Ballade (forme fixe)
The ballade is a form of medieval and Renaissance French poetry as well as the corresponding musical chanson form. It was one of the three formes fixes and one of the forms in France most commonly set to music between the late 13th and the 15th centuries. The formes fixes were standard forms in French-texted song of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, the ballade is usually in three stanzas, each ending with a refrain. The ballade as a form typically consists of three eight-line stanzas, each with a consistent metre and a particular rhyme scheme. The last line in the stanza is a refrain, the stanzas are often followed by a four-line concluding stanza usually addressed to a prince. The rhyme scheme is therefore usually ababbcbC ababbcbC ababbcbC bcbC, where the capital C is a refrain, the many different rhyming words that are needed makes the form more difficult for English than for French poets. Geoffrey Chaucer wrote in the form and it was revived in the 19th century by English-language poets including Dante Gabriel Rossetti and Algernon Charles Swinburne.
Other notable English-language ballade writers are Andrew Lang, Hilaire Belloc, a humorous example is Wendy Copes Proverbial Ballade. In many ballades, the part of the B section may reintroduce melodic material referring back to the end of the A part. An alternative form employed by Machaut, known as duplex or balladelle, has the B part divided into two repetitions, with the refrain line sung as part of the repetition. A famous exception to the form is Se la face ay pale by Guillaume Dufay. Guillaume de Machaut wrote 42 ballades set to music, a few of them set two or even three poems to music simultaneously, with different texts sung in different voices. Most of the others have a single texted voice with either one or two untexted accompanying voices, one of the most notable writers of ballades in the 15th century was François Villon. There are many variations to the ballade. It is in ways similar to the ode and chant royal. A seven-line ballade, or ballade royal, consists of four stanzas of rhyme royal, a ballade supreme has ten-line stanzas rhyming ababbccdcD, with the envoi ccdcD or ccdccD.
An example is Ballade des Pendus by François Villon, there are instances of a double ballade and double-refrain ballade
Cercamon, whose real name, as well as any actual biographical data, is unknown, was one of the earliest troubadours. He was apparently a jester of sorts, born in Gascony and he was the inventor of the planh, of the tenso and perhaps of the sirventes. About 7 of his lyrics survive, but not a single melody, Cercamon simply means world searcher in medieval Occitan and in actual Catalan. The Poetry of Cercamon and Jaufre Rudel, biographies des troubadours ed. J. Boutière, A. -H. Complete works, in Provençal, with English translations
Cadenet was a Provençal troubadour who lived and wrote at the court of Raymond VI of Toulouse and eventually made a reputation in Spain. Of his twenty-five surviving songs, twenty-one are cansos, with one alba, one partimen, one pastorela, during Cadenets childhood Raymond V of Toulouse and Bertrand I of Forcalquier went to war over the Vaucluse. Cadenets father was killed in fighting for the count of Forcalquier. Cadenet was taken captive or as a hostage to the court of Toulouse, where he became known after his birthplace and he rose to prominence in the court under the patronage of several prominent families with close connections to the Cathar movement. According to his late thirteenth-century vida, et el venc bos e bels et courtes e saup ben cantar e parlar, et apres a trobar coblas e sirventes. He became an attendant of the count and countess of Toulouse. His cansos celebrate love but criticise the feudal lords for their less admirable behaviour and he was only full of praise for lauzengiers, the spies and eavesdroppers who forced lovers into ever more secrecy.
He wrote one sirventes criticising Raymond Roger Trencavel for his poor manners on a visit to the court of the count of Toulouse in 1204, Cadenet wrote a famous early alba, Sanc fu belha ni prezada, whose music and lyrics are still preserved. The music is of the style of an oda continua hymn, in some of his writings, modern researches have thought to detect the influence of Cathar doctrine. Tant mi sent vas Dieu mespres queu me cugei deseperar, so guilty I feel towards God That I believe I might despair. After the Crusade and the Inquisition, Cadenet took refuge in Spain, alfonsos cantiga Virgen, madre gloriosa adapts metric elements from Cadenets alba. Late in life, after a falling in love with a novice nun. He appears to have been serving with the Order in Palestine when he died around 1230, the first modern critical edition of Cadenets work was published by Carl Appel in German as Der Trobador Cadenet in 1920
Marcabru is one of the earliest troubadours whose poems are known. There is no information about him, the two vidas attached to his poems tell different stories, and both are evidently built on hints in the poems, not on independent information. According to the life in BnF ms. 12473, Marcabrun was from Gascony and was the son of a woman named Marcabrunela. This evidently comes from a reading of poem 293,18, according to the longer biography in MS. Lat.5232 Marcabru was abandoned at a rich mans door and he was brought up by Aldric del Vilar, learned to make poetry from Cercamon, was at first nicknamed Pan-perdut and Marcabru. He became famous, and the lords of Gascony, about whom he had many bad things. This appears to be based on poems 16b,1 and 293,43 and guesswork, forty-four poems are attributed to Marcabru, often difficult, sometimes obscene, relentlessly critical of the morality of lords and ladies. He experimented with the pastorela, which he uses to point out the futility of lust, one tells of how the speakers advances are reviled by a shepherdess on the basis of class.
Another tells of how a mans attempt to seduce a woman whose husband was at the crusades is firmly rebuffed and he may have originated the tenso in a debate with Uc Catola on the nature of love and the decline of courtly behaviour. Marcabru was an influence on poets who adopted the obscure trobar clus style. Among his patrons were William X of Aquitaine and, Marcabru may have travelled to Spain in the entourage of Alfonso Jordan, Count of Toulouse, in the 1130s. In the 1140s he was a propagandist for the Reconquista and in his famous poem with the Latin beginning Pax in nomine Domini and he called Spain a lavador where knights could go to have their souls cleansed fighting the infidel. Four monophonic melodies to accompany Marcabrus poetry survive, three melodies of poems that may be contrafacta of Marcabrus work may be attributed to him
A torneyamen or certamen was a lyric genre of the troubadours of the thirteenth century. The first three-way tenso was initiated by Raimbaut de Vaqueiras with Ademar de Peiteus and these wider tensos only became known as torneyamens later. A tenso or partimen that was submitted to another troubadour for adjudication may have a poetic jutjamen attached to it, the torneyamen, like the related debate forms, was probably especially common at contests, such as floral games and puys. Many such tensos and partimens come with attached jutjamens rendered in verse, as in the example Senyer Bernatz, dues puncelhas say cited below
Lyric poetry is a formal type of poetry which expresses personal emotions or feelings, typically spoken in the first person. The term derives from a form of Ancient Greek literature, the lyric, the term owes its importance in literary theory to the division developed by Aristotle between three broad categories of poetry, lyrical and epic. Much lyric poetry depends on regular meter based either on number of syllables or on stress, the most common meters are as follows, Iambic – two syllables, with the short or unstressed syllable followed by the long or stressed syllable. Trochaic – two syllables, with the long or stressed syllable followed by the short or unstressed syllable, in English, this metre is found almost entirely in lyric poetry. Pyrrhic – Two unstressed syllables Anapestic – three syllables, with the first two short or unstressed and the last long or stressed, dactylic – three syllables, with the first one long or stressed and the other two short or unstressed. Spondaic – two syllables, with two successive long or stressed syllables, some forms have a combination of meters, often using a different meter for the refrain.
For the ancient Greeks, lyric poetry had a technical meaning, verse that was accompanied by a lyre, cithara. Because such works were sung, it was known as melic poetry. The lyric or melic poet was distinguished from the writer of plays, the writer of trochaic and iambic verses, the writer of elegies, the scholars of Hellenistic Alexandria created a canon of nine lyric poets deemed especially worthy of critical study. These archaic and classical musician-poets included Sappho, Anacreon, archaic lyric was characterized by strophic composition and live musical performance. Some poets, like Pindar extended the metrical forms to a triad, including strophe, among the major extant Roman poets of the classical period, only Catullus and Horace wrote lyric poetry, which however was no longer meant to be sung but instead read or recited. What remained were the forms, the meters of the Greeks adapted to Latin. Catullus was influenced by both archaic and Hellenistic Greek verse and belonged to a group of Roman poets called the Neoteroi who spurned epic poetry following the lead of Callimachus, they composed brief, highly polished poems in various thematic and metrical genres.
The varying forms of the new Chu ci provided more rhythm, originating in 10th-century Persian, a ghazal is a poetic form consisting of couplets that share a rhyme and a refrain. Formally, it consists of a short lyric composed in a meter with a single rhyme throughout. Notable authors include Hafiz, Amir Khusro, Auhadi of Maragheh, Alisher Navoi, Obeid e zakani, Khaqani Shirvani, Farid al-Din Attar, Omar Khayyam, and Rudaki. The ghazal was introduced to European poetry in the early 19th century by the Germans Schlegel, Von Hammer-Purgstall, and Goethe, lyric in European literature of the medieval or Renaissance period means a poem written so that it could be set to music—whether or not it actually was. A poems particular structure, function, or theme might all vary, the lyric poetry of Europe in this period was created by the pioneers of courtly poetry and courtly love largely without reference to the classical past
An ensenhamen was an Old Occitan didactic poem associated with the troubadours. As a genre of Occitan literature, its limits have been open to debate since it was first defined in the 19th century, the word ensenhamen has many variations in old Occitan, ensegnamen and enseignmen. Besides these were types defining and encouraging courtly love and courtly behaviour, the earliest attestable ensenhamen was written around 1155 by Garin lo Brun. It is the Ensenhamen de la donsela, around 1170 Arnaut Guilhem de Marsan wrote the Ensenhamen del cavaier for a warrior audience. A decade or so Arnaut de Mareuil wrote a long, in the 1220s or 1230s the subjet of honour was treated by the Italian troubadour Sordel in his Ensenhamen donor and by Uc de Saint Circ in a similarly titled work. Late in the century the Catalan Cerverí de Girona wrote an ensenhamen of proverbs in 1,197 quartets for his son. Daude de Pradas wrote an ensenhamen on the four cardinal virtues, peire Lunel wrote Lessenhamen del guarso in 1326, the latest example of the genre.
At de Mons and Raimon Vidal are other contributors to the genre. There were mock ensenhamens designed to satirise the jongleurs, fadet juglar by Guiraut de Calanso is an example. Bertran de Paris and Guiraut de Cabreira are known to have written this way
Genre is any form or type of communication in any mode with socially-agreed upon conventions developed over time. Genres form by conventions that change over time as new genres are invented, works fit into multiple genres by way of borrowing and recombining these conventions. Stand alone texts, works, or pieces of communication may have individual styles, some genres may be rigid with strictly adhered to guidelines while others may be very flexible. Genre began as a classification system for ancient Greek literature. Poetry and performance each had a specific and calculated style that related to the theme of the story. Speech patterns for comedy would not be appropriate for tragedy, in periods genres proliferated and developed in response to changes in audiences and creators. Genre became a tool to help the public make sense out of unpredictable art. Because art is often a response to a state, in that people write/paint/sing/dance about what they know about. Genre suffers from the ills of any classification system.
Genre is to be reassessed and scrutinized and to works on their unique merit. While the genre of storytelling has been relegated as lesser form of art because of the heavily borrowed nature of the conventions, proponents argue that the genius of an effective genre piece is in the variation and evolution of the codes. The term genre is used in the history and criticism of visual art. These are distinguished from staffage, incidental figures in what is primarily a landscape or architectural painting, Genre painting may be used as a wider term covering genre painting proper, and other specialized types of paintings such as still-life, marine paintings and animal paintings. The concept of the hierarchy of genres was a one in artistic theory. It was strongest in France, where it was associated with the Académie française which held a role in academic art. Genres may be determined by technique, content. Genre should not be confused with age category, by which literature may be classified as adult, young adult.
They must not be confused with format, such as novel or picture book
A maldit was a genre of Catalan and Occitan literature practised by the troubadours. It was a song complaining about a ladys behaviour and character, a related genre, the comiat, was a song renouncing a lover. The maldit and the comiat were often connected as a maldit-comiat and they could be used to attack and renounce a figure other than a lady or a lover, the maldit-comiat is especially associated with the Catalan troubadours. Martí de Riquer describes un autèntic maldit-comiat as a song where a poet leaves a mistress to whom he has long been fruitlessly devoted, the earliest comiat is probably a fragmentary work by Uc Catola, of the first generation of troubadours. The most famous maldit is probably poem XLII of Ausiàs March and it is a virulent attack on several named women. Francesc Ferrer in Lo conhort quotes from six authors, works which may have been maldits. It was evidently a popular genre in the quarter of the fifteenth century. All of the above poets do not name their lovers and do not include a comiat in their poems, on the basis of this, March has been argued to be creating a new form, politically motivated and less encumbered by the ethics of courtly love.
The composers of traditional maldits often refer to their women by senhals like Na Maliciosa, simon Pastor, wrote a maldit against an unnamed man. The Leys damor, the treatise of the Consistori de Tolosa and the Consistori de Barcelona, condemned the maldig especial. Bernart de Palaol wrote a comiat that has often been misidentified as a maldit or comiat-maldit, guillem de Masdovelles, besides his three maldits, wrote one comiat, perhaps his most famous piece. He takes leave, not of his lover, but of the service of Guerau Alamany de Cervelló. From the same family, Johan Berenguer wrote a comiat often mis-characterised as a comiat-maldit, another Catalan poet of the comiat was Blai Saselles. Usually, but not always, represents the end of the relationship. Consists mainly of accusations of bad content, usually but not always with regards to the treatment of the poet, the poet claims to have had a sexual relationship with the woman. Often, the poet calls the woman ugly, the poet is sensitive to the generally hostile reception of defamatory works of literature.
Archer does not interpret Marchs famous poem LXII as a maldit-comiat, one reason for this is that March was not the lover of the woman he is attacking. Tradition, Genre and Politics in Ausiàs Marchs maldit, bulletin of Hispanic Studies,68,3, pp. 371–382
Old French was the Gallo-Romance dialect continuum spoken from the 9th century to the 14th century. In the 14th century, these came to be collectively known as the langues doïl. The mid-14th century is taken as the period to Middle French. The areal of Old French in contemporary terms corresponded to the parts of the Kingdom of France, Upper Burgundy. As part of the emerging Gallo-Romance dialect continuum, the langues doïl were contrasted with the langue doc, in these examples, we notice a clear consequence of bilingualism, that sometimes even changed the first syllable of the Latin words. Pope estimated that perhaps still 15% of the vocabulary of modern French derives from Germanic sources, at the third Council of Tours in 813, priests were ordered to preach in the vernacular language, since the common people could no longer understand formal Latin. The second-oldest document in Old French is the Eulalia sequence, which is important for reconstruction of Old French pronunciation due to its consistent spelling.
The Capetians langue doïl, the forerunner of modern standard French, did not begin to become the common speech of all of France, until after the French Revolution. In the Late Middle Ages, the Old French dialects diverged into a number of distinct langues doïl, during the Early Modern period, French now becomes established as the official language of the Kingdom of France throughout the realm, including the langue doc-speaking territories in the south. Old French gives way to Middle French in the mid-14th century, the earliest extant French literary texts date from the ninth century, but very few texts before the 11th century have survived. The first literary works written in Old French were saints lives, the Canticle of Saint Eulalie, written in the second half of the 9th century, is generally accepted as the first such text. The first of these is the area of the chansons de geste. More than one hundred chansons de geste have survived in three hundred manuscripts. The oldest and most celebrated of the chansons de geste is The Song of Roland, a fourth grouping, not listed by Bertrand, is the Crusade cycle, dealing with the First Crusade and its immediate aftermath.
Jean Bodels other two categories—the Matter of Rome and the Matter of Britain—concern the French romance or roman, around a hundred verse romances survive from the period 1150–1220. From around 1200 on, the tendency was increasingly to write the romances in prose, the most important romance of the 13th century is the Romance of the Rose which breaks considerably from the conventions of the chivalric adventure story. The Occitan or Provençal poets were called troubadours, from the word trobar to find, lyric poets in Old French are called trouvères. By the late 13th century, the tradition in France had begun to develop in ways that differed significantly from the troubadour poets
Giraut de Bornelh
Giraut de Bornelh, whose first name is spelled Guiraut and whose toponym as de Borneil or de Borneyll, was a troubadour connected to the castle of the viscount of Limoges. He is credited with the formalisation, if not the invention, of the light style, Giraut was born to a lower-class family in the Limousin, probably in Bourney, near Excideuil in modern-day France. Guiraut might have accompanied Richard I of England and Aimar V of Limoges on the Third Crusade and stayed a while with the prince of Antioch. He certainly made a pilgrimage to the Holy Land, but perhaps before the Crusade, notable pieces include, Sanc jorn aqui joi e solaz, a planh about the death of Raimbaut dAurenga. Ara·m platz, Giraut de Borneill, a tenso with Raimbaut dAurenga discussing trobar clus versus trobar leu. Be me plairia, senhen reis, a tenso with king Alfons II of Aragon Giraut contributes to the debate as to whether a lady is dishonoured by taking a lover who is richer than herself. This debate was begun by Guilhem de Saint-Leidier, taken up by Azalais de Porcairagues and Raimbaut dAurenga, reis glorios, a well-known alba Sharman, Ruth V.
The Cansos and Sirventes of the Troubadour Giraut de Borneil, Guiraut de Bornelh, vol.1 and Songs, vol.2 Complete works, including all extant melodies at trobar. org