New Jersey is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States. It is located on a peninsula, bordered on the north and east by the state of New York along the extent of the length of New York City on its western edge. New Jersey is the fourth-smallest state by area but the 11th-most populous, with 9 million residents as of 2017, the most densely populated of the 50 U. S. states. New Jersey lies within the combined statistical areas of New York City and Philadelphia. New Jersey was the second-wealthiest U. S. state by median household income as of 2017. New Jersey was inhabited by Native Americans for more than 2,800 years, with historical tribes such as the Lenape along the coast. In the early 17th century, the Dutch and the Swedes founded the first European settlements in the state; the English seized control of the region, naming it the Province of New Jersey after the largest of the Channel Islands and granting it as a colony to Sir George Carteret and John Berkeley, 1st Baron Berkeley of Stratton.
New Jersey was the site of several decisive battles during the American Revolutionary War in the 18th century. In the 19th century, factories in cities, Paterson, Trenton, Jersey City, Elizabeth helped to drive the Industrial Revolution. New Jersey's geographic location at the center of the Northeast megalopolis, between Boston and New York City to the northeast, Philadelphia and Washington, D. C. to the southwest, fueled its rapid growth through the process of suburbanization in the second half of the 20th century. In the first decades of the 21st century, this suburbanization began reverting with the consolidation of New Jersey's culturally diverse populace toward more urban settings within the state, with towns home to commuter rail stations outpacing the population growth of more automobile-oriented suburbs since 2008. Around 180 million years ago, during the Jurassic Period, New Jersey bordered North Africa; the pressure of the collision between North America and Africa gave rise to the Appalachian Mountains.
Around 18,000 years ago, the Ice Age resulted in glaciers. As the glaciers retreated, they left behind Lake Passaic, as well as many rivers and gorges. New Jersey was settled by Native Americans, with the Lenni-Lenape being dominant at the time of contact. Scheyichbi is the Lenape name for the land, now New Jersey; the Lenape were several autonomous groups that practiced maize agriculture in order to supplement their hunting and gathering in the region surrounding the Delaware River, the lower Hudson River, western Long Island Sound. The Lenape society was divided into matrilinear clans; these clans were organized into three distinct phratries identified by their animal sign: Turtle and Wolf. They first encountered the Dutch in the early 17th century, their primary relationship with the Europeans was through fur trade; the Dutch became the first Europeans to lay claim to lands in New Jersey. The Dutch colony of New Netherland consisted of parts of modern Middle Atlantic states. Although the European principle of land ownership was not recognized by the Lenape, Dutch West India Company policy required its colonists to purchase the land that they settled.
The first to do so was Michiel Pauw who established a patronship called Pavonia in 1630 along the North River which became the Bergen. Peter Minuit's purchase of lands along the Delaware River established the colony of New Sweden; the entire region became a territory of England on June 24, 1664, after an English fleet under the command of Colonel Richard Nicolls sailed into what is now New York Harbor and took control of Fort Amsterdam, annexing the entire province. During the English Civil War, the Channel Island of Jersey remained loyal to the British Crown and gave sanctuary to the King, it was from the Royal Square in Saint Helier that Charles II of England was proclaimed King in 1649, following the execution of his father, Charles I. The North American lands were divided by Charles II, who gave his brother, the Duke of York, the region between New England and Maryland as a proprietary colony. James granted the land between the Hudson River and the Delaware River to two friends who had remained loyal through the English Civil War: Sir George Carteret and Lord Berkeley of Stratton.
The area was named the Province of New Jersey. Since the state's inception, New Jersey has been characterized by religious diversity. New England Congregationalists settled alongside Scots Presbyterians and Dutch Reformed migrants. While the majority of residents lived in towns with individual landholdings of 100 acres, a few rich proprietors owned vast estates. English Quakers and Anglicans owned large landholdings. Unlike Plymouth Colony and other colonies, New Jersey was populated by a secondary wave of immigrants who came from other colonies instead of those who migrated directly from Europe. New Jersey remained agrarian and rural throughout the colonial era, commercial farming developed sporadically; some townships, such as Burlington on the Delaware River and Perth Amboy, emerged as important ports for shipping to New York City and Philadelphia. The colony's fertile lands and tolerant religious policy drew more settlers, New Jersey's population had increased to 120,000 by 1775. Settlement for the first 10 years of English rule took place along Hackensack River and Arthur Kill –
Newark Bay is a tidal bay at the confluence of the Passaic and Hackensack Rivers in northeastern New Jersey. It is home to the Port Newark-Elizabeth Marine Terminal, the largest container shipping facility in Port of New York and New Jersey, the third largest and one of the busiest in the United States. An estuary, it is periodically dredged to accommodate ocean-going ships. Newark Bay is rectangular 5.5 miles long, varying in width from 0.6 to 1.2 miles. It is enclosed on the west by the cities of Newark and Elizabeth, on the east by Jersey City and Bayonne. At the south is Staten Island, New York and at the north Kearny Point and Droyer's Point mark the mouth of the Hackensack. Shooters Island is a bird sanctuary where the borders of Staten Island and Elizabeth meet at one point; the southern tip of Bergen Neck, known as Bergen Point, juts into the bay and lent its name to the former Bergen Point Lighthouse. Built offshore in 1849 it was replaced with a skeletal tower in the mid 20th century.
The Atlantic Ocean at Sandy Hook and Rockaway Point is 11 miles away and reached by tidal straits dredged to maintain shipping lanes. Newark Bay is connected to Upper New York Bay by the Kill Van Kull and to Raritan Bay by the Arthur Kill; the names of the channels reflect the period of Dutch colonialization. The area around the bay was called Achter Kol, which translates as behind or beyond the ridge and refers to Bergen Hill; the emergence of the Hudson Palisades begins on Bergen Neck, the peninsula between the bay and the Hudson River. Kill in Dutch means stream or channel. During the British colonial era the bay was known as Cull bay. Kill van Kull translates as channel from the ridge. Arthur Kill is an anglicization of achter kill meaning back channel, which would speak to its location behind Staten Island. Many of the maritime and distribution facilities along the bay are part of Foreign Trade Zone 49 The bay is spanned by the Vincent R. Casciano Memorial Bridge which carries the Newark Bay Extension of the New Jersey Turnpike.
The Upper Bay Bridge is a vertical lift bridge north of the Casciano, now used by CSX Transportation for freight shipment, including the notable Juice Train. Central Railroad of New Jersey's Newark Bay Bridge crossed the bay from 1864 to connect its Communipaw Terminal. Last used in 1978, it was determined to be a hazard to maritime navigation and demolished in the 1980s. Elizabeth is the site of the first English speaking European settlement in New Jersey, its port at the southern end of the bay a major maritime hub during the colonial era. Jersey Gardens, an outlet mall, has been located north of Elizabethport since 1999. There are plans to construct a mixed used community adjacent to it along the bay; the western edge of Newark Bay was shallow tidal wetlands covering 12 square miles. In 1910s the City of Newark began excavating an angled shipping channel in the northeastern quadrant of the wetland which formed the basis of Port Newark. Work on the channel and terminal facilities on its north side accelerated during World War I, when the federal government took control of Port Newark.
During the war there were close to 25,000 troops stationed at the Newark Bay Shipyard. The City decided to expand the port at the end of the war; the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey was formed in 1921 and the Newark Bay Channels were authorized by the Rivers and Harbors Acts in 1922. Shipping operations languished after the war, in 1927, the City of Newark started construction of Newark Liberty International Airport on the northwest quadrant of the wetlands which lay between Port Newark and the edge of the developed city. Port Authority took over the operations of Port Newark and the Newark Airport in 1948 and began modernizing and expanding both facilities southward. In 1958, the Port Authority dredged another shipping channel which straightened the course of Bound Brook, the tidal inlet forming the boundary between Newark and Elizabeth. Dredged materials was used to create new upland south of the new Elizabeth Channel, where the Port Authority constructed the Elizabeth Marine Terminal.
The first shipping facility to open upon the Elizabeth Channel was the new 90-acre Sea-Land Container Terminal, the prototype for every other container terminal constructed thereafter. The Ironbound is an industrial area along the bay which becomes residential farther inland near Downtown Newark; the Central Railroad of New Jersey first built the Newark and New York Railroad across the rivers and tip of New Barbadoes Neck in 1869. One bridge was taken out of service in 1946 after a ship collided into it. Passenger service on the other, the PD Draw, was discontinued in 1967; the Kearny Point peninsula is site of a massive distribution facility. It comprises the former Western Electric Kearny Works and Federal Shipbuilding and Drydock Company, the shipyards of which operated from 1917 to 1949 and played a prominent role in both World War I and World War II. While there was some maritime development on the eastern banks of the bay closer Bergen Point most of the eastern shore abuts residential and recreational areas.
The Hackensack RiverWalk is a completed linear park greenway intended to link the string of parks along its banks and that of the Hackensack River from the Bayonne Bridge to the Hackensack Meadowlands in Secaucus and North Bergen. In Bayonne much of the bay has not seen bulkhead development, hence has a natural shore line; the city's largest parks are its shores. At Droyer's Point recreational and residential development have included a promenade; the Howland Hook Marine Terminal is a container port facility located at the northwestern corner of Staten Island at the en
Garfield, New Jersey
Garfield is a city in Bergen County, New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the city's population was 30,487, reflecting an increase of 701 from the 29,786 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 3,059 from the 26,727 counted in the 1990 Census; when the area, now Garfield was first developed in 1873, it was known as East Passaic. In 1881, the community's name was changed to Garfield in honor of President of the United States James Garfield. There are two explanations given for the circumstances behind the renaming. According to one, shortly after Garfield was elected to the presidency the founder of East Passaic said, "tell everyone...don't speak of East Passaic anymore. Seven months President Garfield was assassinated but his name remained with the community; the second theory holds that after Garfield's death in 1881, a new train station was named in his honor, which in turn led to the surrounding area becoming associated with his name as well. Garfield was incorporated as a borough on March 15, 1898, from portions of Saddle River Township and Wallington.
At the time, the New Jersey Legislature set Garfield's boundaries. On April 19, 1917, the borough became the City of Garfield, based on the results of a referendum held two days earlier. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city had a total area of 2.160 square miles, including 2.099 square miles of land and 0.061 square miles of water. Unincorporated communities and place names located or within the township include Belmont, Bogart Heights, Dundee Dam and Plauderville; the city has land borders with adjacent Elmwood Park, Saddle Brook and South Hackensack. The Saddle River is a shared border with Wallington. There are three bridges over the Passaic River crossing the municipal and county line to Passaic and Clifton in Passaic County; the United States Environmental Protection Agency has identified Garfield as the site of groundwater contaminated hexavalent chromium from a spill in 1983 at the E. C. Electroplating Corporation site. In 2016, the EPA announced a $37 million project to cleanup contamination at the site using Superfund money, as the company responsible for the spill of 3,600 US gallons of chromic acid is no longer in business.
The borough is home to an architecturally prominent Russian Orthodox church, which serves the growing Ukrainian American community in western Bergen County. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 30,487 people, 11,073 households, 7,717.881 families residing in the city. The population density was 14,524.8 per square mile. There were 11,788 housing units at an average density of 5,616.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 76.73% White, 6.50% Black or African American, 0.43% Native American, 2.22% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 10.85% from other races, 3.26% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 32.24% of the population. There were 11,073 households out of which 33.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.2% were married couples living together, 17.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.3% were non-families. 24.7% of all households were made up of individuals, 9.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.75 and the average family size was 3.29.
In the city, the population was spread out with 23.3% under the age of 18, 9.2% from 18 to 24, 30.9% from 25 to 44, 25.4% from 45 to 64, 11.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35.5 years. For every 100 females there were 91.3 males. For every 100 females ages 18 and older there were 89.0 males. The Census Bureau's 2006–2010 American Community Survey showed that median household income was $51,407 and the median family income was $56,701. Males had a median income of $42,927 versus $33,231 for females; the per capita income for the city was $24,022. About 9.8% of families and 13.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 23.0% of those under age 18 and 16.2% of ages 65 years or over. Same-sex couples headed 68 households in 2010; as of the 2000 United States Census there were 29,786 people, 11,250 households, 7,425 families residing in the city. The population density was 13,976.0 people per square mile. There were 11,698 housing units at an average density of 5,488.8 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the city was 82.11% White, 2.98% African American, 0.33% Native American, 2.69% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 8.10% from other races, 3.79% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 20.11% of the population. There were 11,250 households out of which 30.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.5% were married couples living together, 13.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.0% were non-families. 27.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.64 and the average family size was 3.26. In the city the age distribution of the population shows 22.4% under the age of 18, 9.6% from 18 to 24, 33.2% from 25 to 44, 20.8% from 45 to 64, 14.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 95.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.0 males. The median income for a household in the city was $42,748, the med
Passaic County, New Jersey
Passaic County is a county in the U. S. state of New Jersey, part of the New York metropolitan area. As of the 2010 Census, the population was 501,226, an increase of 12,177 from the 489,049 counted in the 2000 Census, As of the 2017 Census estimate, the county's population was 512,607, making it the state's ninth-most populous county, marking an increase of 2.3% from 2010. Its county seat is Paterson; the most populous place was Paterson, with 146,199 residents at the time of the 2010 Census, more than 29% of the county's population, while West Milford covered 80.32 square miles, the largest total area of any municipality and more than 40% of the county's area. Passaic County was created on February 1837, from portions of Bergen County and Essex County; the landscape of Passaic County, near the north edge of New Jersey, spans some hilly areas and has dozens of lakes. The county covers a region about 30 × 20 miles wide; the region is split including portions of Interstate 287 and I-80, near Paterson.
The Garden State Parkway cuts near Clifton. The Passaic River winds northeast past Totowa into Paterson, where the river turns south to Passaic town, on the way to Newark, further south; the highest point is any one of six areas on Bearfort Ridge in West Milford at 1,480 feet above sea level. The lowest elevation is 20 feet along the Passaic River in Clifton; the southeastern, more populous half of the county is either mildly hilly. The northwestern section is mountainous. According to the 2010 Census, the county had a total area of 197.10 square miles, including 184.59 square miles of land and 12.51 square miles of water. In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Paterson have ranged from a low of 19 °F in January to a high of 86 °F in July, although a record low of −11 °F was recorded in January 1961 and a record high of 105 °F was recorded in September 1953. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 2.86 inches in February to 4.78 inches in September. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 501,226 people, 166,785 households, 120,919.125 families residing in the county.
The population density was 2,715.3 per square mile. There were 175,966 housing units at an average density of 953.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 62.65% White, 12.83% Black or African American, 0.67% Native American, 5.01% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 15.11% from other races, 3.71% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 37.04% of the population. There were 166,785 households out of which 34.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.7% were married couples living together, 17.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.5% were non-families. 22.6% of all households were made up of individuals, 9.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.94 and the average family size was 3.45. In the county, the population was spread out with 24.9% under the age of 18, 10.3% from 18 to 24, 27.1% from 25 to 44, 25.7% from 45 to 64, 12% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36.1 years.
For every 100 females there were 94.2 males. For every 100 females ages 18 and older there were 91.1 males. Same-sex couples headed one in 149 households in 2010; as of the 2000 United States Census there were 489,049 people, 163,856 households, 119,614 families residing in the county. The population density was 2,639 people per square mile. There were 170,048 housing units at an average density of 918 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 62.32% White, 13.22% Black or African American, 0.44% Native American, 3.69% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 16.24% from other races, 4.05% from two or more races. 29.95% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. Among those who reported their ancestry, 16.6% were of Italian, 9.5% Irish, 8.1% German and 6.2% Polish ancestry according to Census 2000. There were 163,856 households out of which 35.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.50% were married couples living together, 16.00% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.00% were non-families.
22.20% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.92 and the average family size was 3.42. In the county, the population was spread out with 26.10% under the age of 18, 9.30% from 18 to 24, 31.30% from 25 to 44, 21.30% from 45 to 64, 12.10% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.00 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.80 males. The median income for a household in the county was $49,210, the median income for a family was $56,054. Males had a median income of $38,740 versus $29,954 for females; the per capita income for the county was $21,370. About 9.40% of families and 12.30% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.30% of those under age 18 and 9.20% of those age 65 or over. The Passaic County Court House and Administrative Building complex is located at the county seat in Paterson. In Passaic County's commission form of government, the Board of Chosen Freeholders discharge both executive and legislative responsibilities.
Seven Freeholders are elected at-large for three-year terms on a staggered basis. A Freeholder Director and Freeholder Deputy Director are elected from among the seven Freeholders a
National Register of Historic Places
The National Register of Historic Places is the United States federal government's official list of districts, buildings and objects deemed worthy of preservation for their historical significance. A property listed in the National Register, or located within a National Register Historic District, may qualify for tax incentives derived from the total value of expenses incurred preserving the property; the passage of the National Historic Preservation Act in 1966 established the National Register and the process for adding properties to it. Of the more than one million properties on the National Register, 80,000 are listed individually; the remainder are contributing resources within historic districts. For most of its history the National Register has been administered by the National Park Service, an agency within the United States Department of the Interior, its goals are to help property owners and interest groups, such as the National Trust for Historic Preservation, coordinate and protect historic sites in the United States.
While National Register listings are symbolic, their recognition of significance provides some financial incentive to owners of listed properties. Protection of the property is not guaranteed. During the nomination process, the property is evaluated in terms of the four criteria for inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places; the application of those criteria has been the subject of criticism by academics of history and preservation, as well as the public and politicians. Historic sites outside the country proper, but associated with the United States are listed. Properties can be nominated in a variety of forms, including individual properties, historic districts, multiple property submissions; the Register categorizes general listings into one of five types of properties: district, structure, building, or object. National Register Historic Districts are defined geographical areas consisting of contributing and non-contributing properties; some properties are added automatically to the National Register when they become administered by the National Park Service.
These include National Historic Landmarks, National Historic Sites, National Historical Parks, National Military Parks, National Memorials, some National Monuments. On October 15, 1966, the Historic Preservation Act created the National Register of Historic Places and the corresponding State Historic Preservation Offices; the National Register consisted of the National Historic Landmarks designated before the Register's creation, as well as any other historic sites in the National Park system. Approval of the act, amended in 1980 and 1992, represented the first time the United States had a broad-based historic preservation policy; the 1966 act required those agencies to work in conjunction with the SHPO and an independent federal agency, the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, to confront adverse effects of federal activities on historic preservation. To administer the newly created National Register of Historic Places, the National Park Service of the U. S. Department of the Interior, with director George B.
Hartzog Jr. established an administrative division named the Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation. Hartzog charged OAHP with creating the National Register program mandated by the 1966 law. Ernest Connally was the Office's first director. Within OAHP new divisions were created to deal with the National Register; the division administered several existing programs, including the Historic Sites Survey and the Historic American Buildings Survey, as well as the new National Register and Historic Preservation Fund. The first official Keeper of the Register was an architectural historian. During the Register's earliest years in the late 1960s and early 1970s, organization was lax and SHPOs were small and underfunded. However, funds were still being supplied for the Historic Preservation Fund to provide matching grants-in-aid to listed property owners, first for house museums and institutional buildings, but for commercial structures as well. A few years in 1979, the NPS history programs affiliated with both the U.
S. National Parks system and the National Register were categorized formally into two "Assistant Directorates." Established were the Assistant Directorate for Archeology and Historic Preservation and the Assistant Directorate for Park Historic Preservation. From 1978 until 1981, the main agency for the National Register was the Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service of the United States Department of the Interior. In February 1983, the two assistant directorates were merged to promote efficiency and recognize the interdependency of their programs. Jerry L. Rogers was selected to direct this newly merged associate directorate, he was described as a skilled administrator, sensitive to the need for the NPS to work with SHPOs, local governments. Although not described in detail in the 1966 act, SHPOs became integral to the process of listing properties on the National Register; the 1980 amendments of the 1966 law further defined the responsibilities of SHPOs concerning the National Register.
Several 1992 amendments of the NHPA added a category to the National Register, known as Traditional Cultural Properties: those properties associated with Native American or Hawaiian groups
Passaic, New Jersey
Passaic is a city in Passaic County, New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the city had a total population of 69,781, maintaining its status as the 15th largest municipality in New Jersey with an increase of 1,920 residents from the 2000 Census population of 67,861, which had in turn increased by 9,820 from the 58,041 counted in the 1990 Census. Passaic is the tenth most densely populated municipality in the entire United States with 22,000+ people per square mile. Located north of Newark on the Passaic River, it was first settled in 1678 by Dutch traders, as Acquackanonk Township; the city and river draw their name from the Lenape word "pahsayèk", variously attributed to mean "valley" or "place where the land splits." The city originated from a Dutch settlement on the Passaic River established in 1679, called Acquackanonk. Industrial growth began in the 19th century, as Passaic became metalworking center. A commercial center formed around a wharf at the foot of present-day Main Ave.
This came to be known as Acquackanonk Landing, the settlement that grew around it became known as the Village of Acquackanonk Landing or Acquackanonk Landing Settlement. In 1854 Alfred Speer and Judge Henry Simmons were principals in a political battle over the naming of village. Simmons wished to keep the old name, while Speer wished to simplify it to Passaic Village. Speer was losing the battle, but convinced the U. S. Postmaster General to adopt the name, hung a Passaic sign at the local railroad depot; the de facto name change was effective. Passaic was formed as an unincorporated village within Acquackanonk Township on March 10, 1869. and was incorporated as an independent village on March 21, 1871. Passaic was chartered as a city on April 2, 1873; the Okonite company owned an industrial site here from 1878 to 1993. It was the company's headquarters and primary manufacturing plant for most of the company's history. Early uses of the company's insulated wires include some of the earliest telegraph cables, the wiring for Thomas Edison's first generating plant, Pearl Street Station in Lower Manhattan.
The property was turned into a furniture factory, whose owners redeveloped into an upscale mall, Contempo Plaza, in 2015. The 1926 Passaic Textile Strike led by union organizer Albert Weisbord saw 36,000 mill workers leave their jobs to oppose wage cuts demanded by the textile industry; the workers fought to keep their wages unchanged but did not receive recognition of their union by the mill owners. Passaic has been called "The Birthplace of Television". In 1931, experimental television station W2XCD began transmitting from DeForest Radio Corporation in Passaic, it has been called the first television station to transmit to the home, was the first such station to broadcast a feature film. Allen B. DuMont DeForest's chief engineer, opened pioneering TV manufacturer DuMont Laboratories in Passaic in 1937, started the DuMont Television Network, the world's first commercial television network, in 1946. In 1992, the voters of Passaic Township in Morris County voted to change the name of their municipality to Long Hill Township, to avoid confusion between the City of Passaic and the rural community 22 miles away, as well as association with the more urban city.
Passaic is served by two regional newspapers, The Record and Herald News, both owned by Gannett company and predecessor North Jersey media Group. The city had many of its own newspaper companies, among them Speer's The Passaic Item, the Passaic City Herald, the Passaic Daily Times, the Passaic City Record, the Passaic Daily News, the Passaic Daily Herald, the Passaic Herald News; the Passaic Herald News went through several mergers with other Passaic County newspapers to become the current Herald News. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city had a total area of 3.244 square miles, including 3.146 square miles of land and 0.098 square miles of water. Unincorporated communities and place names located or within the city include Davis Bridge and Pleasant Plains. Passaic's only land border is with neighboring Clifton, which borders Passaic to the north and west; the Passaic River forms the eastern border of Passaic. Four additional neighboring towns in Bergen County across the river from Passaic are East Rutherford, Garfield and Wallington.
Passaic and Wallington are connected via the Gregory Avenue, Market Street, Eighth Street bridges. The city connects with Garfield at Passaic Street Bridge; the connection with Rutherford is via the Union Avenue Bridge, located on an extension off of the northbound lanes of Route 21. One cannot cross from Passaic into East Rutherford by vehicle directly, however, as there is no bridge connecting the two municipalities. Drivers wanting to cross from Passaic to East Rutherford must use either the Gregory Avenue Bridge, located near Wallington's border with East Rutherford, or the Union Avenue Bridge, where East Rutherford can be accessed via surface streets. Passaic is located 10 miles from New York City, 12 miles from Newark Airport. Passaic has several business districts: Main Avenue begins in Passaic Park and follows the curve of the river to downtown. Broadway runs east -- west through the center of the city. Main Street has many shops and businesses reflecting the city's Latino and Eastern European populations.
A girder bridge is a bridge that uses girders as the means of supporting its deck. The two most common types of modern steel girder bridge are plate and box; the term "girder" is used interchangeably with "beam" in reference to bridge design. However, some authors define beam bridges differently from girder bridges. A girder may be made of steel. Many shorter bridges in rural areas where they may be exposed to water overtopping and corrosion, utilize concrete box girder; the term "girder" is used to refer to a steel beam. In a beam or girder bridge, the beams themselves are the primary support for the deck, are responsible for transferring the load down to the foundation. Material type and weight all affect how much weight a beam can hold. Due to the properties of inertia, the height of a girder is the most significant factor to affect its load capacity. Longer spans, more traffic, or wider spacing of the beams will all directly result in a deeper beam. In truss and arch-style bridges, the girders are still the main support for the deck, but the load is transferred through the truss or arch to the foundation.
These designs allow bridges to span larger distances without requiring the depth of the beam to increase beyond what is practical. However, with the inclusion of a truss or arch the bridge is no longer a true girder bridge. Girder bridges have existed for millennia in a variety of forms depending on resources available; the oldest types of bridges are the beam and swing bridges, they are still built today. These types of bridges have been built by human beings since ancient times, with the initial design being much simpler than what we enjoy today; as technology advanced the methods were improved and were based on the utilization and manipulation of rock, stone and other materials that would serve to be stronger and longer. In ancient Rome, the techniques for building bridges included the driving of wooden poles to serve as the bridge columns and filling the column space with various construction materials; the bridges constructed by Romans were at the time basic but dependable and strong while serving a important purpose in social life.
As the Industrial Revolution came and went, new materials with improved physical properties were utilized. All bridges consist of two main parts: the substructure, the superstructure; the superstructure is everything from the bearing pads, up - it is what supports the loads and is the most visible part of the bridge. The substructure is the foundation, transfers loads from the superstructure to the ground. Both must work together to create a long-lasting bridge; the superstructure consists of several parts: The deck is the roadway or walkway surface. In roadway applications it is a poured reinforced concrete slab, but can be steel grid or wood plank; the deck includes any road lanes, sidewalks, parapets or railings, miscellaneous items like drainage and lighting. The supporting structure consists of the concrete system supporting the deck; this includes the girders themselves, diaphragms or cross-braces, the truss or arch system. In a girder bridge this would include the bracing system; the girders are the primary load support, while the bracing system both allows the girders to act together as a unit, prevents the beams from toppling.
The job of the bearing pads is to allow the superstructure to move somewhat independently of the substructure. All materials expand and contract with temperature - if a bridge were rigid, this would cause unnecessary stress on the structure and could lead to failure or damage. By fixing the superstructure at one end, while allowing the other end of a span to move in the longitudinal direction, thermal stresses are alleviated and the lifespan of the bridge increased; the substructure is made of multiple parts as well: An abutment is the foundation that transfers the bridge structure to the roadway or walkway on solid ground. A pier is an intermediate support; the cap is the part. Depending on the type of support structure, there may not be a cap. Wall piers and stub abutments do not require a cap, while a multi-column, hammerhead, or pile-bent pier will have a cap; the stem or stub is the main body of the foundation. It transfers the load through the cap, down to the footer; the footer is the structure.
There are two primary types of systems: a spread footer, a simple concrete slab resting on bedrock. Another system utilizes steel-reinforced concrete "pillars" below the stem. A rolled steel girder is a girder, fabricated by rolling a blank cylinder of steel through a series of dies to create the desired shape; these create standardized wide flange beam shapes up to 100 feet in length. A plate girder is a girder, fabricated by welding plates together to create the desired shape; the fabricator receives large plates of steel in the desired thickness cuts the flanges and web from the plate in the desired length and shape. Plate girders can have a greater height than rolled steel girders and are not limited to standardized shapes; the ability to customize a girder to the exact load conditions allows the bridge design to be more efficient. Plate girder can be used for spans between more than 100 metres. Stiffeners are welded between the compression flange and the web to increase the streng