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Passenger transport executive

In the United Kingdom, passenger transport executives are local government bodies which are responsible for public transport within large urban areas. They are accountable to bodies called integrated transport authorities, or where they have been formed, to combined authorities; the PTEs joined together to form the Passenger Transport Executive Group of which Strathclyde Partnership for Transport and Transport for London were both associate members. In 2016 it became the Urban Transport Group; the first PTEs and PTAs were established in the late 1960s by the Transport Act 1968 as transport authorities serving large conurbations, by the transport minister Barbara Castle. Prior to this, public transport was run by individual local authorities and private companies, with little co-ordination; the PTEs took over municipal bus operations from individual councils, became responsible for managing local rail networks. The 1968 Act created five PTE/As; these were: West Midlands on 1 October 1969 SELNEC on 1 November 1969 Merseyside on 1 December 1969 Tyneside on 1 January 1970 Greater Glasgow on 1 June 1973 Initially they covered different areas to the ones they cover today.

Local government in England was re-organised in 1974 by the Local Government Act 1972. The re-organisation created the six metropolitan counties, the existing four English PTEs were named after, made to match the borders of the new counties. In addition to this, two new PTEs were created for the newly established metropolitan counties of South Yorkshire and West Yorkshire; the 1974 reorganisation abolished the PTAs, their role was taken over by the Metropolitan county councils. However, when the MCCs were abolished in 1986, the PTAs were re-created. Local government re-organisation in Scotland in 1975 created the region of Strathclyde, the existing Greater Glasgow PTE was named after, made to cover the new region. PTAs were recreated by the Local Government Act 1985 when the metropolitan county councils were abolished; the Local Government etc. Act 1994 had the same effect in the Strathclyde Region; until the mid-1980s the PTEs operated bus services in their areas, but bus deregulation by the Transport Act 1985 forced them to separate their bus operations into new arms lengths companies.

These were called PTC's. The PTE's were stripped of their powers to regulate the fares and timetables of private bus operators. A number of changes to PTE/As were made under the Local Transport Act 2008; the main changes made were: Passenger transport authorities have been renamed as integrated transport authorities although PTEs have retained their current names. The bill allows for the possibility of new PTEs being created, for the areas of existing ones to be altered; the bill has strengthened the powers of PTEs/ITAs to regulate bus services, makes ITAs the sole transport planning authorities in their areas. The integrated transport authorities from 2008 onwards are the bodies which administer the executives, they are responsible for funding the PTEs, making the policies which the PTEs carry out on their behalf. PTEs secure services on behalf of the ITA but it is the ITA that pays for them. In the six metropolitan counties, councillors are appointed to the ITAs or the transport committees of combined authorities by the metropolitan boroughs, or in the case of Strathclyde by the twelve unitary authority councils in the area.

The ITAs are not "precepting authorities", so they have to negotiate a "levy" every year, applied to council tax collected by the local authorities in the areas that they serve. The executive requests a budget and the council representatives on the ITAs negotiate from this position, it is worth bearing in mind that PTEs do not speaking, own anything - their role is a statutory one to provide services using the resources provided to them by the ITAs. There are six passenger transport executives in England, covering areas which correspond - though are not limited - to metropolitan counties; when a combined authority is created the integrated transport area and integrated transport authority are replaced with the combined area and combined authority. This happened in Greater Manchester on 1 April 2011 and happened in three other integrated transport areas from 1 April 2014: to become the larger Liverpool City Region, as well as Sheffield City Region, West Yorkshire combined areas. In West Yorkshire and West Midlands, the PTE has been absorbed into the combined authority, is no longer a separate legal entity.

The ITAs are now responsible for subsidising bus services which are not profitable to run but are considered necessary, the PTEs organise this role on their behalf. They are responsible for providing bus shelters and stations. Most PTEs do not operate public transport services. There are a limited number of cases where they do - Liverpool City Region's Merseytravel, acting as a sui generis authority, leases the franchise to operate its Merseyrail publicly owned railway service, the Tyne and Wear PTE operates the Tyne and Wear Metro, Strathclyde Passenger Transport operates the Glasgow Subway. In Liverpool City Region and Tyne and Wear, some ferry services are operated by the PTEs; the PTEs, on the ITAs' behalf, have retained more powers over local train services, w

Robert Reid (author)

Robert H. "Rob" Reid is entrepreneur. He is the author of two cyberthriller novels, Year Zero: A Novel, After On: A Novel of Silicon Valley, as well as a non-fiction book, Architects of the Web, about the rise of the internet business. Reid is the founder of Inc.. Robert Reid was born in New York City, grew up in Darien, Connecticut; as an undergraduate at Stanford University he studied International Relations. He has an MBA from Harvard. In 1994, Reid moved to Silicon Valley to work for Silicon Graphics, where he managed the company's relations with Netscape. After Silicon Graphics, Reid became a venture capitalist, he continued to write as well, for places such as Wired, including a 1997 cover story about online video. Reid is the author of four books, Architects of the Web, a book about the Silicon Valley, Year Zero, a work of fiction, Year One, a book about Harvard Business School, "After On: A Novel of Silicon Valley", he wrote his first book, Year One, an examination of student life, as a student at Harvard.

The paperback was released by Avon the following year, in the wake of positive reviews from Business Week and others. His second book, Architects of the Web, was written 1997, chronicled the rise of the Internet as a commercial medium as well as rising entrepreneurs like Marc Andreessen of Netscape, Jerry Yang of Yahoo and Rob Glaser of RealNetworks, it was positively reviewed and released in paperback in 1999. In July 2012, Random House/Del Rey published Reid’s third book, Year Zero, a work of science fiction; the plot revolves around alien cultures coming into contact with Earth music. The resulting fines and penalties from copyright infringement have bankrupted the whole universe. Humans own everything—and the aliens are not amused. In August 2017, Random House/Del Rey published Reid’s fourth book,'After On: A Novel of Silicon Valley, a cyberthriller rooted in science fiction; the plot involves the rise of a superintelligent AI and involves elements concerning data privacy and government intrusion, post-Tinder romance, nihilistic terrorism, artificial consciousness, synthetic biology.

Reid was the sole founder of the online music company, where he served as CEO and as Executive Chairman. In 2001, launched Rhapsody, an unlimited music streaming service for $9.99 a month—the first licensed service of its kind. In 2003, the company was acquired by RealNetworks. MTV purchased Rhapsody from RealNetworks for $230 million. In March 1999, Reid became the founding outside board member of IGN Entertainment. IGN went public in March of the following year and was acquired by News Corp in September 2005 for $650MM. In March 2012, Reid gave a TED talk called "The $8 Billion iPod." He explained his idea of "copyright math." The talk satirized the information provided by entertainment lobbyists and lawyers to indicate losses accrued by the entertainment industry due to "copyright theft." Reid is married to G4 technology journalist Morgan Webb. The two collaborated on the online show Webbalert — a daily video podcast covering developments in the tech world. WebbAlert ran until 2009.

Robert Reid at TED

Pokémon Crystal

Pokémon Crystal Version is a role-playing video game developed by Game Freak and published by Nintendo for the Game Boy Color. It is an enhanced version of Pokémon Gold and Silver, is part of the second generation of the Pokémon video game series, it was released in Japan on December 14, 2000, North America on July 29, 2001 and Europe on November 2, 2001. On January 26, 2018, Pokémon Crystal was re-released worldwide via the Nintendo 3DS Virtual Console; the gameplay of Pokémon Crystal is the same as in Gold and Silver, although it has several new features. It is the first Pokémon game to allow players to choose the sex of their character, while the character was always male. Pokémon have animated sprites; this feature was absent in Pokémon Ruby and Sapphire and Pokémon FireRed and LeafGreen, before reappearing in Pokémon Emerald and all subsequent games. In addition, a couple of subplots were added, one involving the legendary Pokémon Suicune, featured on the front cover of the game, the other involving the Unown.

The game's most significant addition is the Battle Tower, a new building which allows players to participate in Pokémon Stadium-like fights. The Japanese edition of the game was bundled with the Mobile Adapter GB, a device that allowed for connecting with other players via a mobile phone; the setting and story remains the same as Pokémon Gold and Silver. Pokémon Crystal was well received by critics, although many commented that there were just not enough new additions and features to set it apart from Pokémon Gold and Silver. Craig Harris of IGN gave the game an "outstanding" 9 out of 10 stating, "The final Game Boy Color edition is the version to get if you aren't one of the upteenth billion owners of the previous games, with Crystal's slight updates to the design and graphics, but there's not much in this edition that makes it a "must buy" for folks who own a copy or two of the previous editions". In Japan, Famitsu magazine scored the game a 34 out of 40, it was the second best-selling Game Boy Color game in Japan, with 1,871,307 copies sold.

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Clarke, Irwin & Company

Clarke, Irwin & Company was a Canadian publishing house based in Toronto, Ontario. Established in 1930, it was purchased by Thomas Nelson Publishing in 2002; the company published works by prominent Canadian authors and poets, including Robertson Davies, Emily Carr, A. Y. Jackson, Adele Wiseman, Timothy Findley, Alden Nowlan; the company was known as a producer of educational works and textbooks. In 1930, William H. Clarke of Maclean-Hunter Publishing and the Macmillan Company of Canada, partnered with John C. W. Irwin, a Toronto bookseller, they were joined by Clarke's wife and Irwin's sister. The company established publishing arrangements with several British and American book companies, including the University of London Press, George G. Harrap & Co. Henry Holt & Co. and Rinehart & Co. The company started a lucrative trade in public university textbooks in the mid-1930s. William Clarke began a partnership with the Oxford University Press in 1936; the Canadian division of the company had seen hard times during the Great Depression, after the death of its director Samuel Gundy, William Clarke was able to take control of OUP.

The two imprints operated from the same address for the next thirteen years. The partnership was responsible for the first Bible printed and bound in Canada; the company saw commercial success with a Canadian writer with the publication of Emily Carr's Klee Wyck. Although released by OUP, Irwin published an abridged educational version used in Canadian schools; the collection of memoirs won the 1941 Governor General's Award for Literary Merit. By the early 1940s, the relationship between William Clarke and John Irwin had frayed. Irwin, a graduate from the University of Toronto's Faculty of Forestry, was an outspoken conservationist. Backlash from Irwin's many public speeches may have led to arguments between the two men. In 1943, Irwin started a rival company, the Book Society of Canada. After William Clarke died in 1955, Irene Irwin Clarke took over much of the managerial duties. By the 1960s, Irwin had acquired publication rights from several more American and British publishing houses. A partnership with Jonathan Cape had popular spy novelists Ian Fleming and Len Deighton published under Clarke, Irwin in Canada.

Through Chatto & Windus, the company was able to print several backlists, including authors such as Fyodor Dostoevsky and Lawrence Durrell. In 1972, Irwin became the first Canadian publisher to have a children's book editor when they hired author Janet Lunn; the company did well with its textbook division until the late 1960s, when the acquisition policies of Canadian public schools changed, ending preferential treatment for the company. Clarke, Irwin, & Company went into decline in the 1970s, reducing its editorial staff from forty-two to nine. William and Irene Clarke's son, William Clarke, became managing director in the 1980s. Government loans kept it afloat until 1983, it was purchased by former partner John Irwin's Book Society of Canada, now run by John's son. The imprint would see several ownership changes until it was purchased by Thomas Nelson Publishing in 2002, which saw the end of the name in the publishing business. Apart from Carr's Klee Wyck, Irwin had success with several other art related books, including A.

Y. Jackson's autobiography, A Painter's Country: The Autobiography of A. Y. Jackson as well as a popular collection of Jackson's sketches, A. Y.'s Canada: Pencil Drawings by A. Y. Jackson. Robertson Davies' first works were published by the company, including educational books like Shakespeare for Young Players and novels including The Diary of Samuel Marchbanks and Tempest-Tost. Although not a major source of poetry, Irwin had success with Alden Nowlan's collection Bread and Salt in 1968. Quebec playwright Gratien Gélinas published several of his plays with the company. Timothy Findley was a late acquisition in 1978, before the sale to the Book Society of Canada; the company published many non-fiction works, its textbooks and readers were common in Canadian schools. The "Canadian Portraits Series" introduced younger readers to Canadian authors. William Kilbourn's biography of William Lyon Mackenzie, The Firebrand, was received well among critics; the Shape of Scandal, by journalist and civil servant Richard Gwyn, was one of the company's best selling books of the 1960s.

Bruce Hutchison's The Fraser, a work on British Columbia's Fraser River, was part of Rinehart and Company's popular Rivers of America series. Hilda Neatby's So Little for the Mind caused public debate about Canada's education system upon its release in 1953. MacSkimming, Roy; the perilous trade: book publishing in Canada, 1946–2006. Toronto, Ontario: McClelland & Stewart. ISBN 9780771054945. Donnelly, Judy; the archive of Clarke, Irwin & Company Limited. Hamilton, Ontario: McMaster University Library

Aflaj Irrigation Systems of Oman

The Aflaj Irrigation Systems of Oman are ancient water channels from 500 AD located in the regions of Dakhiliyah and Batinah. However, they represent a type of irrigation system as old as 5000 years in the region named as Qanat or Kariz water supply)|Kariz]] as named in Persia."Aflaj" is the plural of "Falaj", which means "split into parts" in classical Arabic. This irrigation system divided the water among all the inhabitants; the complex included watchtowers to protect it, but mosques and other buildings. In 2006, five Aflaj Irrigation Systems of Oman were added to the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites: Falaj Al-Khatmeen, Falaj Al-Malki, Falaj Daris, Falaj Al-Mayassar and Falaj Al-Jeela. Qanat

2011 Kazakhstan Cup

The 2011 Kazakhstan Cup was the 20th season of the Kazakhstan Cup, the annual nationwide football cup competition of Kazakhstan since the independence of the country. The competition will end on a yet unknown date. Lokomotiv Astana were the defending champions; the winner of the competition will qualify for the first qualifying round of the 2012–13 UEFA Europa League. The draw was conducted on 25 March 2010 at the offices of the Football Federation of Kazakhstan. Entering this round were 28 clubs from both the 2011 Premier League and First Division seasons. Both 2010 cup finalists, Lokomotiv Astana and Shakhter Karagandy, were given a bye to Round 2; the matches took place on 13 April 2011. Entering this round of the competition were the 14 winners from Round 1 and the two finalists from last year's cup competition, Lokomotiv Astana and Shakhter Karagandy; these matches took place on 20 April 2011. Entering this round of the competition were the eight winners from Round 2; these matches took place on 11 May 2011.

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