Ontario is one of the 13 provinces and territories of Canada and is located in east-central Canada. It is Canada's most populous province accounting for 38.3 percent of the country's population, is the second-largest province in total area. Ontario is fourth-largest jurisdiction in total area when the territories of the Northwest Territories and Nunavut are included, it is home to the nation's capital city and the nation's most populous city, Ontario's provincial capital. Ontario is bordered by the province of Manitoba to the west, Hudson Bay and James Bay to the north, Quebec to the east and northeast, to the south by the U. S. states of Minnesota, Ohio and New York. All of Ontario's 2,700 km border with the United States follows inland waterways: from the west at Lake of the Woods, eastward along the major rivers and lakes of the Great Lakes/Saint Lawrence River drainage system; these are the Rainy River, the Pigeon River, Lake Superior, the St. Marys River, Lake Huron, the St. Clair River, Lake St. Clair, the Detroit River, Lake Erie, the Niagara River, Lake Ontario and along the St. Lawrence River from Kingston, Ontario, to the Quebec boundary just east of Cornwall, Ontario.
There is only about 1 km of land border made up of portages including Height of Land Portage on the Minnesota border. Ontario is sometimes conceptually divided into Northern Ontario and Southern Ontario; the great majority of Ontario's population and arable land is in the south. In contrast, the larger, northern part of Ontario is sparsely populated with cold winters and heavy forestation; the province is named after Lake Ontario, a term thought to be derived from Ontarí:io, a Huron word meaning "great lake", or skanadario, which means "beautiful water" in the Iroquoian languages. Ontario has about 250,000 freshwater lakes; the province consists of three main geographical regions: The thinly populated Canadian Shield in the northwestern and central portions, which comprises over half the land area of Ontario. Although this area does not support agriculture, it is rich in minerals and in part covered by the Central and Midwestern Canadian Shield forests, studded with lakes and rivers. Northern Ontario is subdivided into two sub-regions: Northeastern Ontario.
The unpopulated Hudson Bay Lowlands in the extreme north and northeast swampy and sparsely forested. Southern Ontario, further sub-divided into four regions. Despite the absence of any mountainous terrain in the province, there are large areas of uplands within the Canadian Shield which traverses the province from northwest to southeast and above the Niagara Escarpment which crosses the south; the highest point is Ishpatina Ridge at 693 metres above sea level in Temagami, Northeastern Ontario. In the south, elevations of over 500 m are surpassed near Collingwood, above the Blue Mountains in the Dundalk Highlands and in hilltops near the Madawaska River in Renfrew County; the Carolinian forest zone covers most of the southwestern region of the province. The temperate and fertile Great Lakes-Saint Lawrence Valley in the south is part of the Eastern Great Lakes lowland forests ecoregion where the forest has now been replaced by agriculture and urban development. A well-known geographic feature is part of the Niagara Escarpment.
The Saint Lawrence Seaway allows navigation to and from the Atlantic Ocean as far inland as Thunder Bay in Northwestern Ontario. Northern Ontario occupies 87 percent of the surface area of the province. Point Pelee is a peninsula of Lake Erie in southwestern Ontario, the southernmost extent of Canada's mainland. Pelee Island and Middle Island in Lake Erie extend farther. All are south of 42°N – farther south than the northern border of California; the climate of Ontario varies by location. It is affected by three air sources: cold, arctic air from the north; the effects of these major air masses on temperature and precipitation depend on latitude, proximity to major bodies of water and to a small extent, terrain relief. In general, most of Ontario's climate is classified as humid continental. Ontario has three main climatic regions; the surrounding Great Lakes influence the climatic region of southern Ontario. During the fall and winter months, heat stored from the lakes is released, moderating the climate near the shores of the lakes.
This gives some parts of southern Ontario milder winters than mid-continental areas at lower latitudes. Parts of Southwestern Ontario have a moderate humid continental climate, similar to that of the inland Mid-Atlantic states and the Great Lakes portion of the Midwestern United States; the region has warm to cold winters. Annual precipitation is well distributed throughout the year. Most of this region lies in the lee of the Great Lakes. In December 2010, the snowbelt set a new record when it was h
Tim Hortons Brier
The Tim Hortons Brier, or the Brier, is the annual Canadian men's curling championship, sanctioned by Curling Canada. The current event name refers to the Tim Hortons coffee and donut shop chain. "Brier" referred to a brand of tobacco sold by the event's first sponsor, the Macdonald Tobacco Company. The Brier has been held since 1927, traditionally during the month of March; the winner of the Brier goes on to represent Canada at the World Curling Championships of the same year. The Brier is by far the best supported curling competition in terms of paid attendance, attracting crowds far larger than those for World Championships held in Canada. In 1924, George J. Cameron, the president of the W. L. Mackenzie and Company subsidiary of the Macdonald Tobacco Company, pitched the idea of a national curling championship to Macdonald Tobacco and was accepted. At the time Canadian curling was divided between the use of granite and iron curling stones, with the latter being used in Quebec and Eastern Ontario and the former being used everywhere else.
The granite camp held the advantage, as Macdonald Tobacco's T. Howard Stewart, brother of company president Walter Stewart, supported the use of granites, was able to influence the decision to use granite stones for the new national championship. Macdonald Tobacco further developed the concept, in 1925 and 1926, by sponsoring the winners of the Manitoba provincial championship to travel to Eastern Canada. In 1925, the Manitoba team played a number of exhibition games against local teams, while the 1926 team played in the Quebec Bonspiel; the visits were deemed popular enough for Macdonald Tobacco to move forward with sponsorship of a full national championship in 1927. The first Brier was held at the Granite Club in Toronto in 1927. Eight teams from across the country participated, representing Western Canada, Quebec, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Northern Ontario and Montreal. Games lasted 14 ends, each team played each other in a 7-game round robin with no playoffs unless there was a tie for first.
The first Brier champion was Nova Scotia, a rink skipped by Murray Macneill, with teammates Al MacInnes, Cliff Torey and Jim Donahue – who were skips in their own right, but were added to the Macneill rink because the rest of his normal team could not make the trip. By 1928, games were shortened to 12 ends in length and the single Western Canada team was replaced by individual teams from Alberta and Manitoba, increasing the total number of teams to 10 – seven provinces, two cities and the region of Northern Ontario. In the 1932 Brier, the cities of Montreal and Toronto were dropped from competition, but Northern Ontario kept its entry, still remains the only non provincial or territorial entry to this day. In 1936, Prince Edward Island and British Columbia were given entries; the Dominion of Newfoundland did not become part of Canada until after the 1949 Brier, so the team representing the new province of Newfoundland did not join the Brier until 1951. In 1975, a single combined team representing the federal territories of Yukon and Northwest Territories joined the Brier competition.
In 1977, games were shortened to 10 ends, the current length for matches. Games had to be played in their entirety until the 1974 Brier, when the rules were changed to the present standard of allowing a team to concede defeat before the end of the match if they wished; the Brier would continue to be played at the Granite Club in Toronto through to the 1940 competition. After the event would travel around the country, would be played in all 10 provinces. At this point, rocks were coloured differently for each team and were matched to be of equal size. Play was discontinued between 1943 and 1945 due to World War II. After World War II, the event became more of a popular sporting spectacle across the country thanks to Macdonald Tobacco enlisting media outlets to cover the event. In 1946, the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation began covering the event live across the country on the radio. By the 1960s, the CBC began showing curling on television, at first giving daily half-hour reports. In 1962, the CBC showed.
In 1973, CBC began showing live coverage of the final draw of the event. Today, TSN covers the entire tournament. CBC had covered the finals up until the 2007 -- 08 season. In 2013, Sportsnet and City began to offer coverage of the finals of the provincial playdowns in Manitoba, Ontario and British Columbia as well. In 1977, Macdonald Tobacco announced it would no longer be sponsoring the Brier, the 1979 event would be the last one titled the Macdonald Brier. A committee headed by the Canadian Curling Association was put in charge to find a new sponsor, which would end up being the Labatt Brewing Company; the event retained the "Brier" name, despite the word being the property of Macdonald Tobacco. However, with the Labatt sponsorship came some changes to the event, such as adding a new championship trophy and adding a TV-friendly playoff round after the round robin games. Labatt remained the title sponsor until 2001; that sponsorship only lasted. When the Labatt sponsorship ended, the original Brier trophy was brought back and the names of the winners during the Labatt era were engraved on it.
Beginning in the 1990s, curling became more profitable, the event would be held in larger curling friendly markets. At the same time, the World Curling Tour made the sport more lucrative, curlers demanded cash prizes at the Brier, the ability to display their sponsors on their jerseys. T
Manitoba is a province at the longitudinal centre of Canada. It is considered one of the three prairie provinces and is Canada's fifth-most populous province with its estimated 1.3 million people. Manitoba covers 649,950 square kilometres with a varied landscape, stretching from the northern oceanic coastline to the southern border with the United States; the province is bordered by the provinces of Ontario to the east and Saskatchewan to the west, the territories of Nunavut to the north, Northwest Territories to the northwest, the U. S. states of North Minnesota to the south. Aboriginal peoples have inhabited. In the late 17th century, fur traders arrived on two major river systems, what is now called the Nelson in northern Manitoba and in the southeast along the Winnipeg River system. A Royal Charter in 1670 granted all the lands draining into Hudson's Bay to the British company and they administered trade in what was called Rupert's Land. During the next 200 years, communities continued to grow and evolve, with a significant settlement of Michif in what is now Winnipeg.
The assertion of Métis identity and self-rule culminated in negotiations for the creation of the province of Manitoba. There are many factors that led to an armed uprising of the Métis people against the Government of Canada, a conflict known as the Red River Rebellion aka Resistance; the resolution of the assertion of the right to representation led to the Parliament of Canada passing the Manitoba Act in 1870 that created the province. Manitoba's capital and largest city, Winnipeg, is the eighth-largest census metropolitan area in Canada. Other census agglomerations in the province are Brandon, Portage la Prairie, Thompson; the name Manitoba is believed to be derived from the Ojibwe or Assiniboine languages. The name derives from Cree manitou-wapow or Ojibwa manidoobaa, both meaning "straits of Manitou, the Great Spirit", a place referring to what are now called The Narrows in the centre of Lake Manitoba, it may be from the Assiniboine for "Lake of the Prairie". The lake was known to French explorers as Lac des Prairies.
Thomas Spence chose the name to refer to a new republic he proposed for the area south of the lake. Métis leader Louis Riel chose the name, it was accepted in Ottawa under the Manitoba Act of 1870. Manitoba is bordered by the provinces of Ontario to the east and Saskatchewan to the west, the territories of Nunavut to the north, the US states of North Dakota and Minnesota to the south; the province meets the Northwest Territories at the four corners quadripoint to the extreme northwest, though surveys have not been completed and laws are unclear about the exact location of the Nunavut–NWT boundary. Manitoba adjoins Hudson Bay to the northeast, is the only prairie province to have a saltwater coastline; the Port of Churchill is Canada's only Arctic deep-water port. Lake Winnipeg is the tenth-largest freshwater lake in the world. Hudson Bay is the world's second-largest bay by area. Manitoba is at the heart of the giant Hudson Bay watershed, once known as Rupert's Land, it was a vital area of the Hudson's Bay Company, with many rivers and lakes that provided excellent opportunities for the lucrative fur trade.
The province has a saltwater coastline bordering Hudson Bay and more than 110,000 lakes, covering 15.6 percent or 101,593 square kilometres of its surface area. Manitoba's major lakes are Lake Manitoba, Lake Winnipegosis, Lake Winnipeg, the tenth-largest freshwater lake in the world; some traditional Native lands and boreal forest on Lake Winnipeg's east side are a proposed UNESCO World Heritage Site. Manitoba is at the centre of the Hudson Bay drainage basin, with a high volume of the water draining into Lake Winnipeg and north down the Nelson River into Hudson Bay; this basin's rivers reach far west to the mountains, far south into the United States, east into Ontario. Major watercourses include the Red, Nelson, Hayes and Churchill rivers. Most of Manitoba's inhabited south has developed in the prehistoric bed of Glacial Lake Agassiz; this region the Red River Valley, is flat and fertile. Baldy Mountain is the province's highest point at 832 metres above sea level, the Hudson Bay coast is the lowest at sea level.
Riding Mountain, the Pembina Hills, Sandilands Provincial Forest, the Canadian Shield are upland regions. Much of the province's sparsely inhabited north and east lie on the irregular granite Canadian Shield, including Whiteshell and Nopiming Provincial Parks. Extensive agriculture is found only in the province's southern areas, although there is grain farming in the Carrot Valley Region; the most common agricultural activity is cattle husbandry, followed by assorted grains and oilseed. Around 12 percent of Canada's farmland is in Manitoba. Manitoba has an extreme continental climate. Temperatures and precipitation decrease from south to north and increase from east to west. Manitoba is far from the moderating large bodies of water; because of the flat landscape, it is exposed to cold Arctic high-pressure air masses from the northwest during January and February. In the summer, air masses sometimes come out of the Southern United States, as warm humid air is drawn northward from the Gulf of Mexico.
Temperatures exceed 30 °C numerous times each summer, the combination of heat and humidity can bring the humidex value to the mid-40s. Carman, Manitoba recorded the second-highest humidex in Canada in 2007, with
Kelowna is a city on Okanagan Lake in the Okanagan Valley in the southern interior of British Columbia, Canada. It serves as the head office of the Regional District of the Central Okanagan; the name Kelowna derives from an Okanagan language term for "grizzly bear". The Kelowna metropolitan area has a population of 194,882. Additionally, the City of Kelowna is the seventh-largest city in the province, it ranks as the 22nd-largest in Canada and is the largest city in British Columbia, located inland. Kelowna's city proper contains 211.82 square kilometres, the census metropolitan area contains 2,904.86 square kilometres. In 2016, the population of Kelowna consisted of 127,380 individuals occupying 53,903 private dwellings. Nearby communities include the City of West Kelowna to the west across Okanagan Lake, Lake Country and Vernon to the north, Peachland to the southwest, further to the south and Penticton. Exact dates of first settlement are unknown, but a northern migration led to the peopling of this area some 9,000 years ago.
The Indigenous Syilx people were the first inhabitants of the region, they continue to live in the region. Father Pandosy, a French Roman Catholic Oblate missionary, became the first European to settle in Kelowna in 1859 at a place named "L'anse au sable" in reference to the sandy shoreline. Kelowna was incorporated on May 4, 1905. In May 2005, Kelowna celebrated its centennial. In the same year, construction began on a new five-lane William R. Bennett Bridge to replace the three-lane Okanagan Lake Bridge, it was part of a plan to alleviate traffic problems experienced during the summer tourist season. The new bridge was completed in 2008. Stubbs House is a historic house in Kelowna. On 3 July 1877, George Mercer Dawson was the first geologist to visit Kelowna. On 6 August 1969, a sonic boom from a nearby air show produced an expensive broken glass bill of a quarter million dollars while at least six people were injured; the incident was caused by a member of America's Blue Angels during a practice routine for the Kelowna Regatta festival: he accidentally went through the sound barrier while flying too low.
The last time the lake froze over was in the winter of 1969 and it may have frozen over in the winter of 1986. On 25 November 2005, the First National Aboriginal Leaders signed the Kelowna Accord. 2009, Kelowna built the tallest building between Vancouver and Calgary: Skye at Waterscapes, a 27-story residential tower. On 7 May 1992, a forest fire consumed 60 hectares of forest on Mount Boucherie in West Kelowna across Okanagan Lake from Kelowna proper. In August 2003, a nearby wildfire destroyed 239 homes and forced the temporary evacuation of about 30,000 residents. During the 2003 fire, many trestles of the historic Kettle Valley Railway were destroyed. All the trestles have been rebuilt to look like the originals. In late August 2005, a 30-ha fire caused multiple evacuations in the Rose Valley subdivision across the lake in West Kelowna. In July 2009, wildfires destroyed hundreds of hectares of forest and a number of buildings in West Kelowna. In July 2009, a 100-ha fire near Rose Valley resulted in the evacuation of 7,000 people.
No structures were lost. In July 2009, a 9,200-ha fire behind Fintry resulted in the evacuation of 2,500 people. No structures were lost. On 12 July 2010, a 30-ha fire in West Kelowna caused multiple evacuations. September 2011, a 40-ha fire in West Kelowna's Bear Creek Park caused the evacuation of over 500 people. In July 2012, a 30-ha fire caused the evacuation of the small community of Wilson's Landing just north of West Kelowna. In September 2012, a late-season, 200-ha fire destroyed seven buildings and resulted in the evacuation of 1,500 people in the community of Peachland. In July 2014, a 340-ha fire behind the West Kelowna subdivision of Smith Creek caused the evacuation of 3,000 people. In August 2014, a 40-ha fire above Peachland resulted in the evacuation of one home. In July 2015, a 55-ha fire in the Joe Rich area caused the evacuation of over 100 properties. In July 2015, a 560-ha fire near Shelter Cove caused the evacuation of 70 properties. In August 2015, a 130-ha fire burned near Little White Mountain just south of Kelowna.
In August 2017, a 400-ha fire in the Joe Rich area caused the evacuation of over 474 properties. Kelowna's official flower is Balsamorhiza sagittata known as arrowleaf balsamroot. Kelowna is classified as a humid continental climate per the Köppen climate classification system due to its coldest month having an average temperature above −3.0 °C, with dry and sunny summers, cloudy winters, four seasons. The official climate station for Kelowna is at the Kelowna International Airport, at a higher altitude than the city core, with higher precipitation and cooler nighttime temperatures; the moderating effects of Okanagan Lake combined with mountains separating most of BC from the prairies moderates the winter climate, but Arctic air masses do penetrate the valley during winter for short periods. The coldest recorded temperature in the city was −36.1 °C recorded on 30 December 1968. Weather conditions during December and January are the cloudiest in Canada outside of Newfoundland due to persistent valley cloud.
As Okanagan Lake hardly freezes, warmer air rising from the lake climbs above colder atmospheric air, creating a temperature inversion which can cause the valley to be socked in by cloud. This valley cloud has a low ceil
Curling is a sport in which players slide stones on a sheet of ice towards a target area, segmented into four concentric circles. It is related to bowls and shuffleboard. Two teams, each with four players, take turns sliding heavy, polished granite stones called rocks, across the ice curling sheet towards the house, a circular target marked on the ice; each team has eight stones, with each player throwing two. The purpose is to accumulate the highest score for a game. A game consists of eight or ten ends; the curler can induce a curved path by causing the stone to turn as it slides, the path of the rock may be further influenced by two sweepers with brooms, who accompany it as it slides down the sheet and sweep the ice in front of the stone. "Sweeping a rock" decreases the friction, which makes the stone travel a straighter path and a longer distance. A great deal of strategy and teamwork go into choosing the ideal path and placement of a stone for each situation, the skills of the curlers determine the degree to which the stone will achieve the desired result.
This gives curling its nickname of "chess on ice". Evidence that curling existed in Scotland in the early 16th century includes a curling stone inscribed with the date 1511 uncovered when an old pond was drained at Dunblane, Scotland; the world's oldest curling stone and the world's oldest football are now kept in the same museum in Stirling. The first written reference to a contest using stones on ice coming from the records of Paisley Abbey, Renfrewshire, in February 1541. Two paintings, "Winter Landscape with a Bird Trap" and "The Hunters in the Snow" by Pieter Bruegel the Elder depict Flemish peasants curling, albeit without brooms; the word curling first appears in print in 1620 in Perth, Scotland, in the preface and the verses of a poem by Henry Adamson. The sport was known as "the roaring game" because of the sound the stones make while traveling over the pebble; the verbal noun curling is formed from the Scots verb curl. Kilsyth Curling Club claims to be the first club in the world, having been formally constituted in 1716.
Kilsyth claims the oldest purpose-built curling pond in the world at Colzium, in the form of a low dam creating a shallow pool some 100 by 250 metres in size. The International Olympic Committee recognises the Royal Caledonian Curling Club as developing the first official rules for the sport. In the early history of curling, the playing stones were flat-bottomed stones from rivers or fields, which lacked a handle and were of inconsistent size and smoothness; some early stones had holes for the thumb, akin to ten-pin bowling balls. Unlike today, the thrower had little control over the'curl' or velocity and relied more on luck than on precision and strategy; the sport was played on frozen rivers although purpose-built ponds were created in many Scottish towns. For example, the Scottish poet David Gray describes whisky-drinking curlers on the Luggie Water at Kirkintilloch. In Darvel, East Ayrshire, the weavers relaxed by playing curling matches using the heavy stone weights from the looms' warp beams, fitted with a detachable handle for the purpose.
Many a wife would keep her husband's brass curling stone handle on the mantelpiece, brightly polished until the next time it was needed. Central Canadian curlers used'irons' rather than stones until the early 1900s. Outdoor curling was popular in Scotland between the 16th and 19th centuries because the climate provided good ice conditions every winter. Scotland is home to the international governing body for curling, the World Curling Federation in Perth, which originated as a committee of the Royal Caledonian Curling Club, the mother club of curling. Today, the sport is most established in Canada, having been taken there by Scottish emigrants; the Royal Montreal Curling Club, the oldest established sports club still active in North America, was established in 1807. The first curling club in the United States was established in 1830, the sport was introduced to Switzerland and Sweden before the end of the 19th century by Scots. Today, curling is played all over Europe and has spread to Brazil, Australia, New Zealand and Korea.
The first world championship for curling was limited to men and was known as the Scotch Cup, held in Falkirk and Edinburgh, Scotland, in 1959. The first world title was won by the Canadian team from Regina, skipped by Ernie Richardson. Curling was one of the first sports, popular with women and girls. Curling has been a medal sport in the Winter Olympic Games since the 1998 Winter Olympics, it includes men's, women's and mixed doubles tournaments. In February 2002, the International Olympic Committee retroactively decided that the curling competition from the 1924 Winter Olympics (originally called Semaine des Sports d'Hiver, or Int
Edmonton is the capital city of the Canadian province of Alberta. Edmonton is on the North Saskatchewan River and is the centre of the Edmonton Metropolitan Region, surrounded by Alberta's central region; the city anchors the north end of what Statistics Canada defines as the "Calgary–Edmonton Corridor". The city had a population of 932,546 in 2016, making it Alberta's second-largest city and Canada's fifth-largest municipality. In 2016, Edmonton had a metropolitan population of 1,321,426, making it the sixth-largest census metropolitan area in Canada. Edmonton is North America's northernmost metropolitan area with a population over one million. A resident of Edmonton is known as an Edmontonian. Edmonton's historic growth has been facilitated through the absorption of five adjacent urban municipalities in addition to a series of annexations through 1982, the annexation of 8,260 ha of land from Leduc County and the city of Beaumont on January 1, 2019. Known as the "Gateway to the North", the city is a staging point for large-scale oil sands projects occurring in northern Alberta and large-scale diamond mining operations in the Northwest Territories.
Edmonton is a cultural and educational centre. It hosts a year-round slate of festivals, reflected in the nickname "Canada's Festival City", it is home to North America's largest mall, West Edmonton Mall, Fort Edmonton Park, Canada's largest living history museum. The earliest known inhabitants arrived in the area, now Edmonton around 3,000 BC and as early as 12,000 BC when an ice-free corridor opened as the last glacial period ended and timber and wildlife became available in the region. In 1754, Anthony Henday, an explorer for the Hudson's Bay Company, may have been the first European to enter the Edmonton area, his expeditions across the Canadian Prairies were to seek contact with the aboriginal population for establishing the fur trade, as the competition was fierce between the Hudson's Bay Company and the North West Company. By 1795, Fort Edmonton was established on the river's north bank as a major trading post for the Hudson's Bay Company; the new fort's name was suggested by John Peter Pruden after Edmonton, the hometown of both the HBC deputy governor Sir James Winter Lake, Pruden.
In 1876, Treaty 6, which includes what is now Edmonton, was signed between the Aboriginal peoples in Canada and Queen Victoria as Queen of Canada, as part of the Numbered Treaties of Canada. The agreement includes the Plains and Woods Cree and other band governments of First Nations at Fort Carlton, Fort Pitt, Battle River; the area covered by the treaty represents most of the central area of the current provinces of Saskatchewan and Alberta. The coming of the Canadian Pacific Railway to southern Alberta in 1885 helped the Edmonton economy, the 1891 building of the Calgary and Edmonton Railway resulted in the emergence of a railway townsite on the river's south side, across from Edmonton; the arrival of the CPR and the C&E Railway helped bring settlers and entrepreneurs from eastern Canada, Europe, U. S. and other parts of the world. The Edmonton area's fertile soil and cheap land attracted settlers, further establishing Edmonton as a major regional commercial and agricultural centre; some people participating in the Klondike Gold Rush passed through South Edmonton/Strathcona in 1897.
Strathcona was North America's northernmost railway point, but travel to the Klondike was still difficult for the "Klondikers," and a majority of them took a steamship north to the Yukon from Vancouver, British Columbia. Incorporated as a town in 1892 with a population of 700 and as a city in 1904 with a population of 8,350, Edmonton became the capital of Alberta when the province was formed a year on September 1, 1905. In November 1905, the Canadian Northern Railway arrived in Edmonton. During the early 1900s, Edmonton's rapid growth led to speculation in real estate. In 1912, Edmonton amalgamated with the City of Strathcona, south of the North Saskatchewan River. Just before World War I, the boom ended, the city's population declined from more than 72,000 in 1914 to less than 54,000 only two years later. Many impoverished families moved to subsistence farms outside the city, while others fled to greener pastures in other provinces. Recruitment to the army during the war contributed to the drop in population.
Afterwards, the city recovered in population and economy during the 1920s and 1930s and took off again during and after World War II. The Edmonton City Centre Airport opened in 1929. Named Blatchford Field in honour of former mayor Kenny Blatchford, pioneering aviators such as Wilfrid R. "Wop" May and Max Ward used Blatchford Field as a major base for distributing mail and medicine to Northern Canada. World War II saw Edmonton become a major base for the construction of the Alaska Highway and the Northwest Staging Route; the airport was closed in November 2013. In 1892 Edmonton was incorporated as a town; the first mayor was Matthew McCauley, who established the first school board in Edmonton and Board of Trade and a municipal police service. Due to mayor McCauley's good relationship with the federal Liberals this helped Edmonton to maintain political prominence over Strathcona, a rival settlement on the south bank of the North Saskatche
Sweden the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian Nordic country in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and north and Finland to the east, is connected to Denmark in the southwest by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund, a strait at the Swedish-Danish border. At 450,295 square kilometres, Sweden is the largest country in Northern Europe, the third-largest country in the European Union and the fifth largest country in Europe by area. Sweden has a total population of 10.2 million. It has a low population density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre; the highest concentration is in the southern half of the country. Germanic peoples have inhabited Sweden since prehistoric times, emerging into history as the Geats and Swedes and constituting the sea peoples known as the Norsemen. Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, while the north is forested. Sweden is part of the geographical area of Fennoscandia; the climate is in general mild for its northerly latitude due to significant maritime influence, that in spite of this still retains warm continental summers.
Today, the sovereign state of Sweden is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, with a monarch as head of state, like its neighbour Norway. The capital city is Stockholm, the most populous city in the country. Legislative power is vested in the 349-member unicameral Riksdag. Executive power is exercised by the government chaired by the prime minister. Sweden is a unitary state divided into 21 counties and 290 municipalities. An independent Swedish state emerged during the early 12th century. After the Black Death in the middle of the 14th century killed about a third of the Scandinavian population, the Hanseatic League threatened Scandinavia's culture and languages; this led to the forming of the Scandinavian Kalmar Union in 1397, which Sweden left in 1523. When Sweden became involved in the Thirty Years War on the Reformist side, an expansion of its territories began and the Swedish Empire was formed; this became one of the great powers of Europe until the early 18th century. Swedish territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were lost during the 18th and 19th centuries, ending with the annexation of present-day Finland by Russia in 1809.
The last war in which Sweden was directly involved was in 1814, when Norway was militarily forced into personal union. Since Sweden has been at peace, maintaining an official policy of neutrality in foreign affairs; the union with Norway was peacefully dissolved in 1905. Sweden was formally neutral through both world wars and the Cold War, albeit Sweden has since 2009 moved towards cooperation with NATO. After the end of the Cold War, Sweden joined the European Union on 1 January 1995, but declined NATO membership, as well as Eurozone membership following a referendum, it is a member of the United Nations, the Nordic Council, the Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Sweden maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides universal health care and tertiary education for its citizens, it has the world's eleventh-highest per capita income and ranks in numerous metrics of national performance, including quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic competitiveness, equality and human development.
The name Sweden was loaned from Dutch in the 17th century to refer to Sweden as an emerging great power. Before Sweden's imperial expansion, Early Modern English used Swedeland. Sweden is derived through back-formation from Old English Swēoþēod, which meant "people of the Swedes"; this word is derived from Sweon/Sweonas. The Swedish name Sverige means "realm of the Swedes", excluding the Geats in Götaland. Variations of the name Sweden are used in most languages, with the exception of Danish and Norwegian using Sverige, Faroese Svøríki, Icelandic Svíþjóð, the more notable exception of some Finnic languages where Ruotsi and Rootsi are used, names considered as referring to the people from the coastal areas of Roslagen, who were known as the Rus', through them etymologically related to the English name for Russia; the etymology of Swedes, thus Sweden, is not agreed upon but may derive from Proto-Germanic Swihoniz meaning "one's own", referring to one's own Germanic tribe. Sweden's prehistory begins in the Allerød oscillation, a warm period around 12,000 BC, with Late Palaeolithic reindeer-hunting camps of the Bromme culture at the edge of the ice in what is now the country's southernmost province, Scania.
This period was characterised by small bands of hunter-gatherer-fishers using flint technology. Sweden is first described in a written source in Germania by Tacitus in 98 AD. In Germania 44 and 45 he mentions the Swedes as a powerful tribe with ships that had a prow at each end. Which kings ruled these Suiones is unknown, but Norse mythology presents a long line of legendary and semi-legendary kings going back to the last centuries BC; as for literacy in Sweden itself, the runic script was in use among the south Scandinavian elite by at least the 2nd century AD, but all that has come down to the present from the Roman Period is curt inscriptions on artefacts of male names, demonstrating th