Eyn geystlich Gesangk Buchleyn
Eyn geystlich Gesangk Buchleyn, sometimes called First Wittenberg Hymnal and Chorgesangbuch, was the first German hymnal for choir, published in Wittenberg in 1524 by Johann Walter who collaborated with Martin Luther. It contains 32 sacred songs, including 24 by Luther, in settings by Walter for three to five parts with the melody in the tenor. Luther wrote a preface for the part books; the collection has been called the root of all Protestant song music. Martin Luther used hymns in German to affirm his ideas of reformation and to have the congregation take part in church services. Eyn geystlich Gesangk Buchleyn was the third German hymnal, after the "Achtliederbuch", published in Nürnberg by Jobst Gutnecht, the "Erfurt Enchiridion", published in Erfurt, both dating from 1524. Eyn geystlich Gesangk Buchleyn was published in Wittenberg and is referred to as the first Wittenberg hymnal, it came with a foreword by Martin Luther: That it is good, pleasing to God, for us to sing spiritual songs is, I think, a truth whereof no Christian can be ignorant.
Accordingly, to make a good beginning and to encourage others who can do it better, I have myself, with some others, put together a few hymns, in order to bring into full play the blessed Gospel, which by God’s grace hath again risen. These songs have been set in four parts, for no other reason than because I wished to provide our young people with something by which they might rid themselves of amorous and carnal songs, so apply themselves to what is good with pleasure, as becometh the young.... Auf daß dadurch. Demnach habe ich auch samt etlichen andern zum guten Anfang und Ursach zu geben denen, die es besser vermögen, etliche geistliche Lieder zusammenbracht, das heilige Evangelion, so itzt von Gottes Gnaden wieder aufgangen ist, zu treiben und in Schwang zu bringen... Auch daß ich nicht der Meinung bin, daß durchs Evangelion sollten alle Künste zu Boden geschlagen werden, sondern ich wollt alle Künste, sonderlich die musica, gerne sehen im Dienst des, der sie geben und geschaffen hat.
The collection was the first German collection of hymns for choir and was published in Wittenberg in 1524 by Johann Walter, who collaborated with Luther. The hymnal comprised 32 songs, 24 of which were written by Luther, including "Gelobet seist du, Jesu Christ" and "Mit Fried und Freud ich fahr dahin"; the settings are for three and five parts, with the melody in the tenor. Nine of the songs are psalms paraphrased in metric stanzas, such as "Aus tiefer Not schrei ich zu dir", a paraphrase of Psalm 130; the order of the songs does not seem to follow a plan, but groupings are apparent, such as Latin songs being placed at the end, preceded by five songs about the topics of the creed and the Trinity: Gott, der Vater, wohn uns bei Wir glauben all an einen Gott Es ist das Heil uns kommen her Hilf Gott, wie ist der Menschen Not In Gott gelaub ich, das er hat Four of the songs had been part of the Achtliederbuch, the first Lutheran hymnal. Luther continued to revise and enlarge the 1524 "Wittenberg hymnal", adding more songs, it was reprinted in 1529, 1531, 1533, 1535, 1543.
This culminated in an edition titled Geystliche Lieder, prefaced by Luther and published by Valentin Babst in Leipzig in 1545 shortly before Luther's death. Contemporaneous editions of hymnals for lay people followed the organization of Luther's choral "Wittenberg hymnal" rather closely. For example, the Wittenberg Enchiridion of 1526. Contained ten more songs, with seven of them placed at the end and two others following a song with the same melody; this edition was copied in hymnals in Zurich in 1528 and in Leipzig in 1530. Eyn geystlich Gesangk Buchleyn has been called the root of all Protestant song music. Walter, Johann / Kade, Otto: Wittembergisch Geistlich Gesangbuch, von 1524.
The Lutheran Hymnal
The Lutheran Hymnal is one of the official hymnals of the Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod. Published in 1941 by Concordia Publishing House in St. Louis, Missouri, it was the LCMS' second official English-language hymnal, succeeding the 1912 Evangelical Lutheran Hymn-Book. Development of TLH began in 1929 as a collaborative effort of the churches of the Evangelical Lutheran Synodical Conference of North America and became the common hymnal for both the LCMS and the Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod. Containing 668 chorales, hymns and chants, plus the liturgy for the Common Service, Vespers, the propers and prayers, the suffrages, canticles and miscellaneous tables, TLH became an popular and beloved worship resource in the Lutheran church in North America, attempts to succeed it in more recent years have met with strong resistance; the first attempt to replace TLH began in 1965, when the LCMS began work on the Lutheran Book of Worship and invited other Lutheran denominations in North America to participate in its creation.
As a result of disagreement and compromise with the other churches involved in LBW's production, the LCMS objected to some of its content, Lutheran Book of Worship was published in 1978 without the endorsement of the church body that initiated its production. An LCMS revision of LBW was published in 1982 under the title Lutheran Worship. Lutheran Worship was intended to replace TLH as the official hymnal of the LCMS. According to a 1999 survey by the LCMS' Commission on Worship 36% of the synod's congregations were still using TLH as their main hymnal, more were continuing to use it in combination with LW and/or other hymnals and hymnal supplements. An newer hymnal, Lutheran Service Book, has restored many of the former hymnal's features in the hope that more widespread use can be achieved. In the WELS, TLH was replaced by Christian Worship: A Lutheran Hymnal in 1993, few congregations continue to use it on a regular basis; the Lutheran Hymnal is referred to by many to as the "Red hymnal," in contrast with LW, the "Blue hymnal".
However, the "Red hymnal" moniker is somewhat misleading. The initial editions of TLH were in fact bound in blue, the hymnal has been available in both red and blue cover versions for much of its history. Although the red cover version is now more common, many congregations' pew racks are filled with blue-covered copies of the "red" hymnal. Members of these congregations refer to TLH as "the old hymnal"; the widespread use of Lutheran Service Book has begun the process of resolving the LCMS' hymnal controversy, as initial reviews have been quite favorable. Concordia Publishing House has announced that all TLH-related supplemental materials, including specialized accompaniment editions and the agenda, will go out of print when current supplies are depleted, but plans to continue to produce the pew edition for the foreseeable future. TLH remains an sanctioned hymnal of the synod, it is unlikely that the synod will formally decommission it as an official hymnal. List of English-language hymnals by denomination Project Wittenberg - The Lutheran Hymnal Lutheran-Hymnal.com - The Lutheran Hymnal Online LCMS: A Brief History of LCMS Hymnals Database of Lutheran Hymns, shows which hymn is in which hymnal
Theology is the critical study of the nature of the divine. It is taught as an academic discipline in universities and seminaries. Theology is the study of deities or their scriptures in order to discover what they have revealed about themselves, it occupies itself with the unique content of analyzing the supernatural, but especially with epistemology, asks and seeks to answer the question of revelation. Revelation pertains to the acceptance of God, gods, or deities, as not only transcendent or above the natural world, but willing and able to interact with the natural world and, in particular, to reveal themselves to humankind. While theology has turned into a secular field, religious adherents still consider theology to be a discipline that helps them live and understand concepts such as life and love and that helps them lead lives of obedience to the deities they follow or worship. Theology is derived from the Greek theologia, which derived from Τheos, meaning "God", -logia, meaning "utterances, sayings, or oracles" which had passed into Latin as theologia and into French as théologie.
The English equivalent "theology" had evolved by 1362. The sense the word has in English depends in large part on the sense the Latin and Greek equivalents had acquired in patristic and medieval Christian usage, although the English term has now spread beyond Christian contexts. Augustine of Hippo defined the Latin equivalent, theologia, as "reasoning or discussion concerning the Deity"; the term can, however, be used for a variety of fields of study. Theology begins with the assumption that the divine exists in some form, such as in physical, mental, or social realities, that evidence for and about it may be found via personal spiritual experiences or historical records of such experiences as documented by others; the study of these assumptions is not part of theology proper but is found in the philosophy of religion, through the psychology of religion and neurotheology. Theology aims to structure and understand these experiences and concepts, to use them to derive normative prescriptions for how to live our lives.
Theologians use various forms of analysis and argument to help understand, test, defend or promote any myriad of religious topics. As in philosophy of ethics and case law, arguments assume the existence of resolved questions, develop by making analogies from them to draw new inferences in new situations; the study of theology may help a theologian more understand their own religious tradition, another religious tradition, or it may enable them to explore the nature of divinity without reference to any specific tradition. Theology may be used to propagate, reform, or justify a religious tradition or it may be used to compare, challenge, or oppose a religious tradition or world-view. Theology might help a theologian address some present situation or need through a religious tradition, or to explore possible ways of interpreting the world. Greek theologia was used with the meaning "discourse on god" in the fourth century BC by Plato in The Republic, Book ii, Ch. 18. Aristotle divided theoretical philosophy into mathematike and theologike, with the last corresponding to metaphysics, for Aristotle, included discourse on the nature of the divine.
Drawing on Greek Stoic sources, the Latin writer Varro distinguished three forms of such discourse: mythical and civil. Theologos related to theologia, appears once in some biblical manuscripts, in the heading to the Book of Revelation: apokalypsis ioannoy toy theologoy, "the revelation of John the theologos". There, the word refers not to John the "theologian" in the modern English sense of the word but—using a different sense of the root logos, meaning not "rational discourse" but "word" or "message"—one who speaks the words of God, logoi toy theoy; some Latin Christian authors, such as Tertullian and Augustine, followed Varro's threefold usage, though Augustine used the term more to mean'reasoning or discussion concerning the deity'In patristic Greek Christian sources, theologia could refer narrowly to devout and inspired knowledge of, teaching about, the essential nature of God. The Latin author Boethius, writing in the early 6th century, used theologia to denote a subdivision of philosophy as a subject of academic study, dealing with the motionless, incorporeal reality.
Boethius' definition influenced medieval Latin usage. In scholastic Latin sources, the term came to denote the rational study of the doctrines of the Christian religion, or the academic discipline which investigated the coherence and implications of the language and claims of the Bible and of the theological tradition. In the Renaissance with Florentine Platonist apologists of Dante's poetics, the distinction between "poetic theology" and "revealed" or Biblical theology serves as steppingstone for a revival of philosophy as independent of theological authority, it is in this last sense, theology as an academic discipline involving rational study of Christian teaching
Jesus referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader. He is the central figure of Christianity, is described as the most influential person in history. Most Christians believe he is the incarnation of God the Son and the awaited Messiah prophesied in the Old Testament. All modern scholars of antiquity agree that Jesus existed although the quest for the historical Jesus has produced little agreement on the historical reliability of the Gospels and on how the Jesus portrayed in the Bible reflects the historical Jesus. Jesus was a Galilean Jew, baptized by John the Baptist and began his own ministry, he preached orally and was referred to as "rabbi". Jesus debated with fellow Jews on how to best follow God, engaged in healings, taught in parables and gathered followers, he was arrested and tried by the Jewish authorities, turned over to the Roman government, crucified on the order of Pontius Pilate, the Roman prefect. After his death, his followers believed he rose from the dead, the community they formed became the early Church.
The birth of Jesus is celebrated annually on December 25th as Christmas. His crucifixion is honored on his resurrection on Easter; the used calendar era "AD", from the Latin anno Domini, the equivalent alternative "CE", are based on the approximate birthdate of Jesus. Christian doctrines include the beliefs that Jesus was conceived by the Holy Spirit, was born of a virgin named Mary, performed miracles, founded the Christian Church, died by crucifixion as a sacrifice to achieve atonement for sin, rose from the dead, ascended into Heaven, from where he will return. Most Christians believe; the Nicene Creed asserts that Jesus will judge the living and the dead either before or after their bodily resurrection, an event tied to the Second Coming of Jesus in Christian eschatology. The great majority of Christians worship Jesus as the incarnation of God the Son, the second of three persons of the Trinity. A minority of Christian denominations reject Trinitarianism, wholly or as non-scriptural. Jesus figures in non-Christian religions and new religious movements.
In Islam, Jesus is considered one of the Messiah. Muslims believe Jesus was a bringer of scripture and was born of a virgin, but was not the son of God; the Quran states. Most Muslims do not believe that he was crucified, but that he was physically raised into Heaven by God. In contrast, Judaism rejects the belief that Jesus was the awaited Messiah, arguing that he did not fulfill Messianic prophecies, was neither divine nor resurrected. A typical Jew in Jesus' time had only one name, sometimes followed by the phrase "son of <father's name>", or the individual's hometown. Thus, in the New Testament, Jesus is referred to as "Jesus of Nazareth". Jesus' neighbors in Nazareth refer to him as "the carpenter, the son of Mary and brother of James and Joses and Judas and Simon", "the carpenter's son", or "Joseph's son". In John, the disciple Philip refers to him as "Jesus son of Joseph from Nazareth"; the name Jesus is derived from the Latin Iesus, a transliteration of the Greek Ἰησοῦς. The Greek form is a rendering of the Hebrew ישוע, a variant of the earlier name יהושע, or in English, "Joshua", meaning "Yah saves".
This was the name of Moses' successor and of a Jewish high priest. The name Yeshua appears to have been in use in Judea at the time of the birth of Jesus; the 1st-century works of historian Flavius Josephus, who wrote in Koine Greek, the same language as that of the New Testament, refer to at least twenty different people with the name Jesus. The etymology of Jesus' name in the context of the New Testament is given as "Yahweh is salvation". Since early Christianity, Christians have referred to Jesus as "Jesus Christ"; the word Christ was a office, not a given name. It derives from the Greek Χριστός, a translation of the Hebrew mashiakh meaning "anointed", is transliterated into English as "Messiah". In biblical Judaism, sacred oil was used to anoint certain exceptionally holy people and objects as part of their religious investiture. Christians of the time designated Jesus as "the Christ" because they believed him to be the Messiah, whose arrival is prophesied in the Hebrew Bible and Old Testament.
In postbiblical usage, Christ became viewed as a name—one part of "Jesus Christ". The term "Christian" has been in use since the 1st century; the four canonical gospels are the foremost sources for the message of Jesus. However, other parts of the New Testament include references to key episodes in his life, such as the Last Supper in 1 Corinthians 11:23. Acts of the Apostles refers to the early ministry of its anticipation by John the Baptist. Acts 1:1 -- 11 says more about the Ascension of Jesus. In the undisputed Pauline letters, which were written earlier than the gospels, the words or instructions of Jesus are cited several times; some early Christian groups had separate descriptions of the life and teachings of Jesus that are not included in the New Testament. These include the Gospel of Thomas, Gospel
Kingo's hymnal titled Dend Forordnede Ny Kirke-Psalme-Bog, is a hymnal, approved by royal decree for use in all churches in Denmark–Norway in 1699. The contains 86 hymns by the bishop of Thomas Kingo, it bears Kingo's name on the title page because the selection was made based on a hymnal that Kingo had edited ten years earlier. Kingo's hymnal was in use in a large part of Norway until the 1870s, when it was replaced by Landstads kirkesalmebog and Andreas Hauge's Psalmebog for Kirke og Hus; the hymnal is arranged according to the liturgical year so that suitable hymns are designated for every holiday during the year. The hymnal contains collects and gospel readings for each holiday, it contains church prayers and other prayers
The Erfurt Enchiridion is the second Lutheran hymnal. It appeared in 1524 in Erfurt in two competing editions. One of them contains 26 songs, the other 25, 18 of them by Martin Luther, others by Elisabeth Cruciger, Erhard Hegenwald, Justus Jonas and Paul Speratus. While the songs of the Enchiridion could be used in churches, they were intended for singing elsewhere, such as at home, at court, in guild meetings; the songs of the reformer Luther and others were first sold as broadsheets, contributed to the spreading of Protestant ideas. They were printed in collections, beginning with the First Lutheran hymnal, called the Achtliederbuch, with the Wittenberg song book, both published in 1524; the Erfurt Enchiridion appeared the same year, in two equal editions by two different printers, Johannes Loersfeld and Matthes Maler. Both books are identical except for one song; the double appearance suggests. The edition printed by Loersfeld came first, to be copied by Maler; the version of Loersfeld was printed in octavo, includes 48 pages, 47 of them printed.
It contains the German version of the creed and a two-page anonymous preface. The version of Maler contains one song more. Sixteen different choral melodies are used, eighteen of the songs are by Luther, but his name is attached to only one of them. Three of the hymns were written by Paul Speratus, one or two by Justus Jonas, one by Elisabeth Cruciger, one is attributed to Jan Hus; the arrangement of the songs is not systematic, only seven paraphrases of psalms form a cohesive group. Five songs are German rhymed versions of Latin liturgical chants; the song "Ein neues Lied wir heben an" describes the execution in Brussels of two monks who were martyrs of the Reformation, Hendrik Vos and Johannes van Esschen. The title describes: "Eyn Enchiridion oder Handbüchlein. Eynem ytzlichen Christen fast nutzlich bey sich zuhaben / zur stetter vbung vnd trachtung geystlicher gesenge vnd Psalmen / Rechtschaffen vnd kunstlich verteutscht." The author of the preface describes the former ecclesiastical chant as "shouting like the priests of Baal in unintelligable cries" and "cry like the forest-donkeys to a deaf God".
The songs included in the collection are described as founded on scripture, serving improvement and the education of youth, the preface suggests that a Christian should always carry the book with him, for constant practise. While the songs of the Enchiridion could be used in churches, they were intended for singing elsewhere, such as at home, at court, in guild meetings. Many of the songs of the Erfurt Enchiridion were disseminated, seventeen are still in the current German Protestant hymnal Evangelisches Gesangbuch, some of them now with different melodies. Five of the hymns are part of the Catholic hymnal Gotteslob. Translations began with Goostly psalms and spiritual songes drawen out of the holy Scripture by Myles Coverdale, the so-called "first English hymn book", printed in London in 1555 and contained 16 of the songs from the Enchiridion. Full digital facsimile and diplomatic transcription of the hymnbook in the Deutsches Text Archiv Brodersen, Christiane. Ein Enchiridion oder Handbüchlein geistlicher Gesänge und Psalmen.
Kartoffeldruck-Verlag, Speyer. ISBN 978-3-939526-03-2. Doukhan, Lilianne. In Tune With God. Mn House Publishing. Pp. 163, 164 & footnote 15 on p. 191. Herbst, Wolfgang. Wer ist wer im Gesangbuch?. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen. Pp. 86–87 Erfurter Enchiridion. ISBN 3525503237. Liersch, Helmut. Ein Unikat in der Marktkirchen-Bibliothek Goslar: Das Erfurter Färbefaß-Enchiridion von 1524. Goslar: Goslarsches Forum 6, ed. Otmar Hesse. Pp. 40–44, 81–83. Brodersen, Christiane; the Erfurt Enchiridion: A Hymn Book of 1524. Kartoffeldruck-Verlag. ISBN 978-3939526049. Hase, Martin von. "Die Drucker der Erfurter Enchiridien, Mathes Maler u. Johannes Loersfelt". Jahrbuch für Liturgik und Hymnologie. 2: 91–93. JSTOR 24189314. Smend, Julius. Die evangelische Lied von 1524: Festschrift zum 400-jährigen Gesangbuch-Jubiläum. Leipzig
Sigurbjörn Einarsson was an Icelandic clergyman and doctor of theology who served as the Bishop of Iceland 1959–1981. His son, Karl Sigurbjörnsson served as Bishop of Iceland 1998–2012. Sigurbjörn Einarsson has been referred to as one of the greatest poets in the Icelandic language of his era, a book of his poems, titled Eigi stjörnum ofar – sálmar og ljóð, was published in 2008. Sigurbjörn Einarsson's obituary Eigi stjörnum ofar – sálmar og ljó