The Middle East is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia and Egypt. Saudi Arabia is geographically the largest Middle Eastern nation; the corresponding adjective is Middle Eastern and the derived noun is Middle Easterner. The term has come into wider usage as a replacement of the term Near East beginning in the early 20th century. Arabs, Persians and Azeris constitute the largest ethnic groups in the region by population. Arabs constitute the largest ethnic group in the region by a clear margin. Indigenous minorities of the Middle East include Jews, Assyrians, Copts, Lurs, Samaritans, Shabaks and Zazas. European ethnic groups that form a diaspora in the region include Albanians, Circassians, Crimean Tatars, Franco-Levantines, Italo-Levantines. Among other migrant populations are Chinese, Indians, Pakistanis, Pashtuns and sub-Saharan Africans; the history of the Middle East dates back to ancient times, with the importance of the region being recognized for millennia. Several major religions have their origins in the Middle East, including Judaism and Islam.
The Middle East has a hot, arid climate, with several major rivers providing irrigation to support agriculture in limited areas such as the Nile Delta in Egypt, the Tigris and Euphrates watersheds of Mesopotamia, most of what is known as the Fertile Crescent. Most of the countries that border the Persian Gulf have vast reserves of crude oil, with monarchs of the Arabian Peninsula in particular benefiting economically from petroleum exports; the term "Middle East" may have originated in the 1850s in the British India Office. However, it became more known when American naval strategist Alfred Thayer Mahan used the term in 1902 to "designate the area between Arabia and India". During this time the British and Russian Empires were vying for influence in Central Asia, a rivalry which would become known as The Great Game. Mahan realized not only the strategic importance of the region, but of its center, the Persian Gulf, he labeled the area surrounding the Persian Gulf as the Middle East, said that after Egypt's Suez Canal, it was the most important passage for Britain to control in order to keep the Russians from advancing towards British India.
Mahan first used the term in his article "The Persian Gulf and International Relations", published in September 1902 in the National Review, a British journal. The Middle East, if I may adopt a term which I have not seen, will some day need its Malta, as well as its Gibraltar. Naval force has the quality of mobility; the British Navy should have the facility to concentrate in force if occasion arise, about Aden and the Persian Gulf. Mahan's article was reprinted in The Times and followed in October by a 20-article series entitled "The Middle Eastern Question," written by Sir Ignatius Valentine Chirol. During this series, Sir Ignatius expanded the definition of Middle East to include "those regions of Asia which extend to the borders of India or command the approaches to India." After the series ended in 1903, The Times removed quotation marks from subsequent uses of the term. Until World War II, it was customary to refer to areas centered around Turkey and the eastern shore of the Mediterranean as the "Near East", while the "Far East" centered on China, the Middle East meant the area from Mesopotamia to Burma, namely the area between the Near East and the Far East.
In the late 1930s, the British established the Middle East Command, based in Cairo, for its military forces in the region. After that time, the term "Middle East" gained broader usage in Europe and the United States, with the Middle East Institute founded in Washington, D. C. in 1946, among other usage. The description Middle has led to some confusion over changing definitions. Before the First World War, "Near East" was used in English to refer to the Balkans and the Ottoman Empire, while "Middle East" referred to Iran, the Caucasus, Central Asia, Turkestan. In contrast, "Far East" referred to the countries of East Asia With the disappearance of the Ottoman Empire in 1918, "Near East" fell out of common use in English, while "Middle East" came to be applied to the re-emerging countries of the Islamic world. However, the usage "Near East" was retained by a variety of academic disciplines, including archaeology and ancient history, where it describes an area identical to the term Middle East, not used by these disciplines.
The first official use of the term "Middle East" by the United States government was in the 1957 Eisenhower Doctrine, which pertained to the Suez Crisis. Secretary of State John Foster Dulles defined the Middle East as "the area lying between and including Libya on the west and Pakistan on the east and Iraq on the North and the Arabian peninsula to the south, plus the Sudan and Ethiopia." In 1958, the State Department explained that the terms "Near East" and "Middle East" were interchangeable, defined the region as including only Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait and Qatar. The Associated Press Styleboo
Pea soup or split pea soup is soup made from dried peas, such as the split pea. It is, with variations, a part of the cuisine of many cultures, it is most greyish-green or yellow in color depending on the regional variety of peas used. Pea soup has been eaten since antiquity. During that era, vendors in the streets of Athens were selling hot pea soup."Eating fresh "garden" peas before they were matured was a luxurious innovation of the Early Modern period: by contrast with the coarse, traditional peasant fare of pease pottage, Potage Saint-Germain, made of fresh peas and other fresh greens braised in light stock and pureed, was an innovation sufficiently refined that it could be served to Louis XIV of France, for whose court at the Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye it was named, ca 1660-80. A well-known nursery rhyme which first appeared in 1765 speaks of "Pease" is the Middle English singular and plural form of the word "pea"—indeed, "pea" began as a back-formation. Pease pudding was a high-protein low-cost staple of the diet and, made from stored dried peas, was an ideal form of food for sailors boiled in accompaniment with salt pork, the origin of pea soup.
Although pease was replaced as a staple by potatoes during the nineteenth century, the food still remains popular in the national diet in the form of "mushy peas" sold as the typical accompaniment to fish and chips, as well as with meat pies. In 19th-century English literature, pea soup is referred to as a simple food and eating it as a sign of poverty. In the Thackeray short story "A Little Dinner at Timmins's", when a character asks his wife "Why don't you ask some of our old friends? Old Mrs. Portman has asked us twenty times, I am sure, within the last two years," she replies, with "a look of ineffable scorn," that when "the last time we went there, there was pea-soup for dinner!" In Thomas Hardy's Tess of the D'Urbervilles, Tess remarks that "we have several proofs that we are d'Urbervilles... we have a old silver spoon, round in the bowl like a little ladle, marked with the same castle. But it is so worn that mother uses it to stir the pea-soup." A soup of this sort made with yellow split-peas is called a London particular after the thick yellow smogs for which London was famous until the Clean Air Act.
Soupe aux pois is a traditional dish in Canadian cuisine. This split pea soup is popular nationwide, but spread via Québécois cuisine. One source says "The most authentic version of Quebec's soupe aux pois use whole yellow peas, with salt pork, herbs for flavour. After cooking, the pork is chopped and returned to the soup, or sometimes removed to slice thinly and served separately... Newfoundland Pea Soup is similar, but includes more vegetables such as diced turnips and carrots, is topped with small dumplings called dough boys or doughballs." A novel about nineteenth-century Canadian farmers by Louis Hémon, entitled Maria Chapdelaine, depicts pea soup as common farmhouse fare: Already the pea-soup smoked in the plates. The five men set themselves at table without haste, as if sensation were somewhat dulled by the heavy work..."... Most of you farmers, know. All the morning you have worked hard, go to your house for dinner and a little rest. Before you are well seated at table, a child is yelling:—'The cows are over the fence.
And when you have managed to drive the cows or the sheep into their paddock and put up the rails, you get back to the house nicely'rested' to find the pea-soup cold and full of flies, the pork under the table gnawed by dogs and cats, you eat what you can lay your hands on, watching for the next trick the wretched animals are getting ready to play on you."In Newfoundland, split peas are cooked in a bag as part of a Jiggs dinner, known as pease pudding. Outside Francophone areas, pea soup is sometimes served with johnny cake; this is reflected in an old saying: "pea soup and johnny cake makes a Frenchman's belly ache." Pea soup is a common dish throughout Germany. It contains meat such as bacon, sausage or Kassler depending on regional preferences. Several Würste will accompany a serving of pea soup as well as some dark bread. Ready-made soup in cans is sometimes used to prepare the dish. One of the first instant products was a pea soup product, which consisted of pea meal and beef fat, it was invented in 1867 by Johann Heinrich Grüneberg.
When the Franco-Prussian War broke out, the war ministry, which had tested the possibility of feeding soldiers on instant pea soup and bread, built a large manufacturing plant and produced between 4,000 and 5,000 tons of Erbswurst for the army during the war. In 1889, the Knorr instant-food company bought the license. Knorr, today a Unilever brand, discontinued the production of Erbswurst on December 31, 2018. Erwtensoep called snert, is the Dutch version of pea soup, it is a thick stew of green split peas, different cuts of pork, celeriac or stalk celery, leeks and potato. Slices of rookworst are added before serving; the soup, traditionally eaten during the winter, is emblematic of Dutch cuisine. It is customarily served with bacon, cheese or butter; the bacon is katenspek, a variety of bacon, coo
Fruit preserves are preparations of fruits and sugar stored in glass jam jars. Many varieties of fruit preserves are made globally, including sweet fruit preserves, such as those made from strawberry or apricot, savory preserves, such as those made from tomatoes or squash; the ingredients used and how they are prepared determine the type of preserves. In English, the word, in plural form, "preserves" is used to describe all types of jellies; the term preserves is interchangeable with jams. Other names include: chutney, conserve, fruit butter, fruit curd, fruit spread and marmalade; some cookbooks define preserves as cooked and gelled whole fruit, which includes a significant portion of the fruit. In the English speaking world, the two terms are more differentiated and, when this is not the case, the more usual generic term is'jam'; the singular preserve or conserve is used as a collective noun for high fruit content jam for marketing purposes. Additionally, the name of the type of fruit preserves will vary depending on the regional variant of English being used.
A chutney is a relish of Indian origin made of fruit and herbs. Although intended to be eaten soon after production, modern chutneys are made to be sold, so require preservatives – sugar and vinegar – to ensure they have a suitable shelf life. Mango chutney, for example, is mangoes reduced with sugar. While confit, the past participle of the French verb confire, "to preserve", is most applied to preservation of meats, it is used for fruits or vegetables seasoned and cooked with honey or sugar till jam-like. Savory confits, such as ones made with garlic or fennel, may call for a savory oil, such as virgin olive oil, as the preserving agent. Konfyt is a type of jam eaten in Southern Africa, it is made by boiling selected fruit or fruits and sugar, optionally adding a small quantity of ginger to enhance the flavour. The origins of the jam is obscure but it is theorized that it came from the French; the word is based on the French term confiture via the Dutch confijt. A conserve, or whole fruit jam, is a preserve made of fruit stewed in sugar.
Traditional whole fruit preserves are popular in Eastern Europe where they are called varenye, the Baltic region where they're known by a native name in each of the countries, as well as in many regions of Western and Southern Asia, where they are referred to as murabba. The making of conserves can be trickier than making a standard jam; this process can be achieved by spreading the dry sugar over raw fruit in layers, leaving for several hours to steep into the fruit just heating the resulting mixture only to bring to the setting point. As a result of this minimal cooking, some fruits are not suitable for making into conserves, because they require cooking for longer periods to avoid issues such as tough skins. Currants and gooseberries, a number of plums are among these fruits; because of this shorter cooking period, not as much pectin will be released from the fruit, as such, conserves will sometimes be softer set than some jams. An alternative definition holds that conserves are preserves made from a mixture of fruits or vegetables.
Conserves may include dried fruit or nuts. Fruit butter, in this context, refers to a process where the whole fruit is forced through a sieve or blended after the heating process. "Fruit butters are made from larger fruits, such as apples, peaches or grapes. Cook until softened and run through a sieve to give a smooth consistency. After sieving, cook the pulp... add sugar and cook as as possible with constant stirring.… The finished product should mound up when dropped from a spoon, but should not cut like jelly. Neither should there be any free liquid."—Berolzheimer R et al. Fruit curd is a dessert topping and spread made with lemon, orange, or raspberry; the basic ingredients are beaten egg yolks, fruit juice and zest which are cooked together until thick and allowed to cool, forming a soft, intensely flavored spread. Some recipes include egg whites or butter. Although the FDA has Requirements for Specific Standardized Fruit Butters, Jellies and Related Products, there is no specification of the meaning of the term Fruit spread.
Although some assert it refers to a jam or preserve with no added sugar, there are many fruit spreads by leading manufacturers that do contain added sugar. This can be verified by searching the listings under fruit spread on common web sites, such as those of Amazon or Walmart, or to look at the ingredient list and nutritional information on specific fruit spread products. Jam contains both the juice and flesh of a fruit or vegetable, although one cookbook defines it as a cooked and jelled puree; the term "jam" refers to a product made of whole fruit cut into pieces or crushed heated with water and sugar to activate its pectin before being put into containers: "Jams are made from pulp and juice of one fruit, rather than a com
Ketchup is a sauce used as a condiment. Recipes used egg whites, oysters, mussels, or walnuts, among other ingredients, but now the unmodified term refers to tomato ketchup. Various other terms for the sauce include catsup, ketsup, red sauce, tomato sauce, or mushroom ketchup or tomato ketchup. Ketchup is a sweet and tangy sauce now made from tomatoes and vinegar, with assorted seasonings and spices; the specific spices and flavors vary, but include onions, coriander, cumin and mustard. The market leader in the United States and United Kingdom is Heinz. Hunt's has the second biggest share of the US market with less than 20%. In much of the UK, Australia and New Zealand ketchup is known as "tomato sauce" or "red sauce". Tomato ketchup is most used as a condiment to dishes that are served hot and may be fried or greasy: french fries, hot dogs, chicken tenders, tater tots, hot sandwiches, meat pies, cooked eggs, grilled or fried meat. Ketchup is sometimes used as the basis for, or as one ingredient in, other sauces and dressings, the flavor may be replicated as an additive flavoring for snacks such as potato chips.
In the 17th century, the Chinese mixed a concoction of pickled fish and spices and called it kôe-chiap or kê-chiap meaning the brine of pickled fish or shellfish. By the early 18th century, the table sauce had arrived in the Malay states, where English colonists first tasted it; the Malaysian-Malay word for the sauce was kecap. That word evolved into the English word "ketchup". English settlers took ketchup with them to the American colonies; the term Catchup was used in 1690 in the Dictionary of the Canting Crew, well acclaimed in North America. The spelling "catchup" may have been used in the past. In the United Kingdom, preparations of ketchup were and prepared with mushrooms as a primary ingredient, rather than tomatoes. Ketchup recipes began to appear in British and American cookbooks in the 18th century. In a 1742 London cookbook, the fish sauce had taken on a British flavor, with the addition of shallots and mushrooms; the mushrooms soon became the main ingredient, from 1750 to 1850 the word ketchup began to mean any number of thin dark sauces made of mushrooms or walnuts.
In the United States, mushroom ketchup dates back to at least 1770, was prepared by British colonists in "English speaking colonies in North America". In contemporary times, mushroom ketchup is available in the UK, although it is not a used condiment. Many variations of ketchup were created, but the tomato-based version did not appear until about a century after other types. An early recipe for "Tomata Catsup" from 1817 still has the anchovies that betray its fish-sauce ancestry: Gather a gallon of fine and full ripe tomatas. Let them rest for three days, press off the juice, to each quart add a quarter of a pound of anchovies, two ounces of shallots, an ounce of ground black pepper. Boil up together for half an hour, strain through a sieve, put to it the following spices. Pound all together, it will keep for seven years. By the mid-1850s, the anchovies had been dropped. James Mease published another recipe in 1812. In 1824, a ketchup recipe using tomatoes appeared in The Virginia Housewife. American cooks began to sweeten ketchup in the 19th century.
As the century progressed, tomato ketchup began its ascent in popularity in the United States. Ketchup was popular. People were less hesitant to eat tomatoes as part of a processed product, cooked and infused with vinegar and spices. Tomato ketchup was sold locally by farmers. Jonas Yerkes is credited as the first American to sell tomato ketchup in a bottle. By 1837, he had distributed the condiment nationally. Shortly thereafter, other companies followed suit. F. & J. Heinz launched their tomato ketchup in 1876. Heinz tomato ketchup was advertised: "Blessed relief for Mother and the other women in the household!", a slogan which alluded to the lengthy and onerous process required to produce tomato ketchup in the home. With industrial ketchup production and a need for better preservation there was a great increase of sugar in ketchup, leading to our modern sweet and sour formula. In Australia, it wasn't until the late 19th century that sugar was added to tomato sauce in small quantities, but today contains just as much as American ketchup and only differed in the proportions of tomatoes and vinegar in early recipes.
The Webster's Dictionary of 1913 defined "catchup" as: "table sauce made from mushrooms, walnuts, etc.." Modern ketchup emerged in the early years of the 20th century, out of a debate over the use of sodium benzoate as a preservative in condiments. Harvey W. Wiley, the "father" of the Food and Drug Administration in the US, challenged the safety of benzoate, banned in the 1906 Pure Food and Drug Act. In response, entrepreneurs including He
Clotted cream is a thick cream made by indirectly heating full-cream cow's milk using steam or a water bath and leaving it in shallow pans to cool slowly. During this time, the cream content rises to the surface and forms "clots" or "clouts", it forms an essential part of a cream tea. Although its origin is uncertain, the cream's production is associated with dairy farms in southwest England and in particular the counties of Cornwall and Devon; the current largest commercial producer in the United Kingdom is Rodda's at Scorrier, Cornwall, which can produce up to 25 tons of clotted cream a day. In 1998 the term Cornish clotted cream became a Protected Designation of Origin by European Union directive, as long as the milk is produced in Cornwall and the minimum fat content is 55%. Clotted cream has been described as having a "nutty, cooked milk" flavour, a "rich sweet flavour" with a texture, grainy, sometimes with oily globules on the crusted surface, it is a thick cream, with a high fat content.
For comparison, the fat content of single cream is only 18 percent. According to the United Kingdom's Food Standards Agency, a 100-gram tub of clotted cream provides 586 kilocalories equivalent to a 200-gram cheeseburger. Made by farmers to reduce the amount of waste from their milk, clotted cream has become so deep-rooted in the culture of southwest Britain that it is embedded as part of the region's tourist attraction. While there is no doubt of its strong and long association with Cornwall and Devon, it is not clear of its actual antiquity, or more recent development; the Oxford Companion to Food follows traditional folklore by suggesting it may have been introduced to Cornwall by Phoenician traders in search of tin. It is similar to kaymak, a Near Eastern delicacy, made throughout the Middle East, southeast Europe, Afghanistan and Turkey. A similar clotted cream known as'urum' is made in Mongolia. Contemporary ancient food experts, noting Strabo's commentaries on Britain have proposed that the early Britons would have clotted cream to preserve its freshness.
More regional archaeologists have associated the stone fogou, or souterrains, found across Atlantic Britain and Ireland as a possible form of "cold store" for dairy production of milk and cheese in particular. Similar functions are ascribed to the linhay stone-built form used as a dairy in medieval longhouses in the same regions, it has long been disputed whether clotted cream originated in Devon or Cornwall, which county makes it the best. There is evidence that the monks of Tavistock Abbey were making clotted cream in the early 14th century. After their abbey had been ransacked by Vikings in 997 AD, the monks rebuilt it with the help of Ordulf, Earl of Devon. Local workers were drafted in to help with the repairs, the monks rewarded them with bread, clotted cream, strawberry preserves; the 1658 cookery book The Compleat Cook had a recipe for "clouted cream". In the 19th century it was regarded as better nourishment than "raw" cream because that cream was liable to go sour and be difficult to digest, causing illness.
An article from 1853 calculates that creating clotted cream will produce 25 percent more cream than regular methods. In Devon, it was so common that in the mid-19th century it was used in the formative processes of butter, instead of churning cream or milk; the butter made in this way had a longer lifespan and was free from any negative flavours added by the churning. It has long been the practice for local residents in southwest England, or those on holiday, to send small tins or tubs of clotted cream by post to friends and relations in other parts of the British Isles. In 1993, an application was made for the name Cornish clotted cream to have a Protected Designation of Origin in the European Union for cream produced by the traditional recipe in Cornwall; this was accepted in 1998. Cornish clotted cream must be made from milk produced in Cornwall and have a minimum butterfat content of 55 percent; the unique yellow, Cornish clotted cream colour is due to the high carotene levels in the grass.
Traditionally, clotted cream was created by straining fresh cow's milk, letting it stand in a shallow pan in a cool place for several hours to allow the cream to rise to the surface heating it either over hot cinders or in a water bath, before a slow cooling. The clots that formed on the top were skimmed off with a long-handled cream-skimmer, known in Devon as a reamer or raimer. By the mid-1930s, the traditional way of using milk brought straight from the dairy was becoming a rarity in Devon because using a cream separator separated the cream from the milk using centrifugal force, which produced far more clotted cream than the traditional method from the same amount of milk; as a farmer's wife in Poundsgate said, "the separator saves a whole cow!"Today, there are two distinct modern methods for making clotted cream. The "float cream method" includes scalding a floating layer of double cream in milk in shallow trays. To scald, the trays are heated using steam or hot water. After the mixture has been heated for up to an hour it is cooled for 12 hours or more, before the cream is separated and packaged.
The "scald cream method" is similar, but the milk layer is removed and a layer of cream, mechanically separated to a minimum fat level is used. This cream is heated in a similar manner, but at a lower temperature and after a set amount of time it is chilled and packaged. In th
Confectionery is the art of making confections, which are food items that are rich in sugar and carbohydrates. Exact definitions are difficult. In general, confectionery is divided into two broad and somewhat overlapping categories, bakers' confections and sugar confections. Bakers' confectionery called flour confections, includes principally sweet pastries and similar baked goods. Sugar confectionery includes candies, candied nuts, chewing gum, bubble gum and other confections that are made of sugar. In some cases, chocolate confections are treated as a separate category, as are sugar-free versions of sugar confections; the words candy and lollies are common words for the most common varieties of sugar confectionery. The confectionery industry includes specialized training schools and extensive historical records. Traditional confectionery goes back to ancient times and continued to be eaten through the Middle Ages into the modern era. Before sugar was available in the ancient western world, confectionery was based on honey.
Honey was used in Ancient China, Ancient India, Ancient Egypt, Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome to coat fruits and flowers to preserve them or to create sweetmeats. Between the 6th and 4th centuries BC, the Persians, followed by the Greeks, made contact with the Indian subcontinent and its "reeds that produce honey without bees", they adopted and spread sugar and sugarcane agriculture. Sugarcane is indigenous to Southeast Asia. In the early history of sugar usage in Europe, it was the apothecary who had the most important role in the production of sugar-based preparations. Medieval European physicians learned the medicinal uses of the material from the Arabs and Byzantine Greeks. One Middle Eastern remedy for rheums and fevers were little, twisted sticks of pulled sugar called in Arabic al fänäd or al pänäd; these became known in England as alphenics, or more as penidia, pennet or pan sugar. They were the precursors of barley sugar and modern cough drops. In 1390, the Earl of Derby paid "two shillings for two pounds of penydes."
As the non-medicinal applications of sugar developed, the comfitmaker, or confectioner came into being as a separate trade. In the late medieval period the words confyt, comfect or cumfitt were generic terms for all kinds of sweetmeats made from fruits, roots, or flowers preserved with sugar. By the 16th century, a cumfit was more a seed, nut or small piece of spice enclosed in a round or ovoid mass of sugar; the production of comfits was a core skill of the early confectioner, known more in 16th and 17th century England as a comfitmaker. Reflecting their original medicinal purpose, comfits were produced by apothecaries and directions on how to make them appear in dispensatories as well as cookery texts. An early medieval Latin name for an apothecary was confectionarius, it was in this sort of sugar work that the activities of the two trades overlapped and that the word "confectionery" originated. In 1847, the candy bar was invented by Joseph Fry, who discovered a way to mix melted cacao butter back into cocoa powder along with sugar by creating a paste that could press into a mold.
Confections are defined by the presence of sweeteners. These are sugars, but it is possible to buy sugar-free candies, such as sugar-free peppermints; the most common sweetener for home cooking is table sugar, chemically a disaccharide containing both glucose and fructose. Hydrolysis of sucrose gives a mixture called invert sugar, sweeter and is a common commercial ingredient. Confections commercial ones, are sweetened by a variety of syrups obtained by hydrolysis of starch; these sweeteners include all types of corn syrup. Bakers' confectionery includes sweet baked goods those that are served for the dessert course. Bakers' confections are sweet foods that are baked. Major categories include cakes, sweet pastries, doughnuts and cookies. In the Middle East and Asia, flour-based confections predominate. Cakes have a somewhat bread-like texture, many earlier cakes, such as the centuries-old stollen, or the older king cake, were rich yeast breads; the variety of styles and presentations extends from simple to elaborate.
Major categories include butter cakes and foam cakes. Confusingly, some desserts that have the word cake in their names, such as cheesecake, are not technically cakes, while others, such as Boston cream pie are cakes despite seeming to be named something else. Pastry is a large and diverse category of baked goods, united by the flour-based doughs used as the base for the product; these doughs are not always sweet, the sweetness may come from the sugar, chocolate, cream, or other fillings that are added to the finished confection. Pastries can be elaborately decorated. Doughnuts may be baked. Scones and related sweet quick breads, such as bannock, are similar to baking powder biscuits and, in sweeter, less traditional interpretations, can seem like a cupcake. Cookies are small, sweet baked treats, they originated as small cakes, some traditional cookies have a soft, cake-like texture. Others are hard. Sugar confections include sweet, sugar-based foods, which are eaten as snack food; this includes sugar candies, candied fruits and nuts, chewing gum, sometimes ice cream.
In some cases, chocolate confections are treated as a separate category, as are sugar-free versions of sugar confections. Different
The Greeks or Hellenes are an ethnic group native to Greece, southern Albania, Turkey, Egypt and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. They form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world. Greek colonies and communities have been established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, but the Greek people have always been centered on the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age; until the early 20th century, Greeks were distributed between the Greek peninsula, the western coast of Asia Minor, the Black Sea coast, Cappadocia in central Anatolia, the Balkans and Constantinople. Many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization; the cultural centers of the Greeks have included Athens, Alexandria and Constantinople at various periods. Most ethnic Greeks live nowadays within the borders of Cyprus.
The Greek genocide and population exchange between Greece and Turkey nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek presence in Asia Minor. Other longstanding Greek populations can be found from southern Italy to the Caucasus and southern Russia and Ukraine and in the Greek diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks are registered as members of the Greek Orthodox Church. Greeks have influenced and contributed to culture, exploration, philosophy, architecture, mathematics and technology, business and sports, both and contemporarily; the Greeks speak the Greek language, which forms its own unique branch within the Indo-European family of languages, the Hellenic. They are part of a group of classical ethnicities, described by Anthony D. Smith as an "archetypal diaspora people"; the Proto-Greeks arrived at the area now called Greece, in the southern tip of the Balkan peninsula, at the end of the 3rd millennium BC. The sequence of migrations into the Greek mainland during the 2nd millennium BC has to be reconstructed on the basis of the ancient Greek dialects, as they presented themselves centuries and are therefore subject to some uncertainties.
There were at least two migrations, the first being the Ionians and Aeolians, which resulted in Mycenaean Greece by the 16th century BC, the second, the Dorian invasion, around the 11th century BC, displacing the Arcadocypriot dialects, which descended from the Mycenaean period. Both migrations occur at incisive periods, the Mycenaean at the transition to the Late Bronze Age and the Doric at the Bronze Age collapse. An alternative hypothesis has been put forth by linguist Vladimir Georgiev, who places Proto-Greek speakers in northwestern Greece by the Early Helladic period, i.e. towards the end of the European Neolithic. Linguists Russell Gray and Quentin Atkinson in a 2003 paper using computational methods on Swadesh lists have arrived at a somewhat earlier estimate, around 5000 BC for Greco-Armenian split and the emergence of Greek as a separate linguistic lineage around 4000 BC. In c. 1600 BC, the Mycenaean Greeks borrowed from the Minoan civilization its syllabic writing system and developed their own syllabic script known as Linear B, providing the first and oldest written evidence of Greek.
The Mycenaeans penetrated the Aegean Sea and, by the 15th century BC, had reached Rhodes, Crete and the shores of Asia Minor. Around 1200 BC, the Dorians, another Greek-speaking people, followed from Epirus. Traditionally, historians have believed that the Dorian invasion caused the collapse of the Mycenaean civilization, but it is the main attack was made by seafaring raiders who sailed into the eastern Mediterranean around 1180 BC; the Dorian invasion was followed by a poorly attested period of migrations, appropriately called the Greek Dark Ages, but by 800 BC the landscape of Archaic and Classical Greece was discernible. The Greeks of classical antiquity idealized their Mycenaean ancestors and the Mycenaean period as a glorious era of heroes, closeness of the gods and material wealth; the Homeric Epics were and accepted as part of the Greek past and it was not until the time of Euhemerism that scholars began to question Homer's historicity. As part of the Mycenaean heritage that survived, the names of the gods and goddesses of Mycenaean Greece became major figures of the Olympian Pantheon of antiquity.
The ethnogenesis of the Greek nation is linked to the development of Pan-Hellenism in the 8th century BC. According to some scholars, the foundational event was the Olympic Games in 776 BC, when the idea of a common Hellenism among the Greek tribes was first translated into a shared cultural experience and Hellenism was a matter of common culture; the works of Homer and Hesiod were written in the 8th century BC, becoming the basis of the national religion, ethos and mythology. The Oracle of Apollo at Delphi was established in this period; the classical period of Greek civilization covers a time spanning from the early 5th century BC to the death of Alexander the Great, in 323 BC. It is so named because it set the standards by which Greek civilization would be judged in eras; the Classical period is described as the "Golden Age" of Greek civilization, and