The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
MotorWeek is an American half-hour automotive television series. The program premiered on October 15, 1981 and is hosted by automotive journalist John H. Davis, the series’ creator and executive producer. MotorWeek is produced by Maryland Public Television and is seen nationwide on Public Broadcasting Service, Discovery Network, Velocity, V-me and internationally on the American Forces Network; the half-hour program is presented in a magazine style format, with reviews, comparisons and features. MotorWeek's original slogan was "Television's automotive magazine" changed to "Television's original automotive magazine", although the BBC's Top Gear debuted in 1977; the show went into national syndication beginning September 11, 1993 syndicated by ITC Entertainment. Each year, MotorWeek puts more than 150 new cars, SUVs to the test, providing consumer-oriented vehicle reviews, its video Road Test segments focus on performance, technology and dollar value, feature MotorWeek's exclusive energy efficient rating system which compares each vehicle’s fuel economy to the best-rated vehicle in its class.
The MotorWeek team includes master technician Pat Goss who brings viewers practical advice for keeping cars on the road and out of the shop. Reporters Yolanda Vazquez and Zach Maskell present timely reports on consumer trends, safety issues and the environment, along with innovative, offbeat stories on the automotive world gone extreme. Beginning in 1983, MotorWeek launched its Drivers’ Choice Awards which are among the auto industry’s most prestigious honors; the Drivers’ Choice Awards are unique for their consumer focus and represent the definitive list of best automotive picks in the most popular vehicle categories, including the coveted “Best of the Year” award. They are presented annually during the Chicago Auto Show. Beginning in season 29, the show began broadcasting in widescreen 1080i HDTV. Road Test: Featuring a road test of new vehicles. Goss' Garage: Automotive maintenance segment by Pat Goss. Quick Spin: Quick reviews of new vehicles. Car of the Week: Featuring a photo album of automobiles sent in by viewers.
Stomp and Steer: In this segment, John Davis teaches viewers on how to stomp and steer. A Quick Look: Featuring a quick look at new vehicles. Long Term Test Update: News on cars loaned to MotorWeek for tests. MotorNews: Featuring an in-depth report on new vehicles. Over The Edge: Featuring the automotive industry on overdrive. FYI: Features an in-depth report on consumer trending. Retro Review: A look back at MotorWeek reviews from past seasons. Eye Spy: Featuring photographic closeups of automobiles. Taking the High Road: Featuring automobiles from the past and present. From the show's premiere in 1981 until 1987, MotorWeek's original theme music was composed by Don Barto. Beginning with the 1987-88 season, Mark Roumelis took over as music composer. During the first six seasons of MotorWeek, the set looks like a styling studio with cars, drafting tools, paraphernalia on the wall was used from 1981 to 1987. Beginning with the 1987-88 season, MotorWeek began taping outdoors rather than in a studio.
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A car is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transportation. Most definitions of car say they run on roads, seat one to eight people, have four tires, transport people rather than goods. Cars came into global use during the 20th century, developed economies depend on them; the year 1886 is regarded as the birth year of the modern car when German inventor Karl Benz patented his Benz Patent-Motorwagen. Cars became available in the early 20th century. One of the first cars accessible to the masses was the 1908 Model T, an American car manufactured by the Ford Motor Company. Cars were adopted in the US, where they replaced animal-drawn carriages and carts, but took much longer to be accepted in Western Europe and other parts of the world. Cars have controls for driving, passenger comfort, safety, controlling a variety of lights. Over the decades, additional features and controls have been added to vehicles, making them progressively more complex; these include rear reversing cameras, air conditioning, navigation systems, in-car entertainment.
Most cars in use in the 2010s are propelled by an internal combustion engine, fueled by the combustion of fossil fuels. Electric cars, which were invented early in the history of the car, began to become commercially available in 2008. There are benefits to car use; the costs include acquiring the vehicle, interest payments and maintenance, depreciation, driving time, parking fees and insurance. The costs to society include maintaining roads, land use, road congestion, air pollution, public health, health care, disposing of the vehicle at the end of its life. Road traffic accidents are the largest cause of injury-related deaths worldwide; the benefits include on-demand transportation, mobility and convenience. The societal benefits include economic benefits, such as job and wealth creation from the automotive industry, transportation provision, societal well-being from leisure and travel opportunities, revenue generation from the taxes. People's ability to move flexibly from place to place has far-reaching implications for the nature of societies.
There are around 1 billion cars in use worldwide. The numbers are increasing especially in China and other newly industrialized countries; the word car is believed to originate from the Latin word carrus or carrum, or the Middle English word carre. In turn, these originated from the Gaulish word karros, it referred to any wheeled horse-drawn vehicle, such as a cart, carriage, or wagon. "Motor car" is attested from 1895, is the usual formal name for cars in British English. "Autocar" is a variant, attested from 1895, but, now considered archaic. It means "self-propelled car"; the term "horseless carriage" was used by some to refer to the first cars at the time that they were being built, is attested from 1895. The word "automobile" is a classical compound derived from the Ancient Greek word autós, meaning "self", the Latin word mobilis, meaning "movable", it entered the English language from French, was first adopted by the Automobile Club of Great Britain in 1897. Over time, the word "automobile" fell out of favour in Britain, was replaced by "motor car".
"Automobile" remains chiefly North American as a formal or commercial term. An abbreviated form, "auto", was a common way to refer to cars in English, but is now considered old-fashioned; the word is still common as an adjective in American English in compound formations like "auto industry" and "auto mechanic". In Dutch and German, two languages related to English, the abbreviated form "auto" / "Auto", as well as the formal full version "automobiel" / "Automobil" are still used — in either the short form is the most regular word for "car"; the first working steam-powered vehicle was designed — and quite built — by Ferdinand Verbiest, a Flemish member of a Jesuit mission in China around 1672. It was a 65-cm-long scale-model toy for the Chinese Emperor, unable to carry a driver or a passenger, it is not known with certainty if Verbiest's model was built or run. Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot is credited with building the first full-scale, self-propelled mechanical vehicle or car in about 1769, he constructed two steam tractors for the French Army, one of, preserved in the French National Conservatory of Arts and Crafts.
His inventions were, handicapped by problems with water supply and maintaining steam pressure. In 1801, Richard Trevithick built and demonstrated his Puffing Devil road locomotive, believed by many to be the first demonstration of a steam-powered road vehicle, it was unable to maintain sufficient steam pressure for long periods and was of little practical use. The development of external combustion engines is detailed as part of the history of the car but treated separately from the development of true cars. A variety of steam-powered road vehicles were used during the first part of the 19th century, including steam cars, steam buses and steam rollers. Sentiment against them led to the Locomotive Acts of 1865. In 1807, Nicéphore Niépce and his brother Claude created what was the world's first internal combustion engine, but they chose to install it in a boat on the river Saone in France. Coincidentally, in 1807 the Swiss inventor François Isaac de Rivaz designed his own'de Rivaz internal combustion engine' and used it to develop the world's first vehicle to be powered by such an engine.
WJLA 24/7 News
WJLA 24/7 News is an American regional cable news television channel, owned by the Sinclair Broadcast Group, managed by the company's ABC-affiliated station WJLA-TV in Washington D. C; the channel provides 24-hour news coverage focused on Washington, D. C. northern Virginia and suburban areas of Maryland within the Washington, D. C. metropolitan area. The channel shares studio facilities and offices with WJLA-TV and the Rosslyn-based Circa News in Arlington, Virginia. WJLA 24/7 News reaches more than 1.2 million cable television households within the D. C metropolitan area; the channel was launched on October 7, 1991 as NewsChannel 8. Allbritton bundled the channel along with WJLA in carriage contracts. In 1995, the channel began airing timeshifted ABC News programs hours or days after their original broadcast. NewsChannel 8 only had ad revenue stream until federal regulations required cable operators to pay for its carriage. In 1997, the channel started a streak of profitability by Allbritton; as NewsChannel 8's carriage expanded to those areas, coverage was expanded to include Southern Maryland and Prince William County governmental meetings by the end of the 1990s.
In July 2001, NewsChannel 8 beat CNN, Headline News, MSNBC and CNBC in the ratings, the highest viewership that the channel had accrued in its first 10 years. In August 2001, Comcast agreed to carry the channel for another 10 years. On September 5, 2006, Comcast moved NewsChannel 8, at the channel's request, to channel 28 on the analog tiers of some of its systems, placing it next to sister station WJLA-TV on channel 27. Systems outside of Washington, D. C. proper carry it on channel 8, next to WJLA on channel 7. In all cases, the channel's high definition feed is carried on digital channel 808. On July 17, 2013, satellite provider DirecTV began carrying NewsChannel 8 on channel 8 within the Washington, D. C. market. On December 21, 2015, the channel was added to satellite provider Dish Network's D. C.-area broadcast lineup on channel 8. On August 9, 2010, the channel was rebranded as TBD TV, in order to associate it with the established news website TBD.com, which provided news content for both the channel and WJLA.
Allbritton subsequently reverted its news channel's branding to the original NewsChannel 8 name in February 2011. On July 29, 2013, Allbritton Communications announced that it would sell its entire television group, including NewsChannel 8 and WJLA-TV, to Hunt Valley-based Sinclair Broadcast Group. Sinclair had indicated that it may use NewsChannel 8 as a base to launch a national cable news channel. On July 23, 2018, Sinclair announced that NewsChannel 8 will be rebranded as WJLA 24/7 News, aligning it further with the call letters of its sister broadcast station; the rebranding took effect at 5:00 p.m. on July 24th, 2018. Through a fiber optic delivery system, WJLA 24/7 News provides programming and advertising targeted at three separate geographical regions of the Washington, D. C. metropolitan area and was once known for airing specific "Zone Reports" on weeknights to these regions, including "The Washington Report", "The Virginia Report" and "The Maryland Report". The appropriate edition was fed to each of the cable systems in the region.
The newscasts were all the same, except for the second segment, tailored to each "zone." The channel ended this practice in 2009. WJLA 24/7 News employs its own anchors and certain meteorologists while sharing reporting and weather staffers with WJLA-TV; the two news operations share the same on-air news staffers for the weekend evening newscasts aired by the cable channel and television station. The channel operates a bureau in Washington, D. C; when it is not airing newscasts, WJLA 24/7 News airs encore presentations of ABC News programs as well as various local programs, including Let's Talk Live, "Government Matters", SportsTalk. Unlike most regional news channels which air newscasts during overnights and weekends on a recorded loop, WJLA 24/7 News airs some paid programming during certain timeslots within those periods. Previous talk shows included Moms Talk, the Wednesday movie review Entertainment Forecast show, NewsTalk, Capital Insider, Goss' Garage, The Arch Campbell Show and Capital Golf Weekly.
In 2015, D. C. United of Major League Soccer reached a new multi-year deal with Sinclair Broadc
WTOP-FM is a commercial FM radio station licensed to serve Washington, D. C. WTOP is owned by Hubbard Broadcasting through licensee Washington, DC FCC License Sub, LLC and broadcasts an all-news format; the studios are located in Friendship Heights, in northwest D. C. and the transmitter is located at American University at. WTOP is one of three all-news stations in the Washington, D. C. metropolitan area, the second being sister station AM 1500 WFED, aimed at federal government employees. WTOP programming is simulcast on WTLP in Braddock Heights, Maryland and WWWT-FM in Manassas, Virginia. All stations in the WTOP "network" broadcast in monaural to increase their coverage areas. WTOP broadcasts using HD Radio. WTOP's origins trace back to Brooklyn, New York, as station WTRC, going to air September 25, 1926, on 1250 kilocycles with a power of 50 watts. On August 2, 1927, WTRC migrated to Virginia. On January 10, 1929, the call sign was changed to WJSV, reflecting the initials of owner James S. Vance, publisher of "The Fellowship Forum" and a KKK Grand Wizard in Virginia.
Realizing the expense of running a 10,000-watt radio station, Vance worked out a deal with the nascent Columbia Broadcasting System to become the new network's Washington affiliate, beginning a relationship that would last for 90 years. As part of the deal, CBS took over all of WJSV's programming and engineering costs, with an option to renew or purchase the station after five years. In June 1932, CBS exercised its option to purchase WJSV outright, moved its operations to Alexandria, Virginia. After three months off the air, WJSV resumed broadcasting on October 20, 1932. Arthur Godfrey, who hosted a variety program on CBS Radio and CBS Television, hosted a program on WJSV called The Sundial on which he honed a laid-back, conversational style, unusual on radio at the time. On September 21, 1939, WJSV recorded its entire broadcast day for posterity; the WJSV broadcast day recordings still exist and copies can be found at archive.org and various old time radio websites. WJSV was a key training ground for pioneering newsman Bob Trout in the 1930s before he became a network correspondent.
Longtime Los Angeles-area TV newscaster George Putnam worked at WJSV in 1938 and continued to work in radio for seven decades until his death in 2008. Frank Blair, who became an NBC News correspondent and was a long time news anchor on the Today show during the 1960s and early 1970s, worked at WJSV. John Daly, longtime host of game show "What's My Line?" and 1950's anchor on ABC-TV news got his start on WJSV. In 1940, WJSV's operating power was increased to 50,000 watts from a new transmitter site in Wheaton, Maryland. On March 29, 1941, with the implementation of NARBA, WJSV moved its broadcast frequency from 1460 to 1500 kHz. On March 16, 1943, after paying the Tiffin, Ohio police department $60,000 for the rights to the call letters WTOP, the calls were changed to the current WTOP because its new frequency was now at the "top" of the mediumwave AM band; the Washington Post bought a 55 percent controlling stake in WTOP from CBS in February 1949 and took over the remainder of the station in December 1954.
The WTOP callsign was a coincidence under the newspaper's ownership, as the callsign never stood for WashingTOn Post. After its signature personality Arthur Godfrey left WTOP in 1948 to concentrate on his television and midday network radio shows, the station faded in popularity as it faced competition from the Washington Star's WMAL with the morning team of Harden and Weaver, NBC-owned WRC which featured future Today Show personality Willard Scott. In the 1960s, after a series of failed music formats, WTOP phased out its music programming for a combination of newscasts and phone-in talk shows. Among those working for WTOP during this time were Sam Donaldson on ABC-TV. WTOP studios were a critical link in Emergency Broadcast System activation scenarios during the Cold War era; the Post sold WTOP to The Outlet Company in June 1978, in reaction to the FCC looking askance at common ownership of newspapers and broadcasting outets in the same city, believing one company should not have too much control of local media.
One month WTOP-TV was swapped with the Detroit News's WWJ-TV, became WDVM-TV. The station is today WUSA-TV, owned by Tegna; the original FM frequency for WTOP-FM was 96.3 MHz, but that frequency was donated to Howard University. That station became WHUR in a commercially run radio station. Outlet re-organized and sold WTOP to Chase Broadcasting in 1989, who in turn sold it to Evergreen Media in November 1992. In April 1997, Evergreen's newly acquired 94.3 MHz facility in Warrenton, Virginia began simulcasting the WTOP signal for better coverage in the sprawling Northern Virginia suburbs. Shortly afterward, on October 10, 1997, Bonneville International Corporation purchased WTOP. On April 1, 1998, 94.3 was swapped for a stronger signal at 107.7 licensed to Warrenton. In December 2000, WT
Washington, D. C. formally the District of Columbia and referred to as Washington or D. C. is the capital of the United States. Founded after the American Revolution as the seat of government of the newly independent country, Washington was named after George Washington, first President of the United States and Founding Father; as the seat of the United States federal government and several international organizations, Washington is an important world political capital. The city is one of the most visited cities in the world, with more than 20 million tourists annually; the signing of the Residence Act on July 16, 1790, approved the creation of a capital district located along the Potomac River on the country's East Coast. The U. S. Constitution provided for a federal district under the exclusive jurisdiction of the U. S. Congress, the District is therefore not a part of any state; the states of Maryland and Virginia each donated land to form the federal district, which included the pre-existing settlements of Georgetown and Alexandria.
The City of Washington was founded in 1791 to serve as the new national capital. In 1846, Congress returned the land ceded by Virginia. Washington had an estimated population of 702,455 as of July 2018, making it the 20th most populous city in the United States. Commuters from the surrounding Maryland and Virginia suburbs raise the city's daytime population to more than one million during the workweek. Washington's metropolitan area, the country's sixth largest, had a 2017 estimated population of 6.2 million residents. All three branches of the U. S. federal government are centered in the District: Congress and the U. S. Supreme Court. Washington is home to many national monuments, museums situated on or around the National Mall; the city hosts 177 foreign embassies as well as the headquarters of many international organizations, trade unions, non-profit, lobbying groups, professional associations, including the World Bank Group, the International Monetary Fund, the Organization of American States, AARP, the National Geographic Society, the Human Rights Campaign, the International Finance Corporation, the American Red Cross.
A locally elected mayor and a 13‑member council have governed the District since 1973. However, Congress may overturn local laws. D. C. residents elect a non-voting, at-large congressional delegate to the House of Representatives, but the District has no representation in the Senate. The District receives three electoral votes in presidential elections as permitted by the Twenty-third Amendment to the United States Constitution, ratified in 1961. Various tribes of the Algonquian-speaking Piscataway people inhabited the lands around the Potomac River when Europeans first visited the area in the early 17th century. One group known as the Nacotchtank maintained settlements around the Anacostia River within the present-day District of Columbia. Conflicts with European colonists and neighboring tribes forced the relocation of the Piscataway people, some of whom established a new settlement in 1699 near Point of Rocks, Maryland. In his Federalist No. 43, published January 23, 1788, James Madison argued that the new federal government would need authority over a national capital to provide for its own maintenance and safety.
Five years earlier, a band of unpaid soldiers besieged Congress while its members were meeting in Philadelphia. Known as the Pennsylvania Mutiny of 1783, the event emphasized the need for the national government not to rely on any state for its own security. Article One, Section Eight, of the Constitution permits the establishment of a "District as may, by cession of particular states, the acceptance of Congress, become the seat of the government of the United States". However, the Constitution does not specify a location for the capital. In what is now known as the Compromise of 1790, Alexander Hamilton, Thomas Jefferson came to an agreement that the federal government would pay each state's remaining Revolutionary War debts in exchange for establishing the new national capital in the southern United States. On July 9, 1790, Congress passed the Residence Act, which approved the creation of a national capital on the Potomac River; the exact location was to be selected by President George Washington, who signed the bill into law on July 16.
Formed from land donated by the states of Maryland and Virginia, the initial shape of the federal district was a square measuring 10 miles on each side, totaling 100 square miles. Two pre-existing settlements were included in the territory: the port of Georgetown, founded in 1751, the city of Alexandria, founded in 1749. During 1791–92, Andrew Ellicott and several assistants, including a free African American astronomer named Benjamin Banneker, surveyed the borders of the federal district and placed boundary stones at every mile point. Many of the stones are still standing. A new federal city was constructed on the north bank of the Potomac, to the east of Georgetown. On September 9, 1791, the three commissioners overseeing the capital's construction named the city in honor of President Washington; the federal district was named Columbia, a poetic name for the United States in use at that time. Congress held its first session in Washington on November 17, 1800. Congress passed the District of Columbia Organic Act of 1801 that organized the District and placed the entire territory under the exclusive control of the federal