click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Pat Powers (businessman)

Patrick Anthony "Pat" Powers was an American businessman, involved in the movie and animation industry of the 1910s, 20s, 30s. His firm, Celebrity Pictures, was the first distributor of Walt Disney's Mickey Mouse cartoons. After one year, Disney split with Powers, who started another animation studio with Disney's lead animator, Ub Iwerks. Powers was born in New York. According to the Buffalo Courier-Express obituary dated August 1, 1948, his sister, Mary Ellen Powers, lived in Buffalo for her entire life. Powers partnered with Joseph A. Schubert, Sr. and sold phonographs from 1900-07. In 1907, they formed the Buffalo Film Exchange, which purchased films from producers and rented them to nickelodeons. In 1910, Powers left Buffalo for New York City, where he founded the Powers Motion Picture Company billed in the credits of his movies as "Powers Picture Plays". Early examples of the Powers studio's films include The Woman Hater with Violet Heming, Pearl White, Stuart Holmes. In 1912, Powers' company merged with Carl Laemmle's Independent Moving Pictures Company film company and others to create what would become Universal Pictures.

He served as treasurer of the Universal Film Manufacturing Company. Between the 1922 reorganization of Film Booking Office of America and October 1923, Powers, as one of the company's new American investors, was in command. Powers had led his own filmmaking company, part of the multiple merger that created Universal Pictures in 1912. Powers changed the name of Robertson-Cole/FBO to the Powers Studio for a brief period, though there is no record of the company having produced or released a film under that banner. In 1925 he moved to take over at the distribution outfit Associated Exhibitors. In 1928, Joseph P. Kennedy and RCA head David Sarnoff merged FBO and the Keith-Albee-Orpheum theater circuit to form RKO Radio Pictures. Powers invested in what remained of the sound film company DeForest Phonofilm in the spring of 1927. Lee De Forest was on the verge of bankruptcy, due to legal fees from a series of lawsuits against former associates Theodore Case and Freeman Harrison Owens. DeForest was by that time selling cut-price sound equipment to second-run movie theaters wanting to convert to sound on the cheap.

In June 1927, Powers made an unsuccessful takeover bid for De Forest's company. In the aftermath of the failed takeover, Powers hired a former DeForest technician, William Garity, to produce a cloned version of the Phonofilm sound recording system, which became Powers Cinephone. By this time, De Forest was in too weak a financial position to mount a legal challenge against Powers for patent infringement. In 1928, Powers sold Walt Disney a Cinephone system so that he could make sound cartoons such as Mickey Mouse's Steamboat Willie. Unable to find a distributor for the sound cartoons, Disney began releasing his cartoons through Powers' company Celebrity Pictures. After one year of successful Mickey Mouse and Silly Symphonies cartoons, Walt Disney confronted Powers in 1930 about money due to Disney from the distribution deal. Powers responded by signing Disney's head animator Ub Iwerks to an exclusive deal to create his own animation studio; the Iwerks studio was only mildly successful, with cartoon series such as Flip the Frog and Willie Whopper, released through Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, the ComiColor cartoons, released by Celebrity Pictures.

The Iwerks studio closed in 1936 and Iwerks subsequently returned to Disney. As for Disney, he would go on to distribute his cartoons without Powers to Columbia Pictures. In his lifetime, Powers produced nearly 300 movies, most of them early silent films produced at Universal before 1913 or one-reel animated shorts. However, he is credited as a producer on Erich von Stroheim's The Wedding March, along with Jesse Lasky and Adolph Zukor; the New York Times obituary of 1 August 1948 notes that Powers, at the time of his death, was president of the Powers Film Products Company of Rochester, New York. He had homes in both New York City and Westport, Connecticut. Patrick Powers died on 30 July 1948 at the Doctors Hospital in New York City after a brief illness. Powers was 77 years old, he was survived by his sister and a daughter, Mrs. Roscoe N. George of San Fernando, California, he is interred at Holy Cross Cemetery near New York. Richard B. Jewell with Vernon Harbin, The RKO Story ISBN 0-517-54656-6 Betty Lasky, RKO: The Biggest Little Major of Them All ISBN 0-915677-41-5 Pat Powers on IMDb Pat Powers at Find a Grave

Smithsonian–Roosevelt African Expedition

The Smithsonian–Roosevelt African Expedition was an expedition to Africa led by outgoing American president Theodore Roosevelt and outfitted by the Smithsonian Institution. Its purpose was to collect specimens for the Smithsonian's new Natural History museum, now known as the National Museum of Natural History; the expedition collected around 11,400 animal specimens which took Smithsonian naturalists eight years to catalog. Following the expedition, Roosevelt chronicled it in his book African Game Trails; the group, led by the legendary hunter-tracker R. J. Cunninghame, included scientists from the Smithsonian and was joined from time to time by Frederick Selous, the famous big game hunter and explorer. Among other items, Roosevelt brought with him four tons of salt for preserving animal hides, a lucky rabbit's foot given to him by boxer John L. Sullivan, a Holland & Holland double rifle in.500/450 donated by a group of 56 admiring Britons, a Winchester 1895 rifle in.405 Winchester, an Army Springfield in.30-06 caliber stocked and sighted for him, Maxim silencers for the Winchester and Springfield rifles, a Fox No. 12 shotgun, the famous Pigskin Library, a collection of classics bound in pig leather and transported in a single reinforced trunk.

Participants on the Expedition included Roosevelt's son, Edgar Alexander Mearns, Edmund Heller, John Alden Loring. The party set sail from New York City on the steamer Hamburg on March 23, 1909, shortly after the end of Roosevelt's presidency on March 4; the party landed in Mombasa, British East Africa, traveled to the Belgian Congo before following the Nile to Khartoum in modern Sudan. Financed by Andrew Carnegie and by his own proposed writings, Roosevelt's party hunted for specimens for the Smithsonian Institution and for the American Museum of Natural History in New York. Roosevelt and his companions killed or trapped 11,397 animals. According to Theodore Roosevelt’s own tally, the figure included about four thousand birds, two thousand reptiles and amphibians, five hundred fish, 4,897 mammals. Add to this marine and freshwater shells, crabs and other invertebrates, not to mention several thousand plants, the number of natural history specimens totals 23,151. A separate collection was made of ethnographic objects.

The material took eight years to catalogue. The larger animals shot by Theodore and Kermit Roosevelt are listed on pages 457 to 459 of his book African Game Trails; the total is 512. The number of big game animals killed, was 17 lion, 3 leopard, 7 cheetah, 9 hyena, 11 elephant, 10 buffalo, 11 black rhino and 9 White rhino. Most of the 469 larger non big game mammals included 37 subspecies of antelopes; the expedition consumed 262 of the animals which were required to provide fresh meat for the large number of porters employed to service the expedition. Tons of salted animals and their skins were shipped to Washington, D. C.. Regarding the large number of animals taken, Roosevelt said, "I can be condemned only if the existence of the National Museum, the American Museum of Natural History, all similar zoological institutions are to be condemned." Some context when considering whether the quantity of animals taken was excessive is that the animals were gathered over a period of ten months and were procured over an area that ranged from Mombasa through Kenya, to Uganda and the Southern Sudan—a distance traveled, with side trips, of several thousand kilometers.

The diversity of larger mammal species collected was such that few individuals of any species were shot in any given area, the large mammals collected had a negligible impact on the great herds of game that roamed East Africa at that time. Apologists for the Roosevelts have pointed out that the number of each big game species shot was modest by the standards of the time: many white hunters of that period, for example, such as Karamoja Bell, had killed over 1,000 elephants each, while the Roosevelts between them killed just eleven. In making this comparison it has to be remembered that the white hunters weren’t collecting specimens for museums, but were employed by landowners to clear animals from land they wanted to use for plantations. Although the safari was conducted in the name of science, it was as much a political and social event as it was a hunting excursion. Roosevelt became a Life Member of the National Rifle Association, while President, in 1907 after paying a $25 fee, he wrote a detailed account in the book African Game Trails, where he describes the excitement of the chase, the people he met, the flora and fauna he collected in the name of science.

While Theodore Roosevelt enjoyed hunting, he was an avid conservationist. In African Game Trails he condemns "game butchery as objectionable as any form of wanton cruelty and barbarity" and as a pioneer of wilderness conservation in the USA he supported the British Government's attempts at that time to set aside wilderness areas as game reserves, some of the first on the African continent, he notes that "in the creation of the great game reserve through which the Uganda railway runs the British Government has conferred a boon upon mankind", a conservation attitude which Roosevelt helped sow that grew and blossomed in the form of the great game parks of East Africa today. Roosevelt in Africa TheodoreRoo

Carolyn Warmus

Carolyn Warmus is an American former elementary schoolteacher, convicted at age 28 of the 1989 murder of her lover's wife, 40-year-old Betty Jeanne Solomon. After a hung jury at her first trial in 1991, Warmus was convicted of second degree murder and illegal possession of a firearm at her second trial in 1992, she served 27 years for the murder and was released from prison on June 17, 2019. Warmus was incarcerated at the Bedford Hills Correctional Facility for Women, Westchester County, New York, she received multiple affirmed disciplinary events, which were referenced during her first parole denial in early 2017. That same year, claiming her innocence, asked that glove evidence discovered by her ex-lover Paul Solomon between the first and second trials be tested for DNA; as of October 2017, the glove has not been tested. The murder case attracted national media attention and led to comparisons with the 1987 film Fatal Attraction, about a love affair that turns deadly; the Warmus case went on to inspire made-for-TV movies, six different episodes across multiple television broadcasters and at least one book.

Carolyn Warmus was born in 1964 Troy and grew up in Birmingham, an affluent suburb of Detroit. Her father, Thomas A. Warmus, was a self-made multi-millionaire who accumulated his fortune in the insurance business, founding the American Way Life Insurance Company of Southfield. In 1989, Thomas' assets were estimated at $150 million. In 1970, Thomas' wife Elizabeth filed for divorce and, after two years, won custody of Warmus and her two younger siblings; the divorce decree was handed down. Warmus played basketball and graduated from Seaholm High School in Birmingham. In 1981, she enrolled at the University of Michigan. After graduating with a degree in psychology, Warmus moved to New York City. Soon after, she earned a master's degree in elementary education from Teachers College, Columbia University and landed a job in September 1987 at Greenville Elementary School in Scarsdale, New York. There, she met soon-to-be lover Paul Solomon, a fifth-grade teacher, along with his family, wife Betty Jeanne and daughter Kristan.

Early in the evening of January 15, 1989, a New York Telephone operator received a call from a woman in distress. When the call was abruptly disconnected, she alerted police, but they found nothing because the reverse directory had an incorrect address. At 11:42pm, the body of Betty Jeanne was found in the family's Greenburgh condominium by Solomon, she had been shot nine times in her back and legs. The investigation focused on Solomon, whose alibi was he had stopped at a local bowling alley to see friends and spent the evening with Warmus in Yonkers at the Holiday Inn's Treetops Lounge. Once Warmus and Solomon left the lounge, they had sexual relations; when Warmus and additional witnesses confirmed his alibis, detectives turned their attention elsewhere. Solomon broke off his relationship with Warmus and became involved with a new girlfriend, fellow teacher Barbara Ballor. Police suspicions shifted to Warmus when she began to relentlessly stalk Solomon, following him and Ballor to Puerto Rico and calling Ballor's family in an effort to end the relationship.

When investigators gained information that Warmus had obtained a.25 caliber Beretta pistol with a silencer shortly before the murder, Detective Richard Constantino checked calls made from Warmus' home phone on January 15. He discovered one made at 3:02 pm to Ray's Sport Shop in New Jersey. Store records indicated the only female to purchase.25-caliber ammunition that day was Liisa Kattai from Long Island. When questioned, Kattai denied being in the shop or buying ammunition. Further investigation determined that Kattai's driver's license had been lost or stolen while she was employed at a summer job, where one of her co-workers was Warmus. Police now had enough evidence to make an arrest. On February 2, 1990, Warmus was indicted on the charges of second-degree murder and second-degree criminal possession of a weapon, her first trial began January 14, 1991, at the Westchester County Courthouse, with David Lewis as her attorney. Solomon testified at the first trial, received immunity from prosecution in return for his testimony.

He said he met Warmus in the fall of 1987 at an elementary school in Greenburgh, that they soon became sexually involved. The following spring, Solomon wanted to end the unfaithful relationship: "I said,'Carolyn, you know we're not going to be able to see each other in the summer'" He went on to testify, "She was upset, she cried. She said,'Life's not worth living without you.' I said,'Carolyn, don't be over dramatic.'" During the first trial, the defense asserted that Solomon and the gun seller tied to the case should have been tried for the murder instead of Warmus. The trial lasted nearly three months. After twelve days of deliberations, the jury came back deadlocked at 8-4 in favor of conviction, but unable to arrive at the required unanimous verdict; the judge declared a mistrial on April 27, 1991. In January 1992, a second trial began in which prosecutors presented new evidence: a bloody cashmere glove belonging to Warmus, photographed and recovered from the crime scene. Warmus' attorney questioned why the glove, found by Solomon in a closet between the first and second trial, was allowed as evidence, argued that the prosecution failed to provide definitive proof that the glove belonged to Warmus or that it was the same glove as the one pictured in the crime scene photographs.

The judge allowed the glove to stand a

Autonoë of Thebes

In Greek mythology, Autonoë of Thebes was a eldest daughter of Cadmus, founder of Thebes and the goddess Harmonia. She was the wife of Aristaeus and mother of Actaeon and Macris. In Euripides' play, The Bacchae and her sisters were driven into a bacchic frenzy by the god Dionysus when Pentheus, the king of Thebes, refused to allow his worship in the city; when Pentheus came to spy on their revels, the mother of Pentheus and Autonoë's sister, spotted him in a tree. They tore him to pieces in their Bacchic fury; the murder of Pentheus was brought by Dionysus as retribution for Pentheus’s lack of piety for the gods. Actaeon, the son of Autonoë, was eaten by his own hounds as punishment for glimpsing Artemis naked. At last and sadness at the lamentable fate of the house of her father induced Autonoe to quit Thebes to go to Ereneia, a village of the Megarians, where she died. According to Oppian, Autonoe along with her sisters Ino and Agave became the nurses of the infant Dionysus, son of Semele their sister.

"For Ino, scion of Agenor, reared the infant Bacchus and first gave her breast to the son of Zeus, Autonoe and Agave joined in nursing him, but not in the baleful halls of Athamas, but on the mountain which at that time men called by the name of the Thigh. For fearing the mighty spouse of Zeus and dreading the tyrant Pentheus, son of Echion, they laid the holy child in a coffer of pine and covered it with fawn-skins and wreathed it with clusters of the vine, in a grotto where round the child they danced the mystic dance and beat drums and clashed cymbals in their hands, to veil the cries of the infant, it was around that hidden ark that they first showed forth their mysteries, with them the Aonian women secretly took paint rites. And they arrayed a gathering of their faithful companions to journey from that mountain out of the Boeotian land. For now, now was it fated that a land, which before was wild, should cultivate the vine at the instance of Dionysus who delivers from sorrow; the holy choir took up secret coffer and wreathed it and set it on the back of an ass.

And they came unto the shores of the Euripus, where they found a seafaring old man with his sons, all together they besought the fishermen that they might cross the water in their boats. The old man had compassion on them and received on board the holy women, and lo! on the benches of his boat flowered the lush bindweed and blooming vine and ivy wreathed the stern. Now would the fishermen, cowering in god-sent terror, have dived into the sea, but ere that the boat came to land, and to Euboea the women came, carrying the god, to the abode of Aristaeus, who dwelt in a cave on the top of a mountain at Caryae and who instructed the life of country-dwelling men in countless things. He at that time received the infant Dionysus from coffer of Ino and reared him in his cave and nursed him with the help of the Dryads and the Nymphs that have the bees in their keeping and the maidens of Euboea and the Aonian women." In Nonnus, Dionysiaca 5.212, the marriage of Aristaeus and Autonoë and the fate of their son Actaeon was described in the following lines: "Kadmos now chose husbands for his daughters, gave them over in four successive bridals, settling their weddings one by one.

First Aristaios laden with gifts, he of the herds and he of the wilds, as he was named, the flood of allwise Apollon and Kyrene so ready with her hands, wedded Autonoe according to the rules of lawful marriage. Agenorides did not refuse his daughter to a goodson well acquainted with the art of feeding many; the wedding-feast was rich, since he gave the unyoked maid oxen for her treasure, he gave goats, he gave mountain-bred flocks. This was the Keian son of Phoibos, whom Eros escorted to the Aonian wedding. All the city wreathed in garlands was busy about the cattle-sacrifice, the straighcut streets were all busy dancing. Before the gates of the bridal chamber the people twirled their reeling legs for the wedding. Afterwards from the bed of Aristaios and Autonoe, arose Aktaion, his passion was for the rocks. Pheme self born had flown from the hills to Autonoe, proclaiming her son's fate torn to pieces by his dogs... Old Kadmos shore off his hoary hair, Harmonia cried aloud. Autonoe along with Aristaios her husband went in search of the scattered remains of the dead.

She knew him not. She passed the bones of a fawn unrecognized, lying on the ground, did not understand. Passing over th

Egyptian–Hittite peace treaty

The Egyptian–Hittite peace treaty known as the Eternal Treaty or the Silver Treaty, is the only ancient Near Eastern treaty for which both sides' versions have survived. It is sometimes called the Treaty of Kadesh after the well-documented Battle of Kadesh fought some sixteen years earlier, although Kadesh is not mentioned in the text. Both sides of the treaty have been the subject of intensive scholarly study; the treaty itself did not bring about a peace. Translation of the texts revealed that this engraving was translated from silver tablets given to each side, which have since been lost; the Egyptian version of the peace treaty was engraved in hieroglyphics on the walls of two temples belonging to Pharaoh Ramesses II in Thebes: the Ramesseum and the Precinct of Amun-Re at the Temple of Karnak. The scribes who engraved the Egyptian version of the treaty included descriptions of the figures and seals that were on the tablet that the Hittites delivered; the Hittite version was found in the Hittite capital of Hattusa, preserved on baked clay tablets uncovered among the Hittite royal palace's sizable archives.

Two of the Hittite tablets are today displayed at the Museum of the Ancient Orient, part of the Istanbul Archaeology Museums. The third is on display in the Berlin State Museums in Germany. A copy of this treaty is prominently displayed on a wall in the United Nations Headquarters in New York City; the treaty was signed to end a long war between the Hittite Empire and the Egyptians, who had fought for over two centuries to gain mastery over the lands of the eastern Mediterranean. The conflict culminated with an attempted Egyptian invasion in 1274 BC, stopped by the Hittites at the city of Kadesh on the Orontes River in what is now Syria; the Battle of Kadesh resulted in both sides suffering heavy casualties, but neither was able to prevail decisively in either the battle or the war. The conflict continued inconclusively for about fifteen more years. Although it is referred to as the "Treaty of Kadesh", it was signed long after the battle, Kadesh is not mentioned in the text; the treaty is thought to have been negotiated by intermediaries without the two monarchs meeting in person.

Both sides had common interests in making peace. The treaty was ratified in the 21st year of Ramesses II's reign and continued in force until the Hittite Empire collapsed eighty years later. Hittite-Egyptian relations began once Hatti took over Mitanni's role as the ruling power in central Syria and from there tensions would continue to be high until the conclusion of the treaty nearly one hundred years later. During the invasion and eventual defeat of Mitanni, the Hittite armies poured into Syria and began to exert their rule over the Egyptian vassals of Kadesh and Amurru; the loss of these lands in northern Syria would never be forgotten by the Egyptian pharaohs and their actions demonstrated that they never would concede this loss at the hands of the Hittite Empire. Egypt's attempts to regain the territory lost during the rule of Akhenaten continued to be futile until under the leadership of Seti I, the father of Ramesses II, significant gains did start to be made. In his own Kadesh-Amurru campaign against the Hittite armies, Seti I vanquished his foes at a battle near Kadesh, but the gains proved short-lived since Kadesh was given up by Seti in a treaty.

The short gain by the Egyptians was the "opening salvo" of a conflict between the two nations, which would drag on over the next two decades. The accounts of this battle are derived from Egyptian literary accounts known as the Bulletin and the Poem as well as pictorial Reliefs. For scholars and individuals interested in the Battle of Kadesh, the details that these sources provide are biased interpretation of the events. Since Ramesses II had complete control over the building projects, the resources were used for propagandist purposes by the pharaoh, who used them to brag about his victory at Kadesh, it is still known that Ramesses marched through Syria with four divisions of troops in the hopes of destroying the Hittite presence there and restoring Egypt to the "preeminent position it had enjoyed under Tuthmosis III". The Hittite king, Muwatalli II, gathered together an army of his allies to prevent the invasion of his territory. At the site of Kadesh, Ramesses foolishly outdistanced the remainder of his forces and, after hearing unreliable intelligence regarding the Hittite position from a pair of captured prisoners, the pharaoh pitched camp across from the town.

The Hittite armies, hidden behind the town, launched a surprise attack against the Amun division and sent the division scattering. Although Ramesses tried to rally his troops against the onslaught of the Hittite chariots, it was only after the arrival of relief forces from Amurru that the Hittite attack was thrown back. Although the Egyptians were able to survive a terrible predicament in Kadesh it was not the splendid victory that Ramesses sought to portray but rather a stalemate in which both sides sustained losses. After an unsuccessful attempt to gain further ground the following day, Ramesses headed back south to Egypt bragging about his individual achievements during Kadesh. Though Ramesses technically won the battle, he lost the war, when Muwatallis and his army retook Amurru and extended the buffer zone with Egypt further southward. Despite suffering the losses during his invasion of Syria

1989 All-Ireland Senior Hurling Championship Final

The 1989 All-Ireland Senior Hurling Championship Final was the 102nd All-Ireland Final and the culmination of the 1989 All-Ireland Senior Hurling Championship, an inter-county hurling tournament for the top teams in Ireland. The match was held at Croke Park, Dublin, on 3 September 1989, between Tipperary, managed by Bab's Keating and Antrim, managed by Jim Nelson; the game was shown live in Ireland on Network 2 with match commentary provided by Ger Canning and comments throughout provided by Jimmy Magee. The Ulster champions lost to their Munster opponents on a score line of 4-24 to 3-9. Tipperary had led at half time by 1-13 to 0-5 with their goal coming from Declan Ryan who scored when his high long range shot for a point hit the hurley of the Antrim goalkeeper Niall Patterson on its way into the net after 18 minutes; the game is notable for a number of reasons. This was Antrim's second appearance in an All-Ireland final, some forty-six years after they lost to Cork at the same stage of the championship.

Nicky English set a scoring record for a single player in the modern era as he notched up 2-12 to win his first All-Ireland Senior medal. The victory for Tipperary, eighteen years after their last in 1971 preserved the county's unique record of winning an All-Ireland title in every decade of the GAA's existence. Tipperary were captained by Bobby Ryan. MATCH RULES 70 minutes Replay if scores level Maximum of 3 substitutions Full Video of the final Cover of 1989 All Ireland Final Programme