In passive solar building design, windows and floors are made to collect, store and distribute solar energy in the form of heat in the winter and reject solar heat in the summer. This is called passive solar design because, unlike active solar heating systems, it does not involve the use of mechanical and electrical devices; the key to designing a passive solar building is to best take advantage of the local climate performing an accurate site analysis. Elements to be considered include window placement and size, glazing type, thermal insulation, thermal mass, shading. Passive solar design techniques can be applied most to new buildings, but existing buildings can be adapted or "retrofitted". Passive solar technologies use sunlight without active mechanical systems; such technologies convert sunlight into usable heat, cause air-movement for ventilating, or future use, with little use of other energy sources. A common example is a solarium on the equator-side of a building. Passive cooling is the use of the same design principles to reduce summer cooling requirements.
Some passive systems use a small amount of conventional energy to control dampers, night insulation, other devices that enhance solar energy collection and use, reduce undesirable heat transfer. Passive solar technologies include direct and indirect solar gain for space heating, solar water heating systems based on the thermosiphon, use of thermal mass and phase-change materials for slowing indoor air temperature swings, solar cookers, the solar chimney for enhancing natural ventilation, earth sheltering. More passive solar technologies include the solar furnace, but this requires some external energy for aligning their concentrating mirrors or receivers, have not proven to be practical or cost effective for widespread use.'Low-grade' energy needs, such as space and water heating, have proven over time to be better applications for passive use of solar energy. The scientific basis for passive solar building design has been developed from a combination of climatology, fluid mechanics/natural convection, human thermal comfort based on heat index and enthalpy control for buildings to be inhabited by humans or animals, sunrooms and greenhouses for raising plants.
Specific attention is divided into: the site and solar orientation of the building, local sun path, the prevailing level of insolation and construction quality/materials, placement/size/type of windows and walls, incorporation of solar-energy-storing thermal mass with heat capacity. While these considerations may be directed toward any building, achieving an ideal optimized cost/performance solution requires careful, system integration engineering of these scientific principles. Modern refinements through computer modeling, application of decades of lessons learned can achieve significant energy savings and reduction of environmental damage, without sacrificing functionality or aesthetics. In fact, passive-solar design features such as a greenhouse/sunroom/solarium can enhance the livability, daylight and value of a home, at a low cost per unit of space. Much has been learned about passive solar building design since the 1970s energy crisis. Many unscientific, intuition-based expensive construction experiments have attempted and failed to achieve zero energy – the total elimination of heating-and-cooling energy bills.
Passive solar building construction may not be difficult or expensive, but the scientific passive solar building design is a non-trivial engineering effort that requires significant study of previous counter-intuitive lessons learned, time to enter and iteratively refine the simulation input and output. One of the most useful post-construction evaluation tools has been the use of thermography using digital thermal imaging cameras for a formal quantitative scientific energy audit. Thermal imaging can be used to document areas of poor thermal performance such as the negative thermal impact of roof-angled glass or a skylight on a cold winter night or hot summer day; the scientific lessons learned over the last three decades have been captured in sophisticated comprehensive building energy simulation computer software systems. Scientific passive solar building design with quantitative cost benefit product optimization is not easy for a novice; the level of complexity has resulted in ongoing bad-architecture, many intuition-based, unscientific construction experiments that disappoint their designers and waste a significant portion of their construction budget on inappropriate ideas.
The economic motivation for scientific design and engineering is significant. If it had been applied comprehensively to new building construction beginning in 1980, America could be saving over $250,000,000 per year on expensive energy and related pollution today. Since 1979, Passive Solar Building Design has been a critical element of achieving zero energy by educational institution experiments, governments around the world, including the U. S. Department of Energy, the energy research scientists that they have supported for decades; the cost effective proof of concept was established decades ago, but cultural change in architecture, the
Vilain Pingouin is a rock band from Quebec, Canada. After having played for a few years with various English-speaking rock groups, Rudy Caya and Michel Vaillancourt decided to plunge into more Francophone waters by playing with Les Taches from 1982 to 1986. Determined to push this Francophile experience further, they started their own band. Vilain Pingouin was born in Montreal in 1986 during a boom in Francophone rock music. Along with singer-songwriter Rudy Caya and drummer Michel Vaillancourt, the group included guitarist Rodolphe Fortier, harmonica player Claude Samson and bassist Frédéric Bonicard. A few months after its formation, Vilain Pingouin performed in the spring 1987 Rock en Vol contest and at the first International Rock Festival in Montreal. Audiences responded well to the band's enthusiastic, and—above all—original music, which brought Vilain Pingouin to the finals of the L'Empire des Futures Stars contest the following year. In 1989, Vilain Pingouin recorded their first single, "François," under the Audiogram label, to which the band has remained faithful throughout its career.
"François" was a hit. The same year another single, "Salut Salaud", propelled Vilain Pingouin to the top of the Radio-Activity charts. After completing its first provincial tour of Quebec, the group released its refreshing debut album, "Vilain Pingouin" on September 12, 1990. With tracks whose sounds evoked everything from U. S. country music to 60s pop, "Vilain Pingouin" transformed the Quebec music scene and achieved gold status in 1991. Several tracks, "Les Belles Années" and "Marche Seul" became hits. Vilain Pingouin was named "Group of the Year" at ADISQ in 1991; the same year they took home the awards for video of the year and best editing for "Marche Seul" at the first MusiquePlus Gala. Their self-titled album is considered to be their most acclaimed and well-known. Riding a wave of popularity, Vilain Pingouin embarked on a major tour of over two hundred shows in Quebec and New Brunswick. Despite their hectic schedule, they still managed to record and release their second album, "Roche et Roule", in the fall of 1992.
"Roche et Roule" was acclaimed as more "authentic" than their previous work. Its songs ranged from the folksy "Passe-Moi le Celt" and "Chu tu Seul à Soir", to jazz-influenced "Festin de Pingouins" and "Le Bleu de Papier Blanc", to the Cajun-accented "P'tite Vie, P'tite Misère"; the album consolidated the band's popularity. In spring 1993, the group participated in the Rock Le Lait tour alongside Jean Leloup and France D'Amour and won the Félix "Album of the Year - rock" award at the ADISQ Gala; the same year, Vilain Pingouin's popularity crossed the Atlantic when "Roche et Roule" was released in France under the Boucherie Production label. In spring 1994, the band performed 15 concerts spread across "the six corners" of France; the "Tour de France" was a success, winning Vilain Pingouin both popular and critical acclaim in the country. With Vilain Pingouin at its peak, its members felt the need to relax and work on some personal projects. In November 1994, they announced that they would take a hiatus after a farewell show titled "Pingouins sur Glace" at Snatches Electric in December 1994.
Rudy Caya took advantage of this pause to record a solo album, "Mourir de Rire," in 1995, which included the single of the same name. Recorded with Claude Samson, the album demonstrated the creative energy of the band's leader, but when Vilain Pingouin's "Roche et Roule" went gold that same year, Caya gathered the band back together with all the original members except bassist Fred Bonicard, replaced by Michel Bertrand. The group released its third album "Y'é Quelle Heure?" in spring 1998, featuring a more "heavy" sound. The band toured for a half as part of the Rock Le Lait tour; the band's eclectic sound, influenced by jazz, hip-hop and alternative music, once again attracted large crowds and frenzied fans. During the tour, guitarist Rodolphe Fortier and bassist Michel Bertrand were replaced by Alain Godmer and Michel Turcotte, respectively. In 1982, singer/guitarist Rudy Caya and drummer Michel Vaillancourt, having played in a number of English-language bands, formed a Francophone band, Les Taches.
In 1986, they expanded, adding Rodolphe Fortier on guitar, Claude Samson on guitar and harmonica and Frederik Bonicard on bass. They called the new band Vilain Pingouin. In 1989, they released the song "François"; the video for this song played for 12 weeks on a Canadian francophone music station. They followed it with a song called "Salut Salaud"; the initial line-up of the band was: Rudy Caya Frédéric Bonicard Rodolphe Fortier Michel Vaillancourt Claude Sampson Bonicard left and was replaced by Michel Bertrand. Michel Bertrand and Rodolphe Fortier left the band, being replaced by Michel Turcotte and Alain Godmer. Michel Turcotte is now no longer with the band, with Michel Bélanger taking his place. Bassist Benoit Labelle played with Vilain Pingouin at Woodstock en Beauce in 2006 Villain Pingouin Roche et Roule Y'é Quelle Heure Jeux de Mains Les belles années Chu tu Seul à Soir P'tite Vie, P'tite Misère Délinquance Les Belles Années Marche Seul Salur Salaud François Mirroir Mirroir Hard Rock Gold and Rolls ADISQ, Félix "Album of the Year - Rock" for Roche et Roule ADISQ, Félix "Group of the Year" Gala MusiquePlus, "Video of the year", "Le Clip des Clip" and "Best Editing" for Marche Seul Official website
Edward Cameron McLane, was a professional baseball player who played outfield in one game for the 1907 Brooklyn Superbas. He attended Fordham University as well as the Maryland Agricultural College. McLane starred for Fordham's baseball team as both a pitcher and outfielder, while playing guard on the school's football team, he achieved a notable success on the diamond against Yale University on March 25, 1904. Stepping in at the last minute when Fordham's scheduled starting pitcher was incapacitated, he led his school to a 6–3 victory, the results of which were subsequently painted on the wall of the stadium, he received offers from several professional clubs during his college career, but elected to remain in school. McLane's sole major league appearance was in the second game of a doubleheader and the last game of the season for fifth-place Brooklyn; the Superbas were playing the Boston Doves in Boston. Brooklyn lost the first game 6 to 5. In the second game, Brooklyn's pitcher, Doc Scanlan, faced Boston's rookie Sam Frock.
According to The New York Times, "The second game degenerated into a farce, the Brooklyn players putting up a loose game in the field and at bat." Scanlon lasted only 1/3 inning, giving up 1 hit. George Bell did not fare much better. With the score 11 to 0, the game was called "by agreement" after the top of the seventh inning. Along with fellow major league player Jack Coffey, McLane was one of the top two candidates for the job as Fordham's baseball coach in 1910; the school announced on February 13 of that year, that they had selected Coffey over McLane, who at that time was an outfielder for Brockton of the New England League. Career statistics and player information from Baseball-Reference, or Baseball-Reference The New York Times article with picture of Ed McLane
"All I Want to Do is Rock" is the debut single from Scottish band, Travis. Released as a 10" vinyl on the Red Telephone Box label in 1996, it was re-released by Independiente Records a year after the band signed with the label to record Good Feeling; the band refers to the track as their "theme song" or their "national anthem", as of 2009, have added the song back onto their live set lists. The song appeared as a snippet on Hellboy 2. 1996 10" Vinyl"All I Want To Do Is Rock" - 4:04 "The Line Is Fine" - 3:42 "Funny Thing" - 5:03UK CD1"All I Want To Do Is Rock" - 3:53 "Blue On A Black Weekend" - 3:19 "Combing My Hair" - 4:03UK CD2"All I Want To Do Is Rock" - 3:53 "20" - 4:06 "1922" - 3:507" Vinyl / Cassette / European Single"All I Want To Do Is Rock" - 3:53 "Blue On A Black Weekend" - 3:19American E. P."All I Want To Do Is Rock" - 3:53 "Hazy Shades Of Gold" - 3:18 "1922" - 3:50 "U16 Girls" - 4:00 "Blue On A Black Weekend" - 3:19 "20" - 4:06
Herndon is an unincorporated community in Fresno County, California. It is located 9 miles northwest at an elevation of 299 feet. Herndon began, it was the year round head of navigation on that river. Sycamore Point was where the steamboats landed supplies for Fort Miller and the town of Millerton. There was a ferry on the river near the location from 1860's until at the 1880s; the settlement grew around Sycamore Station after the railroad built a bridge over the river nearby into the town of Sycamore in 1872. The first town post office, was called Palo Blanco while it lasted from September 3, 1872 to September 4, 1873; the failure of an irrigation project crippled the growth of the town. It was not until 1887 that the Herndon post office opened and closed in 1893, re-opened in 1907
The Ritzville Carnegie Library, located in Ritzville, Washington, is a building listed on the National Register of Historic Places. It still operates as Ritzville's library, it was designed by the Spokane architectural firm of Zittel. Daniel Buchanan created a library in 1902 when he donated 268 books to the town, a small library was created above a store. In 1903, the town allocated $1000 toward the maintenance of the library. By 1906, the citizens of Ritzville had convinced Carnegie to help, he pledged $10,000 toward a permanent library if the town secured and maintained a location for it. At that time, Ritzville was the smallest town in the United States to receive financial assistance from Carnegie for a library, its basement was used for town council meetings. National Register of Historic Places listings in Adams County, Washington Media related to Ritzville Carnegie Library at Wikimedia Commons