Myory is a town in the Vitebsk Region of Belarus, an administrative center of Myory Raion. The town was first mentioned in 1514. From July 1941 till July 1944, Germans occupied the area. A ghetto was set up in the town. However, about 70 or 80 people managed to escape and a part of them joined the guerrilla group. In July 1942, Jews were ordered to gather in the square and they were taken in the direction of Krukówka village; the Germans shot their bodies were buried at the place of their execution. The final liquidation of the ghetto in Miory took place in December 1942. A monument was built at the site of the massacre
Districts of Belarus
Districts of Belarus are second-level administrative territorial entities of Belarus. In Belarus, raions are administrative territorial entities subordinated to oblasts. Media related to Districts of Belarus at Wikimedia Commons
Chashniki is a town in Vitebsk Region, famous for the Battle of Ula during Livonian War and Battle of Czasniki that took place during the French Invasion of Russia. Ryhor Reles Solomon Zeitlin S. Ansky Photos on Radzima.org Jewish Cemeteries in Chashniki The murder of the Jews of Chashniki during World War II, at Yad Vashem website
Dokshytsy is a town in the Vitebsk Region of Belarus with a significant Chassidic history. It is a kilometer from the source of the Berezina River, its population in 2010 was 6,600. The town is first mentioned in a document of Grand Duke Vytautas dated 1407 which refers to tributaries called "doxyczahe." After the Second Partition of Poland in 1793, Dokshitsy became part of the Russian Empire, forming part of the Minsk Governorate. During the War of 1812 it was destroyed by the French. During World War II, it was occupied by the Red Army on 17 September 1939 and by Nazi Germany on 9 July 1941. Jews of the city were gathered in a ghetto on 30 September 1941. On 29 May 1942, 2600 Jews were executed on a site outside the city. In April 1942, hundreds of young people were sent from the ghetto to a labor camp in Glambukia. During this period an underground organization was established in the ghetto, headed by Yosef Shapira, it was retaken by the Red Army on 2 July 1944
Rasony District is a district in Vitebsk Region, Belarus. Nescherdo Lake, the seventh largest lake in Belarus, is situated in this district. In the early days of the occupation, a powerful and well-coordinated Belarusian resistance movement emerged. Hiding in the woods and swamps, the partisans inflicted heavy damage to German supply lines and communications, disrupting railway tracks, telegraph wires, attacking supply depots, fuel dumps and transports and ambushing German soldiers. Not all anti-German partisans were pro-Soviet. To fight partisan activity, the Germans had to withdraw considerable forces behind their front line; the Operation Heinrich, a large-scale anti-partisan operation during the occupation, carried from October 3 to November 18, 1943 under code name "Heinrich", carried out under overall leadership of SS-Obergruppenführer und General der Polizei Erich von dem Bach-Zelewski commissioned by Himmler for anti-partisan struggle. The Operation Heinrich was a punitive operation directed against the Partisan Republic of Rasony to wipe out the Soviet partisans in the region of Siebież, Nevel, Drysa, Aświeja, Idritsa, a thinly populated area of about 4,000 square kilometers southwest of Pustoshka on the southern border of the Pskov Oblast.
This was carried out by slaughtering the population of the farms located in this area. Most of the houses were burned down. Cattle and food stocks were taken out of the area; the battle group of von dem Bach included the police battle group Jeckeln and the police battle group von Gottberg. Jeckeln's task force included among others: 3rd Estonian SS Volunteer Brigade, Polizei Füsilier Bataillon 286, Polizei Füsilier Bataillon 288, Lettische Polizei Front Bataillon 313, Lettische Polizei Front Bataillon 316, Lettisches Freiwilligen Polizei Regiment 1 Riga - the group of Gachtel, Schutzmannschaft/Lettische Polizei Front Bataillon 283, the forces of the local police service, 1 Latvian motorised infantry platoon, 1 squadron of the reserve Lettische Polizei Front Bataillon 317 - the guard group of de:Walther Schröder, they participated in the combat with partisans, shootings of innocent civilians, destruction of entire villages. It claimed 5,452 victims. In September 1943, when the 3rd SS Volunteer Brigade was ready to battle, it was inspected in Dębica by Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler with SS-Brigadeführer Johannes Soodla, the units' Inspector General.
The inspection lasted for two days and during this time Himmler was pleased with the brigade and announced in the speech given at the end of his visit that the 3rd SS Volunteer Brigade will soon be sent to the Eastern Front where it will replace the 2 SS Infantry Brigade. The former SS-Unterscharführer Leo Sipelgas remembers: "In mid-September 1943 Himmler came to Dębica for two and a half days to inspect our brigade; the headquarter's company defiled to him. I was standing in the first line, it was interesting to see the SS leader so close, we didn't know much about him before…He stopped in front of us, smiled and said:'I am proud of this kind of soldiers!' and kept walking with Augsberger and Kurg. The next day the whole brigade marched in front of Himmler; when we had lunch, Himmler spoke with us too, asked if we wanted to go to the front etc. The officers told us that he was pleased with the brigade." When the Waffen-SS units were numbered in October 22, 1943 the unit became the 3rd SS Volunteer Brigade.
The former 1st grenadier regiment became the 2nd regiment became the 43rd. The other units of the brigade were marked with the number 53. In October the same year the 3rd SS Volunteer Brigade was sent with the railway-echelon to Army Group Nord command and was subjected to Nord's homefront security units' leader. In October 1943 the 3. SS Freiwilligen Brigade went from Riga to Belarus to participate in the Operation Heinrich, its aim was to crush the Partisan Republic of Rasony in Połack-Krasnapollie-Pustoszka-Idrica-Siebież area. Two battle groups were formed: Police battle group Jeckeln and Police battle group von Gottberg; the 3rd SS Volunteer Brigade was subjected to SS-Obergruppenführer und General der Polizei Erich von dem Bach-Zelewski, the leader of the anti-partisan units. By October 1943 the front situation had become dangerous for the nazi forces in Nevelsky District because of the Red Army's successful breakthroughs and because of the Belarusian partisans' units in the forest behind the front.
During the nazi attack the partisans were led by the Red Army officers left in the Rasony Raion forests and the leaders of the All-Union Communist Party. This formation of the partisans was called the Partisan Republic of Rasony; the 3rd SS Volunteer Brigade received an order to destroy this republic. The former 42nd Regiment's 1st Battalion leader, SS-Hauptsturmführer Harald Riipalu, gave an overview in his memoirs about the Partisan Republic of Rasony: "What happened was the following: the Germans had passed this area of land, hardly passable, during their attack of 1941, they left the retreating Red Army units behind in good hope that the latters will die of hunger and come out, but the Russians kept living in the woods. The Germans' eastern politics brought more and more people from the surrounding counties and the more the Eastern Front moved towards West step
Lepel is a town located in the center of the Lepiel Raion in the Vitebsk Province of Belarus near Lepiel Lake. Lepiel is situated at about 54°52′N 28°40′E and its population in the 1998 census was 19,400; the coat of arms of Lepel incorporates the Pahonia symbol. There are three theories about the origin of the name Lepel; the first is that the name'Lepel' come from the word "lepene" which means "lake between the lime-groves". The second is that the name comes from the Belarusian word "лепей" meaning "the best place to live in"; the third theory for the name Lepel is that it derives from the Belarusian word "ляпiць" meaning "well-developed pottery". The first known mention of Lepel dates back to 1439. In the 15th century, the town belonged to the Lithuanian Grand Duchy. In 1439, thanks to efforts of a Roman Catholic priest, Grand Lithuanian Duke Sigismund Kęstutaitis' son Michael gave Lepel to the Vitebsk Roman Catholic church. King Sigismund I the Old subsequently confirmed the gift and in 1541 by approbation of pontiff, the townlands were given to the Vitebsk Cathedral.
After Polatsk was captured by the Russian army in 1563, the Vitebsk government was no longer able to protect its property from the attacks of the Grand Duchy of Moscow. The decision was made to donate Lepel to King Sigismund II Augustus on the erroneous assumption that the king would return the gift by awarding the Vitebsk government with other property of the same value. Instead, the king gave the property by way of life tenure to Yury Zenovich, the mayor of Smolensk. After Yury Zenovich died, Sigismund gave the town to Michael Daragastaisky and it came into the hands of Stefan Batory. Batory returned the property to the Vitebsk government when Polatsk was liberated, it remained difficult for the Vitebsk authorities to protect their holdings in Lepel and thus the decision was made in 1586 to sell the townlands to Lew Sapieha, a leading politician. Sapieha donated Lepel in 1609 to Bernardine nuns in Vilnius who lived next to St. Michael's Church. After the annexation of Belarus to Russia in 1772, Lepel remained in Lithuania due to the border being traced by the river Dvina.
After the second division of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1793, Lepel was annexed by Russia and in 1802 the town became the center of the region. The town suffered in the 1812 French invasion of Russia due to the passing troops razing many buildings to the ground. On 9 September 1852 Lepel was awarded its own coat of arms. Jan Czeczot worked as an engineer on the Berezina Canal in Lepel between 1833 and 1839. In 1880, the population of Lepel consisted of 5,284 people, including 2,458 Jews, 2,281 Orthodox, 536 Roman Catholics. By 1913 Lepel was a quiet regional town center. On November 10, 1919 in the neighbourhood of Lepel there was a clash between the company of the 13th infantry regiment of the Polish Army sitting in an ambush and the Soviet troops advancing into the region; the fighting was successful for the Poles though their commanding officer, lieutenant Stanisław Jacheć, was the only Polish victim of the clash. Heavy fighting between the Bolshevik troops and the Polish Army's 30th regiment of the Rifles of Kaniów of the XX brigade continued through November 1919 and the Polish-Soviet frontline was established there until spring 1920.
On 22 June 1941, the German invasion of the Soviet Union, began. Lepiel was captured by the advancing German troops on 3 July. While the Lepel's Jewish population had once been as high as 3,379 in 1897, by 1941 this had dwindled to only 1,919, or 13.6 percent of the townspeople. The German occupation authorities appointed a Jewish elder. On February 28, 1942 all of the 1,000 residents remaining in the ghetto were shot by an Einsatzgruppen. During Operation Bagration, the summer 1944 Soviet strategic offensive in Belarus, Lepiel was liberated on 3 July. Lepel has: 4 secondary schools An agrotechnical college A professional college Lepel is situated on a highway connecting Minsk and Vitebsk, is 115 km from Vitebsk and 155 km from Minsk; the town is connected by road by rail to Orsha. Photos on Radzima.org Unofficial site History of the town, community Lepel in Geographical Dictionary of Polish Kingdom and Other Slavic Countries The murder of the Jews of Lepiel during World War II, at Yad Vashem website Lyepyel, Belarus at JewishGen