and Hardy. During the 1920s, Roach's biggest rival was producer Mack Sennett. In 1925, Roach hired away F. Richard Jones. Roach released his films through Pathé Exchange until 1927, he converted his silent movie studio to sound in late 1928 and began releasing talking shorts in early 1929. In the days before dubbing, foreign language versions of the Roach comedies were created by reshooting each film in the Spanish and sometimes Italian and German languages. Laurel & Hardy, Charley Chase, the Our Gang kids were required to recite the foreign dialogue phonetically working from blackboards hidden off camera.
In 1931, with the release of the Laurel & Hardy film Pardon Us, Roach began producing occasional full-length features alongside the short product. Short subjects were phased out by 1936, save for the Our Gang series. An Our Gang feature film General Spanky did not do as well as expected. In 1937, Roach conceived a joint business venture partnering with Vittorio Mussolini, son of fascist Italian dictator Benito Mussolini, to form a production company called "R. A. M". Roach claimed the scheme involved Italian bankers providing US$6 Million that would enable Roach's studio to produce a series of 12 films. Eight would be for Italian screening only whilst the remaining four would receive world distribution; the first film for Italy was to be a feature film of the opera Rigoletto. This proposed business alliance with Mussolini caused MGM to intervene and force Roach to pay his way out of the venture; this embarrassment, coupled with the underperformance of much of Roach's new feature product, led to the end of Roach's relationship with MGM.
In May 1938, Roach ended his distribution contract with MGM, selling them the production rights to, actors' contracts for Our Gang in the process, signed with United Artists. From 1937 to 1940, Roach concentrated on producing glossy features, abandoning low comedy completely. Most of his new films were either rugged action fare. Roach's one venture into heavy drama was the acclaimed Of Mice and Men, in which actors Burgess Meredith and Lon Chaney Jr. played the leading roles. The Laurel and Hardy comedies, once the Roach studio's biggest drawing cards, were now the studio's least important product and were phased out altogether in 1940. In 1940, Roach experimented with medium-length featurettes, he contended that these "streamliners", as he called them, would be useful in double-feature situations where the main attraction was a longer-length epic. Exhibitors used Roach's mini-features to balance top-heavy double bills. United Artists continued to release Roach's streamliners through 1943. By this time, Roach no longer had a resident company of comedy stars and cast his films with familiar featured players.
Hal Roach, Sr. commissioned in the US Army Signal Reserve Corps in 1927 was called back to active military duty in the Signal Corps in June 1942, at age 50. The studio output he oversaw in uniform was converted from entertainment featurettes to military training films; the studios were leased to the U. S. Army Air Forces, the First Motion Picture Unit made 400 training and propaganda films at "Fort Roach". Members of the unit included Alan Ladd. After the war the government returned the studio to Roach, with millions of doll
Max Davidson was a German film actor known for his comedic Jewish persona during the silent film era. With a career spanning over thirty years, Davidson appeared in over 180 films. Born in Berlin, Davidson emigrated to the United States in the 1890s where he began working in stock theater and vaudeville, he entered silent movies in 1912. By the mid-teens, Davidson had appeared in his first feature film, Edward Dillon's Don Quixote, followed by D. W. Griffith's Intolerance, Tod Browning's Puppets. In the 1920s, he began working for Hal Roach, appearing in numerous two-reeler comedies including Call of the Cuckoo with Charley Chase, Get'Em Young with Stan Laurel, Why Girls Say No and Love'Em and Feed'Em with Oliver Hardy, as well as the early talkie Our Gang short Moan and Groan, Inc. as the crazy old man who haunts a house. He starred alongside a young Jackie Coogan in a pair of silent features, The Rag Man and Old Clothes. In 1923, he appeared in the Mack Sennett feature The Extra Girl with Mabel Normand, in 1927 made a rare starring feature at Columbia, Pleasure Before Business, as well as playing a somewhat more serious role as a servant in the Pola Negri WW1 vehicle Hotel Imperial.
He received the colorization treatment as an irate shopkeeper in the Three Stooges film No Census, No Feeling. His 1928 short Pass the Gravy was deemed "culturally significant" by the Library of Congress and selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry. Davidson made the transition to sound film, but ended his career by playing uncredited roles, he made his final screen appearance in the 1945 Clark Gable film Adventure. Davidson died on September 1950 in Woodland Hills, Los Angeles, California. Max Davidson on IMDb Max Davidson at AllMovie Max Davidson at Find a Grave
George Cooper Stevens was an American film director, producer and cinematographer. Among his most notable films are A Place in the Sun, Shane and The Diary of Anne Frank, he was born in Oakland, the son of Landers Stevens and Georgie Cooper, both stage actors. His uncle was drama critic Ashton Stevens, he had two brothers and writer Aston Stevens. He learned about the stage from his parents and worked and toured with them on his path to filmmaking, he broke into the movie business as a cameraman, working on many Laurel and Hardy short films, such as Night Owls. His first feature film was The Cohens and Kellys in Trouble in 1933. In 1934 he got the slapstick Kentucky Kernels, his big break came when he directed Katharine Hepburn in Alice Adams in 1935. He went on in the late 1930s to direct several Ginger Rogers and Fred Astaire movies, not only with the two actors together, but on their own. In 1940, he directed Carole Lombard in Vigil in the Night, the film has an alternative ending for European audiences in recognition of World War II, which at the time the U.
S. had not yet entered. During World War II, Stevens joined the U. S. Army Signal headed a film unit from 1943 to 1946, under General Eisenhower, his unit shot footage documenting D-Day—including the only Allied European Front color film of the war—the liberation of Paris and the meeting of American and Soviet forces at the Elbe River, as well as horrific scenes from the Duben labor camp and the Dachau concentration camp. Stevens helped prepare the Duben and Dachau footage and other material for presentation during the Nuremberg Trials. In 2008, his footage was entered into the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as an "essential visual record" of World War II. One result of his World War II experiences was; the motion picture I Remember Mama from 1948 was the last movie. He was responsible for such classic films as A Place in the Sun, The Diary of Anne Frank and The Greatest Story Ever Told, he ended his directing career with the 1970 film The Only Game in Town with Warren Beatty and Elizabeth Taylor.
In the same year, he was head of the jury at the 20th Berlin International Film Festival. In 1973 he was a member of the jury at the 8th Moscow International Film Festival. Stevens was the father of television and film writer-producer-director George Stevens, Jr. the first CEO and director of the American Film Institute. George Jr. produced and directed the documentary about his father George Stevens: A Filmmaker's Journey in 1984 and is the father of Stevens's grandson Michael Stevens a television and film producer-director. Stevens died following a heart attack on March 8, 1975, on his ranch in Lancaster, north of Los Angeles, he is interred at Forest Lawn Memorial Park in the Hollywood Hills of Los Angeles. As a lieutenant colonel in the United States Army, Stevens headed the U. S. Army Signal Corps unit that filmed the Normandy landings and the liberation of the Dachau concentration camp. For these contributions, he was awarded the Legion of Merit. Stevens has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 1701 Vine Street.
He won the Academy Award for Best Director twice, in 1951 for A Place in the Sun and in 1956 for Giant. He was nominated in 1943 for The More the Merrier, in 1954 for Shane, in 1959 for The Diary of Anne Frank; the moving image collection of George Stevens is held at the Academy Film Archive. The film material at the Academy Film Archive is complemented by material in the George Stevens papers at the Academy's Margaret Herrick Library. Cronin, Paul: George Stevens: Interviews. Jackson, MI, University Press of Mississippi, 2004. ISBN 1-57806-639-5 Moss, Marilyn Ann: Giant: George Stevens, a Life on Film. Madison, WI, University of Wisconsin Press, 2004. ISBN 0-299-20430-8 Petri, Bruce: A Theory of American Film: The Films and Techniques of George Stevens. New York, Taylor & Francis, 1987. ISBN 0-8240-0070-6 Richie, Donald: George Stevens: An American Romantic. New York, Taylor & Francis, 1984. ISBN 0-8240-5773-2 George Stevens on IMDb George Stevens: Movie Movie George Stevens papers, Margaret Herrick Library, Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences
Library of Congress
The Library of Congress is the research library that serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States. It is the oldest federal cultural institution in the United States; the Library is housed in three buildings on Capitol Hill in Washington, D. C.. The Library's functions are overseen by the Librarian of Congress, its buildings are maintained by the Architect of the Capitol; the Library of Congress has claimed to be the largest library in the world. Its "collections are universal, not limited by subject, format, or national boundary, include research materials from all parts of the world and in more than 450 languages."The Library of Congress moved to Washington in 1800 after sitting for 11 years in the temporary national capitals in New York City and Philadelphia. The small Congressional Library was housed in the United States Capitol for most of the 19th century until the early 1890s. Most of the original collection had been destroyed by the British in 1814 during the War of 1812, the library sought to restore its collection in 1815.
They bought Thomas Jefferson's entire personal collection of 6,487 books. After a period of slow growth, another fire struck the Library in its Capitol chambers in 1851, again destroying a large amount of the collection, including many of Jefferson's books. After the American Civil War, the Library of Congress grew in both size and importance, which sparked a campaign to purchase replacement copies for volumes, burned; the Library received the right of transference of all copyrighted works to deposit two copies of books, maps and diagrams printed in the United States. It began to build its collections, its development culminated between 1888 and 1894 with the construction of a separate, extensive library building across the street from the Capitol; the Library's primary mission is to research inquiries made by members of Congress, carried out through the Congressional Research Service. The Library is open to the public, although only high-ranking government officials and Library employees may check out books and materials.
James Madison is credited with the idea of creating a congressional library, first making such a proposition in 1783. The Library of Congress was subsequently established April 24, 1800 when President John Adams signed an act of Congress providing for the transfer of the seat of government from Philadelphia to the new capital city of Washington. Part of the legislation appropriated $5,000 "for the purchase of such books as may be necessary for the use of Congress... and for fitting up a suitable apartment for containing them." Books were ordered from London, the collection consisted of 740 books and three maps which were housed in the new United States Capitol. President Thomas Jefferson played an important role in establishing the structure of the Library of Congress. On January 26, 1802, he signed a bill that allowed the president to appoint the Librarian of Congress and establishing a Joint Committee on the Library to regulate and oversee it; the new law extended borrowing privileges to the President and Vice President.
The invading British army burned Washington in August 1814 during the War of 1812 and destroyed the Library of Congress and its collection of 3,000 volumes. These volumes had been left in the Senate wing of the Capitol. One of the few congressional volumes to survive was a government account book of receipts and expenditures for 1810, it was taken as a souvenir by British Admiral George Cockburn, whose family returned it to the United States government in 1940. Within a month, Thomas Jefferson offered to sell his personal library as a replacement. Congress accepted his offer in January 1815; some members of the House of Representatives opposed the outright purchase, including New Hampshire Representative Daniel Webster who wanted to return "all books of an atheistical and immoral tendency." Jefferson had spent 50 years accumulating a wide variety of books in several languages and on subjects such as philosophy, law, architecture, natural sciences, studies of classical Greece and Rome, modern inventions, hot air balloons, submarines, fossils and meteorology.
He had collected books on topics not viewed as part of a legislative library, such as cookbooks. However, he believed, he remarked: I do not know that it contains any branch of science which Congress would wish to exclude from their collection. Jefferson's collection was unique in that it was the working collection of a scholar, not a gentleman's collection for display. With the addition of his collection, the Library of Congress was transformed from a specialist's library to a more general one, his original collection was organized into a scheme based on Francis Bacon's organization of knowledge. He grouped his books into Memory and Imagination, which broke down into 44 more subdivisions; the Library followed Jefferson's organization scheme until the late 19th century, when librarian Herbert Putnam began work on a more flexible Library of Congress Classification structure that now applies to more than 138 million items. In 1851, a fire destroyed two thirds of the Jefferson collection, with only 2,000 books remaining.
By 2008, the Librarians of Congress had found replacements for all but 300 of the works that were in Jefferson's original collection. On December 22, 1851 the largest fire in the Library's history destroyed 35,000 books, about two–thi
Martha Sleeper was a film actress of the 1920s–1930s and a Broadway stage actress. She studied dancing for five years with Russian ballet master, Louis H. Chalif, at his New York dancing studio, her first public exhibitions were at Carnegie Hall at his class exhibitions. Martha Sleeper reputedly spent her first years on a sheep ranch in Wyoming, her father, William B. Sleeper, was an official of the Keith-Albee-Orpheum vaudeville circuit in New York City, her uncle was head of KAO and one of the most powerful men in the business. He would have a major impact on her career, her mother was Minnie Akass. Her father retired to Los Angeles, California in 1923 due to ill health. Martha was under contract to Hal Roach studios beginning in 1924, her father was found dead of heart disease on September 1925, in bed at his home. Martha 15 years old, with her mother and sister, were away, having taken a short trip to New York City. Sleeper's film career began in 1923 and continued until 1945, her first screen appearance, at the age of 12, was in an independent production.
After appearing in several kiddie comedies at the Christie studio she was signed by the Hal Roach studio for the Our Gang series but she outgrew that role. From 1925-27 she appeared in comedies playing opposite the studio's most popular male stars, she left the Roach studio in late 1927 and moved to the FBO studio where she starred in six silent features during 1928–29. With the coming of sound she was placed in their training program. From 1930 to 1936 she played supporting roles in many melodramas her role that of a well-bred somewhat snobbish society woman who ends up losing her man to the film's leading lady. Frustrated by the types of roles she was being offered, Martha began playing onstage in and about Los Angeles, at one point drawing raves as Eliza Doolittle in a performance of Pygmalion in 1932. After appearing in some low budget melodramas for the poverty row Monogram studio Martha and her husband, actor Hardie Albright, left Hollywood for New York in 1936 where Martha began a long run in both on- and off-Broadway plays.
In 1945, as a favor to director Leo McCarey, Martha played the role of Patsy's mother in The Bells of St. Mary's, it was her last screen role. In 1945, after appearing in The Bells of St, Martha returned to New York and played Spencer Tracy's wife in the Broadway play The Rugged Path. While In New York she turned a hobby into a thriving business, finding herself at the forefront of a fashion craze for "gadget jewelry" in the late 1930s, she had designed and manufactured whimsical pieces of costume jewelry for herself - other women saw these pieces and wanted to know where they could obtain a copy. Martha found a company that would manufacture her designs - they soon became available in department stores around the country and Martha generating a substantial sideline income in addition to her stage work. Many of these pieces were manufactured using the material Bakelite - these pieces are collectible today and bring strong prices in jewelry auctions. In 1949, she and her second husband were on an extended cruise in the Caribbean.
Her destination was the Virgin Islands and a vacation with her husband, when she reached Puerto Rico, she fell in love with the island. Terminating the cruise Martha and her husband took up permanent residence in San Juan. Looking for a new challenge, no longer interested in jewelry design, She reinvented herself one more time and began designing women's clothing and resort wear, she had her designs manufactured locally and sold them through a boutique that she established in a 300-year-old building in Old Town San Juan. She won many commissions from large corporations for unique designs, she operated this business from 1950 until her retirement in 1969. In 1969, married her third husband and left San Juan for Beaufort, South Carolina, where she spent her remaining years. Martha Sleeper died of a heart attack, aged 72, in Beaufort, South Carolina, where she had lived with her third husband, Col. Howard C. Stelling, she had no children. Many sources had cited 1907 as Sleeper's year of birth, but she was born shortly after the 1910 census was taken in April 1910.
Martha's true date of birth is June 1910, as verified by a copy of her birth certificate. No "Martha Sleeper" appears in the 1910 census records. An airline passenger list, flight CBA 611 from St. Maarten to Charlotte Amalie, VI, on 10 Sep 1962, gives a birthdate of 6-24-1910, in Illinois. A U. K. Incoming Passenger list for the RMS Queen Elizabeth, from New York to Southamptom, arriving 19 Aug 1958, gives a birthdate of 24.6.10. The Social Security Death Index records the date of birth of a "Martha Stelling" who died in March 1983 in Beaufort County, South Carolina as June 24, 1910. Sleeper's 1983 New York Times obituary, as well, was titled "Martha Sleeper Is Dead At 72." BibliographyHayward Daily Review, Silent Film Dream Gal Found in Puerto Rico, May 27, 1955, Page 24. Los Angeles Times, Her Youth No Bar To Mature Roles, May 10, 1925, Page 18. Los Angeles Times, Keith-Orpheum Former Official Succumbs Here, September 2, 1925, Page A3. Los Angeles Times and There, October 29, 1926, Page A8. Oakland Tribune, Comedienne Writes, October 31, 1926, p. W3
National Film Registry
The National Film Registry is the United States National Film Preservation Board's selection of films deserving of preservation. The NFPB, established by the National Film Preservation Act of 1988, was reauthorized by acts of Congress in 1992, 1996, 2005, again in October 2008; the NFPB's mission, to which the NFR contributes, is to ensure the survival and increased public availability of America's film heritage. The 1996 law created the non-profit National Film Preservation Foundation which, although affiliated with the NFPB, raises money from the private sector; the NFPB adds to the NFR up to 25 "culturally or aesthetically significant films" each year, showcasing the range and diversity of American film heritage to increase awareness for its preservation. A film becomes eligible for inclusion ten years after its original release. For the first selection in 1989, the public nominated 1,000 films for consideration. Members of the NFPB developed individual ballots of possible films for inclusion.
The ballots were tabulated into a list of 25 films, modified by Librarian of Congress James H. Billington and his staff at the Library for the final selection. Since 1997, members of the public have been able to nominate up to 50 films a year for the NFPB and Librarian to consider; the NFR includes films ranging from Hollywood classics to orphan films. A film is not required to be feature-length, nor is it required to have been theatrically released in the traditional sense. In addition, television programs and foreign films are not excluded from consideration, although American films are given preference; the Registry contains newsreels, silent films, student films, experimental films, short films, music videos, films out of copyright protection or in the public domain, film serials, home movies, documentaries and independent films. As of the 2018 listing, there are 750 films in the Registry; the earliest listed film is Newark Athlete, the most recent is Brokeback Mountain. Counting the 11 multi-year serials in the NFR once each by year of completion, the year with the most films selected is 1939, with 19 films from that year chosen.
The time between a film's debut and its selection varies greatly. The longest span is 121 years; the shortest span is the minimum 10 years. This table is through the 2018 induction list. For purposes of this list, multi-year serials are counted only once by year of completion. Category:United States National Film Registry films National Recording Registry These Amazing Shadows, a 2011 documentary film that tells the history and importance of the registry National Film Registry homepage Classic Movie Hub: National Film Registry List These Amazing Shadows site for Independent Lens on PBS