Antonio Pigafetta was an Italian scholar and explorer from the Republic of Venice. He joined the expedition to the Spice Islands led by explorer Ferdinand Magellan under the flag of King Charles I of Spain and, after Magellan's death in the Philippines, the subsequent voyage around the world. During the expedition, he served as Magellan's assistant and kept an accurate journal which assisted him in translating the Cebuano language, it is the first recorded document concerning the language. Pigafetta was one of the 18 men who returned to Spain in 1522, under the command of Juan Sebastián Elcano, out of the 240 who set out three years earlier; these men completed the first circumnavigation of the world. Pigafetta's surviving journal is the source for much of what is known about Magellan and Elcano's voyage. At least one warship of the Italian Navy, a destroyer of the Navigatori class, was named after him in 1931. Pigafetta belonged to a rich family city of Vicenza in northeast Italy. In his youth he studied astronomy and cartography.
He served on board the ships of the Knights of Rhodes at the beginning of the 16th century. Until 1519, he accompanied Monsignor Francesco Chieregati, to Spain. In Seville, Pigafetta heard of Magellan's planned expedition and decided to join, accepting the title of supernumerary, a modest salary of 1,000 maravedís. During the voyage, which started in August 1519, Pigafetta collected extensive data concerning the geography, flora and the native inhabitants of the places that the expedition visited, his meticulous notes proved invaluable to future explorers and cartographers due to his inclusion of nautical and linguistic data, to latter-day historians because of its vivid, detailed style. The only other sailor to maintain a journal during the voyage was Francisco Albo, Victoria's last pilot, who kept a formal logbook. Pigafetta was wounded on Mactan in the Philippines, where Magellan was killed in the Battle of Mactan in April 1521 by the local ruler Lapu-Lapu, he recovered and was among the 18 who accompanied Juan Sebastián Elcano on board the Victoria on the return voyage to Spain.
Upon reaching port in Sanlúcar de Barrameda in the modern Province of Cadiz in September 1522, three years after his departure, Pigafetta returned to the Republic of Venice. He related his experiences in the "Report on the First Voyage Around the World", composed in Italian and was distributed to European monarchs in handwritten form before it was published by Italian historian Giovanni Battista Ramusio in 1550–59; the account centers on the events in the Mariana Islands and the Philippines, although it included several maps of other areas as well, including the first known use of the word "Pacific Ocean" on a map. The original document was not preserved. However, it was not through Pigafetta's writings that Europeans first learned of the circumnavigation of the globe. Rather, it was through an account written by a Flanders-based writer Maximilianus Transylvanus, published in 1523. Transylvanus had been instructed to interview some of the survivors of the voyage when Magellan's surviving ship Victoria returned to Spain in September 1522 under the command of Juan Sebastian Elcano.
After Magellan and Elcano's voyage, Pigafetta utilized the connections he had made prior to the voyage with the Knights of Rhodes to achieve membership in the order. Antonio Pigafetta wrote a book, in which a detailed account of the voyage was given, it is quite unclear when it was first published and what language had been used in the first edition. The remaining sources of his voyage were extensively studied by Italian archivist Andrea da Mosto, who wrote a critical study of Pigafetta's book in 1898 and whose conclusions were confirmed by J. Dénucé. Today, four manuscripts survive. One of the three books is in French. Of the four manuscripts, three are in French, one in Italian. From a philological point of view, the French editions seem to derive from an Italian original version, while the remaining Italian editions seem to derive from a French original version; because of this, it's still quite unclear whether the original version of Pigafetta's manuscript was in French or Italian though it wasn't in French language.
The most complete manuscript, the one, supposed to be more related to the original manuscript, is the one found by Carlo Amoretti inside the Biblioteca Ambrosiana and published in 1800. Amoretti, in his printed edition, modified many words and sentences whose meaning was uncertain; the modified version published by Amoretti was translated in other languages and therefore the edits by Amoretti spread in foreign editions too. Andrea da Mosto critically analyzed the original version stored in the Biblioteca Ambrosiana and published a faithful version of Pigafetta's book in 1894. Andrea da Mosto's edition is deemed more rigorous than Amoretti's edition. Regarding the French versions of Pigafetta's book, J. Dénucé extensively studied them and published a critical edition. A
Patagonia is a sparsely populated region at the southern end of South America, shared by Chile and Argentina. The region comprises the southern section of the Andes mountains and the deserts and grasslands to the east. Patagonia is one of the few regions with coasts on three oceans, with the Pacific Ocean to the west, the Atlantic Ocean to the east, the Southern Ocean to the south; the Colorado and Barrancas rivers, which run from the Andes to the Atlantic, are considered the northern limit of Argentine Patagonia. The archipelago of Tierra del Fuego is sometimes included as part of Patagonia. Most geographers and historians locate the northern limit of Chilean Patagonia at Huincul Fault, in Araucanía Region; the name Patagonia comes from the word patagón, used by Magellan in 1520 to describe the native tribes of the region, whom his expedition thought to be giants. It is now believed that the people he called the Patagons were Tehuelches, who tended to be taller than Europeans of the time; the Argentine researcher Miguel Doura observed that the name Patagonia derives from the ancient Greek region of modern Turkey called Paphlagonia, possible home of the patagon personage in the chivalric romances Primaleon printed in 1512, ten years before Magellan arrived in these southern lands.
The hypothesis was published in a 2011 New Review of Spanish Philology report. Argentine Patagonia is for the most part a region of steppelike plains, rising in a succession of 13 abrupt terraces about 100 metres at a time, covered with an enormous bed of shingle bare of vegetation. In the hollows of the plains are ponds or lakes of fresh and brackish water. Towards Chilean territory the shingle gives place to porphyry and basalt lavas, animal life becomes more abundant and vegetation more luxuriant, consisting principally of southern beech and conifers; the high rainfall against the western Andes and the low sea surface temperatures offshore give rise to cold and humid air masses, contributing to the ice-fields and glaciers, the largest ice-fields in the Southern hemisphere outside of Antarctica. Among the depressions by which the plateau is intersected transversely, the principal ones are the Gualichu, south of the Río Negro, the Maquinchao and Valcheta, the Senguerr, the Deseado River. Besides these transverse depressions, there are others which were occupied by more or less extensive lakes, such as the Yagagtoo and Colhue Huapi, others situated to the south of Puerto Deseado, in the centre of the country.
In the central region volcanic eruptions, which have taken part in the formation of the plateau during the Cenozoic, cover a large part of the land with basaltic lava-caps. There, caused principally by the sudden melting and retreat of ice aided by tectonic changes, has scooped out a deep longitudinal depression, best in evidence where in contact with folded Cretaceous rocks which are uplifted by the Cenozoic granite, it separates the plateau from the first lofty hills, whose ridges are called the pre-Cordillera. To the west of these, a similar longitudinal depression extends all along the foot of the snowy Andean Cordillera; this latter depression contains the richest and most fertile land of Patagonia. Lake basins along the Cordillera were excavated by ice-streams, including Lake Argentino and Lake Fagnano, as well as coastal bays such as Bahía Inútil; the geological limit of Patagonia has been proposed to be Huincul Fault which forms a major discontinuity. The fault truncates various structures including the Pampean orogen found further north.
The ages of base arocks change abruptly across the fault. There have been discrepancies among geologists on the origin of the Patagonian landmass. Víctor Ramos has proposed that the Patagonian landmass originated as an allochthonous terrane that separated from Antarctica and docked in South America 250 to 270 Ma in the Permian era. A 2014 study by R. J. Pankhurst and coworkers rejects any idea of a far-travelled Patagonia claiming it is of parautochtonous origin; the Mesozoic and Cenozoic deposits have revealed a most interesting vertebrate fauna. This, together with the discovery of the perfect cranium of a chelonian of the genus Niolamia, identical with Ninjemys oweni of the Pleistocene age in Queensland, forms an evident proof of the connection between the Australian and South American continents; the Patagonian Niolamia belongs to the Sarmienti Formation. Fossils of the mid-Cretaceous Argentinosaurus, which may be the largest of all dinosaurs, have been found in Patagonia, a model of the mid-Jurassic Piatnitzkysaurus graces the concourse of the Trelew airport.
Of more than paleontological interest, the middle Jurassic Los Molles Formation and the still richer late Jurassic and early Cretaceous Vaca Muerta formation above it in the Neuquén basin are reported to contain huge hydrocarbon reserves accessible through hydraulic fracturing. Other specimens of the interesting fauna of Patagonia, belonging to the Middle Cenozoic, are the gigantic wingless birds, exceeding in size any hitherto known, the singular mammal Pyrotherium of large dimensions. In
Jules Dumont d'Urville
Jules Sébastien César Dumont d'Urville was a French explorer, naval officer and rear admiral, who explored the south and western Pacific, New Zealand and Antarctica. As a botanist and cartographer he gave his name to several seaweeds and shrubs, places such as d'Urville Island in New Zealand. Dumont was born at Condé-sur-Noireau in Lower Normandy, his father, Gabriel Charles François Dumont, sieur d’Urville, Bailiff of Condé-sur-Noireau, like his ancestors, responsible to the court of Condé. His mother Jeanne Françoise Victoire Julie came from Croisilles and was a rigid and formal woman from an ancient family of the rural nobility of Lower Normandy; the child was weak and sickly. After the death of his father when he was six, his mother's brother, the Abbot of Croisilles, played the part of his father and from 1798 took charge of his education; the Abbot taught him Latin, Greek and philosophy. From 1804 Dumont studied at the lycée Impérial in Caen. In Caen's library he began to read the Encyclopédistes and the reports of travel of Bougainville and Anson, he became passionate about these matters.
At the age of 17 years he failed the physical tests of the entrance exam to the École Polytechnique and he therefore decided to enlist in the navy. In 1807 Dumont was admitted to the Naval Academy at Brest where he presented himself as a timid young man serious and studious, little interested in amusements and much more interested in studies than in military matters. In 1808, he obtained the grade of first class candidate. At the time the neglected French navy was of a much lower quality than Napoleon's Grande Armée, its ships were blockaded in their ports by the absolute domination of the British Royal Navy. Dumont was confined to land like his colleagues and spent the first years in the navy studying foreign languages. In 1812, after having been promoted to ensign and finding himself bored with port life and disapproving of the dissolute behaviour of the other young officers, he asked to be transferred to Toulon on board the Suffren. In this period Dumont built on his substantial cultural knowledge.
He spoke, in addition to Latin and Greek, German, Russian and Hebrew. During his travels in the Pacific, thanks to his prodigious memory, he would acquire some knowledge of an immense number of dialects of Polynesia and Melanesia. Meanwhile, ashore at Toulon, he learnt about botany and entomology in long excursions in the hills of Provence and he studied in the nearby naval observatory. In 1814, when Napoleon had been exiled to Elba, Dumont undertook his first short navigation of the Mediterranean Sea. In 1816, he married Adèle Pepin, daughter of a clockmaker from Toulon, disliked by Dumont's mother, who thought her inappropriate for her son and refused to meet her and on, her grandsons from the marriage. In 1819 Dumont d'Urville sailed on board Chevrette, under the command of Captain Gauttier-Duparc, to carry out a hydrographic survey of the islands of the Greek archipelago. During a pause near the island of Milos, the local French representative brought to Dumont's attention the rediscovery of a marble statue a few days before by a local peasant.
The statue, now known as the Venus de Milo dates from around the year 130 BC. Dumont recognised its value and would have acquired it but the ship's commander pointed out that there was not enough space on board for an object of its size. Moreover, the expedition was to proceed through stormy seas that could damage it. Dumont wrote to the French ambassador to Constantinople about its discovery. Chevrette arrived in Constantinople on 22 April and Dumont succeeded in convincing the ambassador to acquire the statue. Meanwhile, the peasant had sold the statue to a priest, Macario Verghis, who wished to present it as a gift to an interpreter for the Sultan in Constantinople; the French ambassador's representative arrived just as the statue was being loaded aboard a ship bound for Constantinople and persuaded the island's primates to annul the sale and honour the first offer. This earned Dumont the title of Chevalier of the Légion d'honneur, the attention of the French Academy of Sciences and promotion to lieutenant.
On his return from the voyage of Chevrette, Dumont was sent to the naval archive where he encountered Lieutenant Louis Isidore Duperrey, an acquaintance from the past. The two began to plan an expedition of exploration in the Pacific, an area out of which France had been forced during the Napoleonic Wars. France considered it might be able to regain some of its losses by taking over part of New South Wales. On 11 August 1822, the ship La Coquille sailed from Toulon with the objective of collecting as much scientific and strategic information as possible on the area to which it was dispatched. Duperrey was named Commander of the expedition. Dumont discovered the Adélie penguin, named after his wife. René-Primevère Lesson travelled on La Coquille as a naval doctor and naturalist. On the return to France in March 1825, Lesson and Dumont brought back to France an imposing collection of animals and plants collected on the Falkland Islands, on the coasts of Chile and Peru, in the archipelagos of the Pacific and New Zealand, New Guinea and Australia.
Dumont was now 35 and in poor health. On board La Coquille, he had behaved as a competent official, but rather abrupt, little inclined to socialise and with a sometimes embarrassing lack of interest in his physica
The Aónikenk people, better known by the exonym Tehuelche, are a group of indigenous peoples of Patagonia and the southern regions of Argentina and Chile. They are believed to be the basis for the Patagones described by European explorers, it is possible the stories of the early European explorers about the Patagones, a race of giants in South America, are based on the Tehuelche, because the Tehuelche were tall, taller than the average European of the time. According to the 2001 census, 4,300 Tehuelche lived in the provinces of Chubut and Santa Cruz, Río Negro, an additional 1,637 in other parts of Argentina. There are now no Tehuelche tribes living in Chile, though some Tehuelche were assimilated into Mapuche groups over the years; the Tehuelche people have a history of over 14,500 years in the region, based on archeological findings. Their pre-Columbian history is divided in three main stages: a stage with large rock tools, a stage where the use of boleadoras prevailed over the peaked projectiles, a third one of complex rock tools, each one with a specific purpose.
The nomadic lifestyle of Tehuelches left scarce archeological evidence of their past. They were hunter-gatherers living as nomads. During the winters they lived in the lowlands, catching shellfish. During the spring they migrated to the central highlands of Patagonia and the Andes Mountains, where they spent the summer and early fall, hunted game. Although they developed no original pottery, they are well known for their cave paintings; the Spanish arrived in the early 16th century. On March 31, 1520, the Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan landed and made contact with the Tehuelche people; the Spanish never colonized their lands, with the exception of some coastal settlements and a few missions. It took; as nomads, the Tehuelche lived with limited possessions. Their rock tools were made of obsidian or basalt, as those rocks were malleable but not so soft that they broke too easily; those rocks, could be found in only certain parts of Patagonia, so the Tehuelche had to make long journeys to renew their supplies.
The Tehuelche hunted many species in Patagonia, including whales, sea mammals, small rodents and sea birds. Both species were found at the same places, as the rheas eat the larvae that grow in the guanaco's manure. Everything from the guanaco was used by the Tehuelche: the meat and blood were used for food, the fat to grease their bodies during winter, the hide to make clothing and canopies; the Tehuelches gathered fruits that grew during the Patagonian summer. Those fruits were the only sweet foods in their diet; the Tehuelche speak Spanish and Tehuelche known as Aonekkenk, one of the Chonan languages. With the Araucanization of Patagonia, many tribes started to speak variants of Mapudungun, the Mapuche language. There is a group of people who want to have their language back and are working on a reclamation program called ¨I am not ashamed of speaking Tehuelche"; the Tehuelche people have their own flag. Inacayal Salpul Bernal, Irma. Los Tehuelche. Buenos Aires: Galerna. ISBN 978-950-556-422-4. Efram Sera-Shriar, ‘Tales from Patagonia: Phillip Parker King and Early Ethnographic Observation in British Ethnology, 1826-1830’, Studies in Travel Writing, 19, 204-223 Christine Papp: Die Tehuelche.
Ein Ethnohistorischer Beitrag zu einer jahrhundertelangen Nicht-Begegnung, A dissertation. Universitãt Wien, 2002. Native Patagonians - Contains primary sources and reference material
HMS Dolphin (1751)
HMS Dolphin was a 24-gun sixth-rate frigate of the Royal Navy. Launched in 1751, she was used as a survey ship from 1764 and made two circumnavigations of the world under the successive commands of John Byron and Samuel Wallis, she was the first ship to circumnavigate the world twice. She remained in service until she was paid off in September 1776, she was broken up in early 1777. Built to the 1745 Establishment, Dolphin was ordered from the private yard of Earlsman Sparrow in Rotherhithe. Following Sparrow's bankruptcy in 1748, the order was moved to Woolwich Dockyard. In order to reduce the incidence of shipworm, Dolphin's hull was copper-sheathed ahead of her first voyage of circumnavigation in 1764. Not long after her commissioning, the hostilities of the Seven Years' War had escalated and spread to Europe, in May 1756 Britain declared war on France of the Ancien Régime. Dolphin was pressed into service throughout the conflict, was present at the Battle of Minorca in 1756 when a fleet under Admiral John Byng failed to relieve Port Mahon, Britain's main base in the Western Mediterranean.
With Britain's successful conclusion of the Seven Years' War in 1763, her attentions turned towards consolidating her gains and continuing to expand her trade and influence at the expense of the other competing European powers. The Pacific Ocean was beginning to be opened up by exploratory European vessels, interest had developed in this route as an alternate to reach the East Indies; this interest was compounded by theories put forward which suggested that a large, hitherto-unknown continental landmass must exist at southern latitudes to "counterbalance" the northern hemisphere's landmasses. No longer in a state of war, the Admiralty had more funds and men at her disposal to devote to exploratory ventures. Accordingly, an expedition was soon formed with instructions to investigate and establish a South Atlantic base from which Britain could keep an eye on voyages bound for the Pacific. Another purpose was to explore for unknown lands which could be claimed and exploited by the Crown, to reach the Far East if necessary.
The Dolphin was selected as lead vessel for this voyage, she was to be accompanied by the sloop HMS Tamar. Her captain was Commodore John Byron, a 42-year-old veteran of the sea, younger brother to the profligate William Byron, 5th Baron Byron. Between June 1764 and May 1766 HMS Dolphin completed the circumnavigation of the globe; this was the first such circumnavigation of less than 2 years. During this voyage, in 1765, Byron took possession of the Falkland Islands on behalf of Britain on the grounds of prior discovery, in so doing was nearly the cause of a war between Great Britain and Spain, both countries having armed fleets ready to contest the sovereignty of the barren islands. Byron visited islands of Tuamotus and Nikunau in the Gilbert Islands, putting them on European maps for the first time. Dolphin circumnavigated the world under the command of Samuel Wallis, her master's mate, John Gore, was among a number of the crew from Byron's circumnavigation who crewed with Wallis. The master on this voyage, George Robertson, subsequently wrote a book The discovery of Tahiti.
M. S. Dolphin round the world under the command of Captain Wallis, R. N. in the years 1766, 1767, 1768, written by her master. Dolphin sailed in 1766 in the company of HMS Swallow, under the command of Philip Carteret, who had served on Byron's circumnavigation. Dolphin dropped anchor at the peninsula of Tahiti Iti on 17 June 1767 but left to find a better anchorage. Wallis chose Matavai Bay on 23 June. Although the Spanish had visited the Marquesas Islands in 1595, some 170 years earlier, Wallis took possession of Otaheiti, which he named "King George III Island". Early on a large canoe approached Dolphin and at a signal its occupants launched a storm of stones at the British, who replied with grapeshot. Dolphin's gunnery cut the canoe in two. Wallis sent his carpenters ashore to cut the eighty-some canoes there in half. Friendly relations were established between the British sailors and the locals; the relationships became friendly when the sailors discovered that the women were eager to exchange sex for iron.
This trade became so extensive that the loss of nails started to threaten Dolphin's physical integrity. European and American voyages of scientific exploration Couper, Alistair. From Sailors and Traders: A Maritime History of the Pacific Peoples. University of Hawai'i Press. ISBN 9781441619884. Winfield, Rif. British Warships of the Age of Sail 1714–1792: Design, Construction and Fates. Seaforth. ISBN 9781844157006. Beaglehole, J. C.. The Exploration of the Pacific. Adam & Charles Black, London. OCLC 422331302. "HMS Dolphin". Ships of the World: an Historical Encyclopaedia. Retrieved 15 August 2005. Officer on Board the Said Ship.. A voyage round the world in His Majesty’s Ship the ‘Dolphin’, commanded by the honourable commodore Byron. London: J. Newbery and F. Newbery. Log entry from Bougainville aboard HMS Dolphin, 1768
The New World is one of the names used for the majority of Earth's Western Hemisphere the Americas, Oceania. The term originated in the early 16th century after Europeans made landfall in what would be called the Americas in the age of discovery, expanding the geographical horizon of classical geographers, who had thought of the world as consisting of Africa and Asia, collectively now referred to as the Old World; the phrase gained prominence after the publication of a pamphlet titled Mundus Novus attributed to Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci. The Americas were referred to as the "fourth part of the world"; the terms "Old World" vs. "New World" are meaningful in historical context and for the purpose of distinguishing the world's major ecozones, to classify plant and animal species that originated therein. One can speak of the "New World" in a historical context, e.g. when discussing the voyages of Christopher Columbus, the Spanish conquest of Yucatán and other events of the colonial period.
For lack of alternatives, the term is still useful to those discussing issues that concern the Americas and the nearby oceanic islands, such as Bermuda and Clipperton Island, collectively. The term "New World" is used in a biological context, when one speaks of Old World and New World species. Biological taxonomists attach the "New World" label to groups of species that are found in the Americas, to distinguish them from their counterparts in the "Old World", e.g. New World monkeys, New World vultures, New World warblers; the label is often used in agriculture. Asia and Europe share a common agricultural history stemming from the Neolithic Revolution, the same domesticated plants and animals spread through these three continents thousands of years ago, making them indistinct and useful to classify together as "Old World". Common Old World crops, domesticated animals did not exist in the Americas until they were introduced by post-Columbian contact in the 1490s. Conversely, many common crops were domesticated in the Americas before they spread worldwide after Columbian contact, are still referred to as "New World crops".
Other famous New World crops include the cashew, rubber, sunflower and vanilla, fruits like the guava and pineapple. There are rare instances of overlap, e.g. the calabash and yam, the dog, are believed to have been domesticated separately in both the Old and New World, their early forms brought along by Paleo-Indians from Asia during the last glacial period. In wine terminology, "New World" has a different definition. "New World wines" include not only North American and South American wines, but those from South Africa, New Zealand, all other locations outside the traditional wine-growing regions of Europe, North Africa and the Near East. The term "New World" was first coined by the Florentine explorer Amerigo Vespucci, in a letter written to his friend and former patron Lorenzo di Pier Francesco de' Medici in the Spring of 1503, published in 1503–04 under the title Mundus Novus. Vespucci's letter contains arguably the first explicit articulation in print of the hypothesis that the lands discovered by European navigators to the west were not the edges of Asia, as asserted by Christopher Columbus, but rather an different continent, a "New World".
Vespucci first approached this realization in June 1502, during a famous chance meeting between two different expeditions at the watering stop of "Bezeguiche" – his own outgoing expedition, on its way to chart the coast of newly discovered Brazil, the vanguard ships of the Second Portuguese India armada of Pedro Álvares Cabral, returning home from India. Having visited the Americas in prior years, Vespucci found it difficult to reconcile what he had seen in the West Indies, with what the returning sailors told him of the East Indies. Vespucci wrote a preliminary letter to Lorenzo, while anchored at Bezeguiche, which he sent back with the Portuguese fleet – at this point only expressing a certain puzzlement about his conversations. Vespucci was convinced when he proceeded on his mapping expedition through 1501–02, covering the huge stretch of coast of eastern Brazil. After returning from Brazil, in the Spring of 1503, Amerigo Vespucci composed the Mundus Novus letter in Lisbon to Lorenzo in Florence, with its famous opening paragraph: In passed days I wrote fully to you of my return from new countries, which have been found and explored with the ships, at the cost and by the command of this Most Serene King of Portugal.
For the opinion of the ancients was, that the greater part of the world beyond the equinoctial line to the south was not land, but only sea, which they have called the Atlantic.