McLaren Racing Limited, competing as McLaren Honda, is a British Formula One team based at the McLaren Technology Centre, Surrey, England. McLaren is best known as a Formula One constructor but has competed in and won the Indianapolis 500. The team is the second oldest active team after Ferrari and they are one of the most successful teams in Formula One history, having won 182 races,12 drivers championships and eight constructors championships. The team is an owned subsidiary of McLaren Technology Group. Further American triumph followed, with Indianapolis 500 wins in McLaren cars for Mark Donohue in 1972, the combination of Prost and Senna was particularly dominant—together they won all but one race in 1988—but their rivalry soured and Prost left for Ferrari. Fellow English team Williams offered the most consistent challenge during this period, however, by the mid-1990s, Honda had withdrawn from Formula One, Senna had moved to Williams, and the team went three seasons without a win. Ron Dennis retired as McLaren team principal in 2009, handing the role to longtime McLaren employee Martin Whitmarsh.
At the end of 2013, after the teams worst season since 2004, McLaren announced in 2013 that they would be using Honda engines from 2015 onwards, replacing Mercedes-Benz. The team raced as McLaren-Honda for the first time since 1992 at the 2015 Australian Grand Prix, Bruce McLaren Motor Racing was founded in 1963 by New Zealander Bruce McLaren. Bruce was a driver for the British Formula One team Cooper with whom he had won three Grands Prix and come second in the 1960 world championship. In 1964 and 1965, McLaren were based in New Malden, during this period, Bruce drove for his team in sports car races in the United Kingdom and North America and entered the 1965 Tasman Series with Phil Hill, but did not win it. He continued to drive in Grands Prix for Cooper, but judging that teams form to be waning, Bruce made the teams Grand Prix debut at the 1966 Monaco race. His race ended after nine laps due to an oil leak. Neither car brought great success, the best result being a fourth at Monaco, for 1968, after driving McLarens sole entry for the previous two years, Bruce was joined by 1967 champion and fellow New Zealander Denny Hulme, who was already racing for McLaren in Can-Am.
That years new M7A car, Herds final design for the team, was powered by Cosworths new and soon to be ubiquitous DFV engine, Hulme won the Italian and Canadian Grands Prix in the year, helping the team to second in the constructors championship. The year 1970 started with a place each for Hulme. After his death, Teddy Mayer took over control of the team, Hulme continued with Dan Gurney. Gurney won the first two Can-Am events at Mosport and St. Jovite and placed ninth in the third, but left the team mid-season, and Gethin took over from there
Active suspensions can be generally divided into three classes, pure active suspensions, and adaptive and semi-active suspensions. The system virtually eliminates body roll and pitch variation in many driving situations including cornering, Active suspensions, the first to be introduced, use separate actuators which can exert an independent force on the suspension to improve the riding characteristics. The drawbacks of this design are high cost, added complication and mass of the apparatus, maintenance can require specialised tools, and some problems can be difficult to diagnose. Hydraulically actuated suspensions are controlled with the use of hydraulic servomechanisms, the hydraulic pressure to the servos is supplied by a high pressure radial piston hydraulic pump. Sensors continually monitor body movement and vehicle ride level, constantly supplying the computer with new data, as the computer receives and processes data, it operates the hydraulic servos, mounted beside each wheel. Almost instantly, the servo-regulated suspension generates counter forces to body lean, colin Chapman developed the original concept of computer management of hydraulic suspension in the 1980s to improve cornering in racing cars.
Lotus fitted and developed a system to a 1985 Excel with electro-hydraulic active suspension. This type of active suspension uses linear electromagnetic motors attached to each wheel and it provides extremely fast response, and allows regeneration of power consumed, by using the motors as generators. This nearly surmounts the issues of slow response times and high power consumption of hydraulic systems, the ECASS-equipped HMMWV exceeded the performance specifications for all performance evaluations in terms of absorbed power to the vehicle operator and handling. The Bose Corporation has a proof of concept model, the founder of Bose, Amar Bose, had been working on exotic suspensions for many years while he was an MIT professor. Adaptive or semi-active systems can only change the viscous damping coefficient of the shock absorber, though limited in their intervention, semi-active suspensions are less expensive to design and consume far less energy. In recent times, research in semi-active suspensions has continued to advance with respect to their capabilities and this type is the most economic and basic type of semi-active suspensions.
They consist of a valve which alters the flow of the hydraulic medium inside the shock absorber. The solenoids are wired to the computer, which sends them commands depending on the control algorithm. This type of system used in Cadillacs Computer Command Ride suspension system, another fairly recent method incorporates magnetorheological dampers with a brand name MagneRide. It was initially developed by Delphi Corporation for GM and was standard, as other new technologies, for Cadillac Seville STS. This was an upgrade for systems used in upscale GM vehicles for decades. It allows, together with modern computers, changing the stiffness of all wheel suspensions independently
A motorcycle is a two- or three-wheeled motor vehicle. Motorcycle design varies greatly to suit a range of different purposes, long travel, cruising, sport including racing. Motorcycling is riding a motorcycle and related social activity such as joining a motorcycle club, in 1894, Hildebrand & Wolfmüller became the first series production motorcycle, and the first to be called a motorcycle. In 2014, the three top motorcycle producers globally by volume were Honda and Hero MotoCorp, in developing countries, motorcycles are overwhelmingly utilitarian due to lower prices and greater fuel economy. Of all the motorcycles in the world, 58% are in the Asia-Pacific and Southern and Eastern Asia regions, according to the United States Department of Transportation the number of fatalities per vehicle mile traveled was 37 times higher for motorcycles than for cars. The term motorcycle has different legal definitions depending on jurisdiction, there are three major types of motorcycle, off-road, and dual purpose.
Within these types, there are many sub-types of motorcycles for different purposes, there is often a racing counterpart to each type, such as road racing and street bikes, or motocross and dirt bikes. Street bikes include cruisers, sportbikes and mopeds, off-road motorcycles include many types designed for dirt-oriented racing classes such as motocross and are not street legal in most areas. Dual purpose machines like the style are made to go off-road but include features to make them legal. Each configuration offers either specialised advantage or broad capability, and each design creates a different riding posture, the first internal combustion, petroleum fueled motorcycle was the Daimler Reitwagen. It was designed and built by the German inventors Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach in Bad Cannstatt, instead, it relied on two outrigger wheels to remain upright while turning. The inventors called their invention the Reitwagen and it was designed as an expedient testbed for their new engine, rather than a true prototype vehicle.
The first commercial design for a cycle was a three-wheel design called the Butler Petrol Cycle. He exhibited his plans for the vehicle at the Stanley Cycle Show in London in 1884, the vehicle was built by the Merryweather Fire Engine company in Greenwich, in 1888. The engine was liquid-cooled, with a radiator over the driving wheel. Speed was controlled by means of a valve lever. No braking system was fitted, the vehicle was stopped by raising and lowering the rear driving wheel using a foot-operated lever, the driver was seated between the front wheels. It wasnt, however, a success, as Butler failed to find sufficient financial backing, many authorities have excluded steam powered, electric motorcycles or diesel-powered two-wheelers from the definition of a motorcycle, and credit the Daimler Reitwagen as the worlds first motorcycle
Italy, officially the Italian Republic, is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe. Located in the heart of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria, San Marino, Italy covers an area of 301,338 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate and Mediterranean climate. Due to its shape, it is referred to in Italy as lo Stivale. With 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth most populous EU member state, the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom, which eventually became a republic that conquered and assimilated other nearby civilisations. The legacy of the Roman Empire is widespread and can be observed in the distribution of civilian law, republican governments, Christianity. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, exploration, Italian culture flourished at this time, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Leonardo da Vinci, Galileo and Machiavelli. The weakened sovereigns soon fell victim to conquest by European powers such as France and Austria.
Despite being one of the victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil. The subsequent participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in defeat, economic destruction. Today, Italy has the third largest economy in the Eurozone and it has a very high level of human development and is ranked sixth in the world for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs, as a reflection of its cultural wealth, Italy is home to 51 World Heritage Sites, the most in the world, and is the fifth most visited country. The assumptions on the etymology of the name Italia are very numerous, according to one of the more common explanations, the term Italia, from Latin, was borrowed through Greek from the Oscan Víteliú, meaning land of young cattle. The bull was a symbol of the southern Italic tribes and was often depicted goring the Roman wolf as a defiant symbol of free Italy during the Social War. Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus states this account together with the legend that Italy was named after Italus, mentioned by Aristotle and Thucydides.
The name Italia originally applied only to a part of what is now Southern Italy – according to Antiochus of Syracuse, but by his time Oenotria and Italy had become synonymous, and the name applied to most of Lucania as well. The Greeks gradually came to apply the name Italia to a larger region, excavations throughout Italy revealed a Neanderthal presence dating back to the Palaeolithic period, some 200,000 years ago, modern Humans arrived about 40,000 years ago. Other ancient Italian peoples of undetermined language families but of possible origins include the Rhaetian people and Cammuni. Also the Phoenicians established colonies on the coasts of Sardinia and Sicily, the Roman legacy has deeply influenced the Western civilisation, shaping most of the modern world
Pascal Wehrlein is a German Formula One driver who is currently racing for Sauber. Holding dual nationality of Germany and Mauritius, he races under the German flag in Formula One and he had previously raced in the DTM, winning the title with the Mercedes-Benz team HWA AG in 2015. In 2014 Wehrlein became the youngest driver to win a DTM race at the age of 19, in February 2016 he began driving full-time for Manor, scoring his first championship point at the Austrian Grand Prix. 2010 saw his debut in the ADAC Formel Masters championship with ADAC Berlin-Brandenburg e. V, Wehrlein finished sixth in the championship with a win at Sachsenring and three other podiums. He remained in the series with the team for the next year, Wehrlein scored seven wins at Oschersleben, Zolder, Nürburgring and Lausitz on his way to the championship title. In 2012, Wehrlein stepped up to the Formula 3 Euro Series and he finished 2nd in the championship to Daniel Juncadella. Wehrlein made his debut in the Deutsche Tourenwagen Masters in 2013 at the age of 18, in a career spanning three seasons Wehrlein managed to be one of the leading drivers in the field despite his youthful age.
In his debut season he achieved 3 points finishing 22nd in the championship and he achieved his first of two fastest laps in his career. In 2014 he switched teams to HWA where he became the youngest driver in the history to claim pole position. Besides his stand out victory at Lausitz, Wehrleins second best result of the season was a finish at Norisring. In 2015 DTM returned to running two races per weekend, resulting in 18 rounds in the 2015 championship. Due to the inconsistency of most teams and drivers Wehrlein won the title easily having scored in all rounds except for three and he achieved 5 podiums, one fastest lap and two wins. He is the first driver to win the championship having not claimed a pole position throughout his championship season while being the youngest ever DTM champion, in September 2014, it was announced that Wehrlein would act as a reserve driver for the Mercedes F1 Team. He took part in testing in Barcelona, driving for both Force India and Mercedes. In February 2016, it was announced that Wehrlein would make his F1 debut with Manor Racing and it is understood that Manor would receive access to Mercedes wind tunnel in exchange for hiring Wehrlein.
Wehrlein scored his and Manors only point of the season at the Austrian Grand Prix with a tenth-place finish, on 16 January 2017, Wehrlein signed with Sauber. He was forced to miss the first test in Barcelona due to an injury he sustained while competing in the Race of Champions and he was replaced by Antonio Giovinazzi before returning for the second test at the same circuit. Despite being fit to take part in the Australian Grand Prix, on 3 April 2017, Sauber F1 announced Wehrlein will again be replaced by Giovinazzi for the 2017 Chinese Grand Prix
Indonesia, officially the Republic of Indonesia, is a unitary sovereign state and transcontinental country located mainly in Southeast Asia with some territories in Oceania. Situated between the Indian and Pacific oceans, it is the worlds largest island country, with more than seventeen thousand islands. At 1,904,569 square kilometres, Indonesia is the worlds 14th-largest country in terms of area and worlds 7th-largest country in terms of combined sea. It has an population of over 260 million people and is the worlds fourth most populous country. The worlds most populous island, contains more than half of the countrys population, Indonesias republican form of government includes an elected legislature and president. Indonesia has 34 provinces, of which five have Special Administrative status and its capital and countrys most populous city is Jakarta, which is the most populous city in Southeast Asia and the second in Asia. The country shares land borders with Papua New Guinea, East Timor, other neighbouring countries include Singapore, the Philippines, Australia and the Indian territory of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
Despite its large population and densely populated regions, Indonesia has vast areas of wilderness that support the second highest level of biodiversity. The country has abundant natural resources like oil and natural gas, copper, agriculture mainly produces rice, palm oil, coffee, medicinal plants and rubber. Indonesias major trading partners are Japan, United States, the Indonesian archipelago has been an important region for trade since at least the 7th century, when Srivijaya and later Majapahit traded with China and India. Local rulers gradually absorbed foreign cultural and political models from the early centuries CE, Indonesian history has been influenced by foreign powers drawn to its natural resources. Indonesia consists of hundreds of native ethnic and linguistic groups. The largest – and politically dominant – ethnic group are the Javanese, a shared identity has developed, defined by a national language, ethnic diversity, religious pluralism within a Muslim-majority population, and a history of colonialism and rebellion against it.
Indonesias national motto, Bhinneka Tunggal Ika, articulates the diversity that shapes the country, Indonesias economy is the worlds 16th largest by nominal GDP and the 8th largest by GDP at PPP, the largest in Southeast Asia, and is considered an emerging market and newly industrialised country. Indonesia has been a member of the United Nations since 1950, Indonesia is a member of the G20 major economies and World Trade Organization. The name Indonesia derives from the Greek name of the Indós, the name dates to the 18th century, far predating the formation of independent Indonesia. In 1850, George Windsor Earl, an English ethnologist, proposed the terms Indunesians—and, his preference, in the same publication, one of his students, James Richardson Logan, used Indonesia as a synonym for Indian Archipelago. However, Dutch academics writing in East Indies publications were reluctant to use Indonesia, they preferred Malay Archipelago, the Netherlands East Indies, popularly Indië, the East, and Insulinde
A race engineer is a motorsport team member whose role is to communicate with the data analyst as well as the mechanics to determine the changes to be made to the vehicle. Off the race track, the race engineer analyzes historical data to determine the set up for the next race event. The race engineer function includes hands-on management of the mechanics, organizing testing schedule. The race engineer seeks to make all these occur as seamlessly as possible for their driver. In addition, the vehicle set-up must stay within the regulations for the race event, the primary goal of the race engineer is to achieve the best performance from the vehicle and from the driver at the race track. A good race engineer must have good interpersonal relationship skills, to be effective, the race engineer must have a good working relationship with not only his driver, but the rest of the team, both at and away from the track. Many times the race engineer is the face of the team for the media and this makes the race engineers media skills a priority.
The role of the engineer on racing teams has grown in importance since the adoption of on-board sensors in vehicles to collect performance data. The race engineers job is to both the vehicles performance, gathered from the telemetry in addition to their drivers feedback. Race engineers tend to travel extensively, especially during the season of their motorsport teams. At the highest level of motorsports, international travel is common. Off season travel for race engineers is usually for testing, Automotive aerodynamics Automotive engineering Control theory Mechanical engineering The Race Engineer Unusual Journeys, Racing Around with Formula One Tips for a Career in Motorsports Engineering
Shepperton is equidistant between the towns of Chertsey and Sunbury-on-Thames. Shepperton is mentioned in a document of 959 AD and in the Domesday Book and its accessibility was improved by Sunbury Lock and Shepperton Lock built in the 1810s supporting the trade and agricultural barges and the use of residential narrowboats. Sheppertons proximity to burgeoning London led to small businesses being established along its high street by the end of the century and it is an age-diverse commuter settlement. Its Green Belt has The Swan Sanctuary and two SSSIs, one of which is managed by Surrey Wildlife Trust, in total the annual amount rendered was £6. The Church Lane and Church Square area, leading to and next to the river predates by centuries the High Street as the village nucleus. Its coming which was due to contributions and permission of W. S. Lindsay the owner of Sheppertons manor. These bear the inscription Davo aptio, Argo fidelior, ipso Sanchone facetior, in 1930 on the rural districts abolition, Shepperton became part of the Sunbury-on-Thames Urban District until its dissolution into a reduced and reconfigured county of Surrey in 1965.
Three districts of the county thus did not become part of Greater London, Staines Urban District joined Surrey. If anything real is to be gleaned for its use, it is perhaps a passing similarity, Shepperton Manor by John Mason Neale was contemporaneously written in 1844 fifteen years after he had spent six years living in the village. Old parts of Shepperton are said to be haunted by the ghost of a headless monk, battlecrease Hall is alleged by its owners and certain visitors to have poltergeists. Leading to this is a short, since 1989 bypassed, winding lane from the High Street to Church Square, flanked by Shepperton Manor and it offers two pub/restaurants including the first of the chain Blubeckers and two hotels, the Anchor Hotel and the Warren Lodge Hotel. In this little square there is the Kings Head public house, the riverside manor, late 18th century, features a room painted and rendered to look like a tent or draped damask. Also Grade II* listed is the c.1500 timber framed Old Rectory refronted in the early 18th century and its front cladding has mathematical tiles.
Listed in the high category of listed building is the parish church, St Nicholas – its dedication is as with the ancient riverside churches of Thames Ditton. Also architecturally Grade II* is restored half timbered Winches Cottage on the west side of the lane which is 17th century, from the 1760s—1860s a ropery was an industry here from the 1860s—1870s brick clay was extracted. Halliford Manor, confusingly called The Old Manor, dates to at least the 13th century and ownership became royal, being held by Elizabeth I and the wives of Charles I and Charles II. The Bishop of Winchester, Brian Duppa owned the waterside meadows adjoining to the south and was an important landowner in Croydons history, see Duppas Hill. Wealthy writers built or expanded homes here in the 19th century, primarily as residences, such as Rider Haggard, Thomas Love Peacock, George Meredith
The Marussia F1 Team was an Anglo-Russian Formula One racing team and constructor which was based in Banbury, Oxfordshire in the United Kingdom. The team was operated by Manor Motorsport, which was previously a subsidiary of Marussia Motors, following a serious crash and injuries sustained by Bianchi at the 2014 Japanese Grand Prix, the team raced for the first time with a single car at the inaugural 2014 Russian Grand Prix. The appointed administrator released a statement on 27 October 2014. On 7 November 2014, the announced that the team had ceased trading. On 19 January 2015, the administrators of Marussia announced that the auction of its cars, the team collapsed owing around £60m, two of the companies out of pocket being Marussias former competitors McLaren and Ferrari. The team exited administration on 19 February 2015, and was re-established as the Manor Marussia F1 Team after a CVA had been signed, former Sainsburys CEO Justin King was reportedly the teams main backer. The team retained Marussia as its name throughout the 2015 season.
In 2016, the team announced a change to Manor Racing. From the 2016 season on, Manor will use Mercedes-Benz power units, in 2009, Manor Grand Prix were awarded an entry into Formula One for the 2010 season, as a tie-up between successful junior racing team Manor Motorsport and Wirth Research. Before the end of year, these entities became known as Virgin Racing. Marussia were one of the partners for its debut season. In November 2010, Marussia Motors purchased a stake in the team. Following a disappointing start to the 2011 season, the team parted company with Wirth Research, with this came a relocation from the original base in Dinnington, to the old Wirth premises in Banbury in Great Britain. Meanwhile, the team finished the year bottom of the constructors championship. In November 2011, it applied to the Formula One commission to change their constructor name for the 2012 season from Virgin to Marussia. Permission was granted before being ratified at a meeting of the FIA World Motorsport Council.
On 31 December 2011, Marussia Virgin Racing announced they were now called Marussia F1 Team, who had previously been the title sponsor for the team, announced that they would be staying with the team and feature its logos staying on the 2012 car. The team had announced in July 2011 that Timo Glock had signed a new contract with the team
Esteban Ocon is a French racing driver who currently drives in Formula One for Force India. He made his Formula One debut for Manor Racing in the 2016 Belgian Grand Prix, Ocon is part of the Mercedes-Benz driver development programme. Born in Évreux, Ocon entered karting in 2006 and his success continued in 2008, as he won the French Cadet Championship. On the back of that victory, Ocon began the first of his three seasons in the KF3 kart category and he would ultimately win the French KF3 title and finish as runner-up in the WSK Euro Series in 2011, his final season before stepping up to cars. In 2012, Ocon made his début in single-seaters, taking part in the Eurocup Formula Renault 2.0 with Koiranen Motorsport and he finished fourteenth with four-point-scoring finishes, including podium at his home round at Le Castellet. He contested a partial campaign in the Formula Renault 2.0 Alps with Koiranen, for 2013, he decided to switch to the ART Junior Team. He took three podiums, as well as his first victory at Le Castellet and finished season on the position in the standings.
Ocon joined the World Series by Renaults 3.5 category for Comtec Racing at Hungaroring and Le Castellet, Ocon made his Formula Three début at the Macau Grand Prix, racing for Prema Powerteam. In 2014 he expanded his collaboration with Prema into FIA European Formula Three Championship and he was on top position of the standings since first round at Silverstone and won the championship with a round to spare. On 11 March 2015, it was announced that Ocon would enter the series with ART Grand Prix and he claimed the championship despite only scoring one victory and pressure from Luca Ghiotto. Ocon drove for Mercedes-Benz in the first 10 races of the 2016 DTM season and he was subsequently replaced by Felix Rosenqvist, following his promotion to Manor. Ocon took part in the first free session of the Abu Dhabi Grand Prix on 21 November 2014. He took part in post race testing in Barcelona with Force India, prior to his claiming of the GP3 title, it was announced that he would enter the junior programme of the Mercedes F1 team.
In February 2016, it was announced that Ocon would act as driver for the Renault Sport F1 team. On 10 August 2016, it was announced that Ocon would drive for Manor Racing in the half of the 2016 Formula One season. Ocon made his Formula One debut at the 2016 Belgian Grand Prix and this was followed by a string of last-classified finishes, before finishing 12th in the chaotic Brazilian Grand Prix after dropping out of the points on the final lap. On 10 November 2016, Force India announced that they had signed Ocon for the 2017 Formula One season as part of his contract with Mercedes. He scored his first Formula One point in his first race for Force India in Australia, official website Non-Official website Esteban Ocon career summary at DriverDB. com
Dave Ryan (motorsport)
Dave Ryan is the Racing Director of the Manor Formula One team, who formerly worked for the McLaren Formula One team as chief Mechanic, Team Manager and finally Sporting Director. He spent 35 years with McLaren until he left in April 2009, after nearly a decade as a mechanic, Ryan was appointed to the role of Chief Mechanic for the team, before taking over the role of factory team manager. In 1990 he took on more responsibility as team manager looking after the race and test team activities on track, in 2009 he left the team and set up his own outfit - VonRyan Racing. In 2015, racing two McLaren 650GTs, the team won three races in the Blancpain Endurance and British GT series, in November 2015, Ryan was appointed to the position of Racing Director of the Manor F1 Team. He was present at the Abu Dhabi Grand Prix, the event of the season. Ryans profile on the McLaren website