A cognitive distortion is an exaggerated or irrational thought pattern involved in the onset and perpetuation of psychopathological states those more influenced by psychosocial factors, such as depression and anxiety. Psychiatrist Aaron T. Beck laid the groundwork for the study of these distortions, his student David D. Burns continued research on the topic. Burns, in The Feeling Good Handbook, described personal and professional anecdotes related to cognitive distortions and their elimination. Cognitive distortions are thoughts. According to the cognitive model of Beck, a negative outlook on reality, sometimes called negative schemas, is a factor in symptoms of emotional dysfunction and poorer subjective well-being. Negative thinking patterns cause negative emotions. During difficult circumstances, these distorted thoughts can contribute to an overall negative outlook on the world and a depressive or anxious mental state. Challenging and changing cognitive distortions is a key element of cognitive behavioral therapy.
In 1972, psychiatrist and cognitive therapy scholar Aaron T. Beck published Depression: Causes and Treatment, he was dissatisfied with the conventional Freudian treatment of depression, because there was no empirical evidence for the success of Freudian psychoanalysis. Beck's book provided a comprehensive and empirically supported theoretical model for depression—its potential causes and treatments. In Chapter 2, titled "Symptomatology of Depression", he described "cognitive manifestations" of depression, including low self-evaluation, negative expectations, self-blame and self-criticism and distortion of the body image. In 1980 Burns published Feeling Good: The New Mood Therapy, nine years The Feeling Good Handbook, both of which built on Beck's work; the cognitive distortions listed below are categories of automatic thinking, are to be distinguished from logical fallacies. Being wrong is unthinkable; this cognitive distortion is characterized by trying to prove one's actions or thoughts to be correct, sometimes prioritizing self-interest over the feelings of another person.
The opposite of personalization. Thinking something is true based on a feeling. Example: "I feel stupid or boring, therefore I must be" feeling that fear of flying in planes means planes are a dangerous way to travel, or concluding that it's hopeless to clean one's house due to being overwhelmed by the prospect of cleaning. Relying on social control to obtain cooperative actions from another person This is the belief that life should be fair and produces upset or angry emotions when life is perceived as failing to be fair and breaking rules to the playing field that leads to long term ramifications Focusing on negative elements of a situation to the exclusion of the positive; the brain's tendency to filter information that does not conform to already-held beliefs. Reaching preliminary conclusions with little evidence. Two specific subtypes are identified: Mind reading: Inferring a person's possible or probable thoughts from his or her behavior and nonverbal communication. Example: A student assumes that the readers of his or her paper have made up their minds concerning its topic, therefore, writing the paper is a pointless exercise.
Fortune-telling: predicting outcomes of events A form of overgeneralization. Rather than assuming the behavior to be accidental or otherwise extrinsic, one assigns a label to someone or something, based on the inferred character of that person or thing. Giving proportionally greater weight to a perceived failure, weakness or threat, or lesser weight to a perceived success, strength or opportunity, so that the weight differs from that assigned by others, such as "making a mountain out of a molehill". In depressed clients the positive characteristics of other people are exaggerated and their negative characteristics are understated. Catastrophizing – Giving greater weight to the worst possible outcome, however unlikely, or experiencing a situation as unbearable or impossible when it is just uncomfortable Making hasty generalizations from insufficient evidence. Drawing a broad conclusion from a single incident or a single piece of evidence. If something bad happens only once, it is expected to happen over and over again.
Example: A woman is lonely and spends most of her time at home. Her friends sometimes ask her to meet new people, she feels it is useless to try. No one could like her. Attributing personal responsibility, including the resulting praise or blame, to events over which the person has no control. Making'must' or should' statements was included by Albert Ellis in his rational emotive behavior therapy, an early form of CBT. Michael C. Graham called it "expecting the world to be different than it is", it can be seen as demanding particular achievements or behaviours regardless of the realistic circumstances of the situation. Example: After a performance, a concert pianist believes he or she should not have made so many mistakes. In Feeling Good: The New Mood Therapy, David
A defence mechanism is an unconscious psychological mechanism that reduces anxiety arising from unacceptable or harmful stimuli. Defence mechanisms may result in healthy or unhealthy consequences depending on the circumstances and frequency with which the mechanism is used. In psychoanalytic theory, defence mechanisms are psychological strategies brought into play by the unconscious mind to manipulate, deny, or distort reality in order to defend against feelings of anxiety and unacceptable impulses and to maintain one's self-schema or other schemas; these processes that manipulate, deny, or distort reality may include the following: repression, or the burying of a painful feeling or thought from one's awareness though it may resurface in a symbolic form. In psychoanalytic theory, repression is considered as the basis for other defence mechanisms. Healthy persons use different defences throughout life. An ego defence mechanism becomes pathological only when its persistent use leads to maladaptive behaviour such that the physical or mental health of the individual is adversely affected.
Among the purposes of ego defence mechanisms is to protect the mind/self/ego from anxiety or social sanctions or to provide a refuge from a situation with which one cannot cope. One resource used to evaluate these mechanisms is the Defense Style Questionnaire; the concept of id impulses comes from Sigmund Freud's structural model. According to this theory, id impulses are based on the pleasure principle: instant gratification of one's own desires and needs. Freud believed that the id represents biological instinctual impulses in humans, such as aggression and sexuality. For example, when the id impulses conflict with the superego, unsatisfied feelings of anxiousness or feelings of anxiety come to the surface. To reduce these unpleasant feelings, the ego might use defence mechanisms. Freud believed that conflicts between these two structures resulted in conflicts associated with psychosexual stages. Freud proposed three structures of the psyche or personality: Id: The id is the unconscious reservoir of the libido, the psychic energy that fuels instincts and psychic processes.
It is a selfish, pleasure-oriented part of the personality with no ability to delay gratification. Superego: The superego contains internalised societal and parental standards of "good" and "bad", "right" and "wrong" behaviour, they include conscious appreciations of rules and regulations as well as those incorporated unconsciously. Ego: The ego acts as a moderator between the pleasure sought by the id and the morals of the superego, seeking compromises to pacify both, it can be viewed as the individual's "sense of time and place". In the ego, there are two ongoing processes. First, there is the unconscious primary process, where the thoughts are not organised in a coherent way. There is no time line. Lust is important for this process. By contrast, there is the conscious secondary process, where strong boundaries are set and thoughts must be organised in a coherent way. Most conscious thoughts originate here. Id impulses are not appropriate in a civilised society, so there is societal pressure to modify the pleasure principle in favour of the reality principle.
The superego forms as the child learns parental and social standards. The superego consists of two structures: the conscience, which stores information about what is "bad" and what has been punished, the ego ideal, which stores information about what is "good" and what one "should" do or be; when anxiety becomes overwhelming, it is the ego's place to protect the person by employing defence mechanisms. Guilt and shame accompany anxiety. In the first definitive book on defence mechanisms, The Ego and the Mechanisms of Defence, Anna Freud introduced the concept of signal anxiety; the signalling function of anxiety is thus seen as crucial, biologically adapted to warn the organism of danger or a threat to its equilibrium. The anxiety is felt as an increase in bodily or mental tension, the signal that the organism receives in this way allows for the possibility of taking defensive action regarding the perceived danger. Defence mechanisms work by distorting the id impulses into acceptable forms, or by unconscious or conscious blockage of these impulses.
The list of defence mechanisms, with no theoretical consensus on the exact number. Classifying defence mechanisms according to some of their properties has been attempted. Different theorists have different conceptualizations of defence mechanisms. Large reviews of theories of defence mechanisms are available from Paulhus and Hayes and Cramer; the Journal of Personality published a special issue on defence mechanisms. In 1936, Anna Freud enumerated the ten defence mechanisms that appear in the works of her father, Sigmund Freud: repression, reaction formation, undoing, introje
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
Ostracism was a procedure under the Athenian democracy in which any citizen could be expelled from the city-state of Athens for ten years. While some instances expressed popular anger at the citizen, ostracism was used preemptively, it was used as a way of neutralizing someone thought to be a threat to the state or potential tyrant. It has been called an "honourable exile" by scholar P. J. Rhodes; the word "ostracism" continues to be used for various cases of social shunning. The name is derived from the ostraka, referring to the pottery shards that were used as voting tokens. Broken pottery and free, served as a kind of scrap paper; each year the Athenians were asked in the assembly. The question was put in the sixth of the ten months used for state business under the democracy. If they voted "yes" an ostracism would be held two months later. In a section of the agora set off and suitably barriered, citizens gave the name of those they wished to be ostracised to a scribe, as many of them were illiterate, they scratched the name on pottery shards, deposited them in urns.
The presiding officials counted the ostraka sorted the names into separate piles. The person whose pile contained the most ostraka would be banished, provided that an additional criterion of a quorum was met, about which there are two principal sources: According to Plutarch, the ostracism was considered valid if the total number of votes cast was at least 6000. According to a fragment of Philochorus, the "winner" of the ostracism must have obtained at least 6000 votes. Plutarch's evidence for a quorum of 6000, on a priori grounds a necessity for ostracism per the account of Philochorus, accords with the number required for grants of citizenship in the following century and is preferred; the person nominated had ten days to leave the city. If he attempted to return, the penalty was death. Notably, the property of the man banished was not confiscated and there was no loss of status. After the ten years, he was allowed to return without stigma, it was possible for the assembly to recall an ostracised person ahead of time.
Cimon, ostracised in 461 BC, was recalled during an emergency. Ostracism was crucially different from Athenian law at the time; the two stages of the procedure ran in the reverse order from that used under any trial system—here it is as if a jury are first asked "Do you want to find someone guilty?", subsequently asked "Whom do you wish to accuse?". Out of place in a judicial framework is the institution's most peculiar feature: that it can take place at most once a year, only for one person. In this it resembles the Greek pharmakos or scapegoat—though in contrast, pharmakos ejected a lowly member of the community. A further distinction between these two modes is that ostracism was an automatic procedure that required no initiative from any individual, with the vote occurring on the wish of the electorate—a diffuse exercise of power. By contrast, an Athenian trial needed the initiative of a particular citizen-prosecutor. While prosecution led to a counterattack, no such response was possible in the case of ostracism as responsibility lay with the polity as a whole.
In contrast to a trial, ostracism reduced political tension rather than increased it. Although ten years of exile would have been difficult for an Athenian to face, it was mild in comparison to the kind of sentences inflicted by courts. Further, the elite Athenians who suffered ostracism were rich or noble men who had connections or xenoi in the wider Greek world and who, unlike genuine exiles, were able to access their income in Attica from abroad. In Plutarch, following as he does the anti-democratic line common in elite sources, the fact that people might be recalled early appears to be another example of the inconsistency of majoritarianism, characteristic of Athenian democracy. However, ten years of exile resolved whatever had prompted the expulsion. Ostracism was a pragmatic measure. One curious window on the practicalities of ostracism comes from the cache of 190 ostraka discovered dumped in a well next to the acropolis. From the handwriting, they appear to have been written by fourteen individuals and bear the name of Themistocles, ostracised before 471 BC and were evidently meant for distribution to voters.
This was not evidence of electoral fraud, but their being dumped in the well may suggest that their creators wished to hide them. If so, these ostraka provide an example of organized groups attempting to influence the outcome of ostracisms; the two-month gap between the first and second phases would have allowed for such a campaign. There is another interpretation, according
The Radio Dept.
The Radio Dept. is a dream pop band from Lund, Sweden signed to Labrador Records. The band was conceived in 1995 by schoolmates Elin Almered and Johan Duncanson, who named the group after a gas-station-turned-radio-repair-shop called "Radioavdelningen"; however and Duncanson soon stopped playing music together, putting the band on hiatus. Three years in 1998, Duncanson started making music again but now with Martin Larsson and they decided to adopt the same name. In 2001, Larsson's girlfriend Lisa Carlberg joined the group on bass, followed by Per Blomgren on drums and Daniel Tjäder on keyboards. In 2001, the band sent recordings to music magazine Sonic, receiving a positive review and being featured on the free CD sampler that came with the magazine. Labrador Records signed them to their label, their debut album, "Lesser Matters", was well received by the music press, scoring 10 out of 10 in NME. Per Blomgren left the group prior to the release of this album and Lisa Carlberg departed after the release of This Past Week EP.
According to their website, the band decided to use digital drum tracks and stated that for their second album they were "taking a new direction... which wouldn't require a member that played bass guitar."The group enjoyed a more widespread recognition after three tracks were included on the soundtrack for Sofia Coppola's film Marie Antoinette. Early 2006 saw the release of their second album Pet Grief; the distorted buzz that adorned most of their debut was now replaced by synthesizer. The album didn't reach the rest of Europe, including the UK until in 2006. With little touring support there was no real buzz behind Pet Grief. Reviews were mixed. NME rated the album with a 7 out of 10. However, it did find popularity amongst a growing fan base throughout the world, thanks to the internet; the album is available in the US through their US distribution deal with Labrador. By the end of 2006, a brand new track "We Made the Team" was released as the 100th release on the Labrador, it was the final track on the Labrador's labels Compilation of 100 tracks released at the beginning of 2007.
The band released a new EP in May 2008 entitled The Trojan Horse on Labrador Records. Another EP, was released on June 24, 2009; the song "David" was made available for download at no cost by Labrador Records. The band released their third album Clinging to a Scheme on April 20, 2010. In January 2011 their first compilation album, Passive Aggressive: Singles 2002–2010, was released, it contained all the A-sides released by many of the B-sides and other rarities. This year they were nominated at the Swedish Grammis in the categories “Album of the Year” and “Band of the Year”. In 2011 the band began a tour in the United States and Mexico; the group released their fourth album on October 21st of 2016, titled Running out of Love. The Radio Dept. are related to such genres as alternative rock, dream pop, indie pop and twee pop, with reviews comparing them to Pet Shop Boys, My Bloody Valentine and Cocteau Twins. In an interview on their fansite, they cite influences such as Charles Aznavour, Saint Etienne, Frank Sinatra, Joy Division, Pet Shop Boys, Chet Baker, Nick Drake, Kevin Rowland, Prefab Sprout, Paddy McAloon, Junior Boys, Orange Juice, Neu!, Jonathan Richman, The Avalanches and The Pale Fountains.
Their album Lesser Matters was ranked No. 9 on NME's list of the 50 Best Albums of 2004. The album received an 84/100 on Metacritic from a total of five reviews, their album Running out of Love was shortlisted by IMPALA for the Album of the Year Award 2016, which rewards on a yearly basis the best album released on an independent European label. Current membersJohan Duncanson Martin Larsson, alias Martin Carlberg Daniel Tjäder Past membersElin Almered Lisa Carlberg Per Blomgren Kim Sjölander Max Weiland Le Bombe RugarAnuar Adame Lesser Matters Pet Grief Clinging to a Scheme Running Out of Love Official website
Gossip is idle talk or rumor about the personal or private affairs of others. Gossip has been researched in terms of its origins in evolutionary psychology, which has found gossip to be an important means for people to monitor cooperative reputations and so maintain widespread indirect reciprocity. Indirect reciprocity is a social interaction in which one actor helps another and is benefited by a third party. Gossip has been identified by Robin Dunbar, an evolutionary biologist, as aiding social bonding in large groups; the word is from Old English godsibb, from god and sibb, the term for the godparents of one's child or the parents of one's godchild very close friends. In the 16th century, the word assumed the meaning of a person a woman, one who delights in idle talk, a newsmonger, a tattler. In the early 19th century, the term was extended from the talker to the conversation of such persons; the verb to gossip, meaning "to be a gossip", first appears in Shakespeare. The term originates from the bedroom at the time of childbirth.
Giving birth used to be a social event attended by women. The pregnant woman's female relatives and neighbours would idly converse. Over time, gossip came to mean talk of others. Others say that gossip comes from the same root as "gospel" — it is a contraction of "good spiel", meaning a good story. Gossip can: reinforce – or punish the lack of – morality and accountability reveal passive aggression and harming others serve as a process of social grooming build and maintain a sense of community with shared interests and values begin a courtship that helps one find their desired mate, by counseling others provide a peer-to-peer mechanism for disseminating information Mary Gormandy White, a human resource expert, gives the following "signs" for identifying workplace gossip: Animated people become silent People begin staring at someone Workers indulge in inappropriate topics of conversation. White suggests "five tips... handle the situation with aplomb: Rise above the gossip Understand what causes or fuels the gossip Do not participate in workplace gossip.
Allow for the gossip to go away on its own If it persists, "gather facts and seek help."Peter Vajda dentifies gossip as a form of workplace violence, noting that it is "essentially a form of attack." Gossip is thought by many to "empower one person while disempowering another". Accordingly, many companies have formal policies in their employee handbooks against gossip. Sometimes there is room for disagreement on what constitutes unacceptable gossip, since workplace gossip may take the form of offhand remarks about someone's tendencies such as "He always takes a long lunch," or "Don’t worry, that’s just how she is."TLK Healthcare cites as examples of gossip, "tattletailing to the boss without intention of furthering a solution or speaking to co-workers about something someone else has done to upset us." Corporate email can be a dangerous method of gossip delivery, as the medium is semi-permanent and messages are forwarded to unintended recipients. Low self-esteem and a desire to "fit in" are cited as motivations for workplace gossip.
There are five essential functions that gossip has in the workplace: Helps individuals learn social information about other individuals in the organization Builds social networks of individuals by bonding co-workers together and affiliating people with each other. Breaks existing bonds by ostracizing individuals within an organization. Enhances one's social status/power/prestige within the organization. Inform individuals as to what is considered acceptable behavior within the organization. According to Kurkland and Pelled, workplace gossip can be serious depending upon the amount of power that the gossiper has over the recipient, which will in turn affect how the gossip is interpreted. There are four types of power that are influenced by gossip: Coercive: when a gossiper tells negative information about a person, their recipient might believe that the gossiper will spread negative information about them; this causes the gossiper's coercive power to increase. Reward: when a gossiper tells positive information about a person, their recipient might believe that the gossiper will spread positive information about them.
This causes the gossiper's reward power to increase. Expert: when a gossiper seems to have detailed knowledge of either the organization's values or about others in the work environment, their expert power becomes enhanced. Referent: this power can either be reduced OR enhanced to a point; when people view gossiping as a petty activity done to waste time, a gossiper's referent power can decrease along with their reputation. When a recipient is thought of as being invited into a social circle by being a recipient, the gossiper's referent power can increase, but only to a high point where the recipient begins to resent the gossiper; some negative consequences of workplace gossip may include: Lost productivity and wasted time, Erosion of trust and morale, Increased anxiety among employees as rumors circulate without any clear information as to what is fact and what isn’t, Growing divisiveness among employees as people “take sides," Hurt feelings and reputations, Jeopardized chances for the gossipers' advancement as they are perceived as unprofessional, Attrition as good employees leave the company due to the unhealthy work atmosphere.
Turner and Weed theorize that among the thre
Forgetting or disremembering is the apparent loss or modification of information encoded and stored in an individual's long-term memory. It is a spontaneous or gradual process in which old memories are unable to be recalled from memory storage. Forgetting helps to reconcile the storage of new information with old knowledge. Problems with remembering and retaining new information are a few of the most common complaints of older adults. Memory performance is related to the active functioning of three stages; these three stages are encoding and retrieval. Many different factors influence the actual process of forgetting. An example of one of these factors could be the amount of time the new information is stored in the memory. Events involved with forgetting can happen either after the actual memory process; the amount of time the information is stored in the memory, depending on the minutes hours or days, can increase or decrease depending on how well the information is encoded. Studies show; this improvement occurs because rehearsal helps to transfer information into long-term memory – practise makes perfect.
It is subject to delicately balanced optimization. Forgetting more elaborate cognitive processing of information. Emotional states are just one of the many factors that have been found to effect this process of forgetting; as a disorder or in more severe cases this may be described as amnesia. Forgetting functions have been extensively analyzed; the most recent evidence suggests that a power function provides the closest mathematical fit to the forgetting function. It is inability to encode, to store and retrieve the learned information from long-term memory over varying periods of times. Failing to retrieve an event does not mean that this specific event has been forever forgotten; this could just mean. Research has shown that there are a few health behaviors that to some extent can prevent forgetting from happening so often. One of the simplest ways to keep the brain healthy and prevent forgetting is to stay active and exercise. Staying active is important because overall it keeps the body healthy.
When the body is healthy the brain is less inflamed as well. Older adults who were more active were found to have had less episodes of forgetting compared to those older adults who were less active. A healthy diet can contribute to a healthier brain and aging process which in turn results in less frequent forgetting. Reviewing information in ways that involve active retrieval seems to slow the rate of forgetting. Paul Connerton stated that there are seven types of forgetting, which are repressive erasure, prescriptive forgetting, formation of new identity, structural amnesia, planned obsolescence, humiliated silence. One of the first to study the mechanisms of forgetting was the German psychologist Hermann Ebbinghaus. Using himself as the sole subject in his experiment, he memorized lists of three letter nonsense syllable words—two consonants and one vowel in the middle, he measured his own capacity to relearn a given list of words after a variety of given time period. He found that forgetting occurs in a systematic manner and leveling off.
Although his methods were primitive, his basic premises have held true today and have been reaffirmed by more methodologically sound methods. The Ebbinghaus forgetting curve is the name of his results which he plotted out and made 2 conclusions; the first being that much of what we forget is lost soon after it is learned. The second being that the amount of forgetting levels off. Around the same time, psychologist Sigmund Freud theorized that people intentionally forgot things in order to push bad thoughts and feelings deep into their unconscious, a process he called "repression". There is debate as to whether memory repression occurs and mainstream psychology holds that true memory repression occurs only rarely. Modern terminology divides motivated forgetting into unconscious repression and conscious thought suppression. Psychogenic amnesia is another controversial diagnosis of retrograde amnesia without physical injury to the brain; the four ways forgetting can be measured are as follows: Free recall is a basic paradigm used to study human memory.
In a free recall task, a subject is presented a list of one at a time. For example, an experimenter might read a list of 20 words aloud, presenting a new word to the subject every 4 seconds. At the end of the presentation of the list, the subject is asked to recall the items, it is called a free recall task because the subject is free to recall the items in any order that he or she desires. Prompted recall is a slight variation of free recall that consists of presenting hints or prompts to increase the likelihood that the behavior will be produced; these prompts are stimuli that were not there during the training period. Thus in order to measure the degree of forgetting, one can see how many prompts the subject misses or the number of prompts required to produce the behavior; this method measures forgetting by the amount of training required to reach the previous level of performance. German psychologist Hermann Ebbinghaus used this method on himself, he memorized lists of nonsensical syllables.
After a certain interval, he saw how long it would take him to do this task. If it