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The patella known as the kneecap, is a flat, circular-triangular bone which articulates with the femur and covers and protects the anterior articular surface of the knee joint. The patella is found in many tetrapods, such as mice and birds, but not in whales, or most reptiles. In humans, the patella is the largest sesamoid bone in the body. Babies are born with a patella of soft cartilage which begins to ossify into bone at about four years of age; the patella is a sesamoid bone triangular in shape, with the apex of the patella facing downwards. The apex is the most inferior part of the patella, it is pointed in shape, gives attachment to the patellar ligament. The front and back surfaces are joined towards centre by a thicker margin; the tendon of the quadriceps femoris muscle attaches to the base of the patella. With the vastus intermedius muscle attaching to the base itself, the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis are attached to outer lateral and medial borders of patella respectively; the upper third of the front of the patella is coarse and rough, serves for the attachment of the tendon of the quadriceps and has exostoses.

The middle third has numerous vascular canaliculi. The lower third culminates in the apex; the posterior surface is divided into two parts. The upper three-quarters of the patella articulates with the femur and is subdivided into a medial and a lateral facet by a vertical ledge which varies in shape. In the adult the articular surface is about 12 cm2 and covered by cartilage, which can reach a maximal thickness of 6 mm in the centre at about 30 years of age. Owing to the great stress on the patellofemoral joint during resisted knee flexion, the articular cartilage of the patella is among the thickest in the human body; the lower part of the posterior surface has vascular canaliculi filled and is filled by fatty tissue, the infrapatellar fat pad. Emarginations are common laterally on the proximal edge. Bipartite patellas are the result of an ossification of a second cartilaginous layer at the location of an emargination. Bipartite patellas were explained as the failure of several ossification centres to fuse, but this idea has been rejected.

Partite patellas occur exclusively in men. Tripartite and multipartite patellas occur; the upper three-quarters of the patella articulates with the femur and is subdivided into a medial and a lateral facet by a vertical ledge which varies in shape. Four main types of articular surface can be distinguished: Most the medial articular surface is smaller than the lateral. Sometimes both articular surfaces are equal in size; the medial surface is hypoplastic or the central ledge is only indicated. In the patella an ossification centre develops at the age of 3–6 years; the patella originates from two centres of ossification which unite when formed. The primary functional role of the patella is knee extension; the patella increases the leverage that the quadriceps tendon can exert on the femur by increasing the angle at which it acts. The patella is attached to the tendon of the quadriceps femoris muscle, which contracts to extend/straighten the knee; the patella is stabilized by the insertion of the horizontal fibres of vastus medialis and by the prominence of the lateral femoral condyle, which discourages lateral dislocation during flexion.

The retinacular fibres of the patella stabilize it during exercise. Patellar dislocations occur with significant regularity in young female athletes, it involves the patella sliding out of its position on the knee, most laterally, may be associated with intense pain and swelling. The patella can be tracked back into the groove with an extension of the knee, therefore sometimes returns into the proper position on its own. A patella alta is a high-riding patella. An attenuated patella alta is an unusually small patella that develops out above the joint. A patella baja is a low-riding patella. A long-standing patella baja may result in extensor dysfunction; the Insall-Salvati ratio helps to indicate patella baja on lateral X-rays, is calculated as the patellar tendon length divided by the patellar bone length. An Insall-Salvati ratio of < 0.8 indicates patella baja.. The kneecap is prone to injury because of its exposed location, fractures of the patella occur as a consequence of direct trauma onto the knee.

These fractures cause swelling and pain in the region, bleeding into the joint, an inability to extend the knee. Patella fractures are treated with surgery, unless the damage is minimal and the extensor mechanism is intact. An exostosis is the formation of new bone as a result of excess calcium formation; this can be the cause of chronic pain. The patella is found in placental birds. A patella is present in the living monotremes, the platypus and the echidna. In more primitive tetrapods, including living amphibians and most reptiles, the muscle tendons from the upper leg are attached directly to the tibia, a patella is not present. In 2017 it was discovered; this raises the possibility that the kneecap arose 400 million years ago when tetrapods first appeared, but that it disappeared in some animals. The word patella originated in the late 17th century from the diminutive form of Latin patina or patena or paten, meaning shallow dish. Patel

├ůsane Fotball

Åsane Fotball is a Norwegian football club located in Åsane. The club plays in 1. Divisjon, the second tier of the Norwegian football league system, where they have been played since they promoted from the 2019 2. Divisjon, they were relegated from 1. Divisjon in 2018; as of 30 July 2017Note: Flags indicate national team. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Åsane Fotball Damer is a Norwegian women's football club located in Åsane, Norway. It plays in the First Division, the second tier of Norwegian football, where they have played since they were promoted in 2011; the club was formed in 1997, when the sports club Åsane Idrettslag, which encompassed men's and women's teams in various sports, split up into eight different clubs, including Åsane Fotball Damer and Åsane Fotball, which now constitute separate legal entities, but continue to collaborate. As of 2012, the club has 180 playing members in all age groups, from 7 years old to senior level. Official website – men's team Official website – women's team

Mary Cathryn Ricker

Mary Cathryn Ricker is a labor leader and educator in the United States, named by Minnesota Governor-elect Tim Walz as his designee for Minnesota Commissioner of Education. Ricker served as a classroom teacher and as Executive Vice President of the American Federation of Teachers. Ricker was raised in Hibbing, Minnesota. Ricker is a National Board Certified Teacher, a classroom English teacher in middle school English/Language arts for 13 years in St. Cloud, Minnesota, she taught for 5 years in Saint Paul Public Schools. Ricker has experience as past President of the St. Paul Federation of Teachers from 2005 to 2014, a 4000+ member union serving the teachers and Educational Assistants in St. Paul Public Schools. In 2014, Ricker was elected Executive Vice President of the American Federation of Teachers, she was a local delegate to the St. Paul Area Trades and Labor Assembly and served on the board of the Minnesota AFL–CIO. Ricker was elected to the Education Minnesota Governing Board and served on Education Minnesota's statewide Professional Advocacy member committee.

Ricker served on the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards and as past president of the Education Minnesota Foundation for Teaching and Learning. She was Middle School Chairperson on the board of the Minnesota Council of Teachers of English. Ricker serves on the Board of Directors for the National Democratic Institute, Department for Professional Employees, AFL–CIO, United Way of America, the Albert Shanker Institute


Cutfather is a Danish music producer, remixer and DJ, based in Copenhagen, Denmark. Cutfather has a studio on Copenhagen. Cutfather is best known for his remix of "Return of the Mack" by Mark Morrison, the song "Superstar" recorded by Christine Milton and Jamelia. Cutfather has worked with Joe Belmaati in the songwriting and production team Cutfather & Joe; as part of the Cutfather & Joe partnership, he wrote and remixed for Peter Andre, Another Level, Lighthouse Family, Ace of Base, Blue, Shayne Ward, Lee Ryan, Blazin' Squad and Kylie Minogue. Cutfather has worked with Danish producer Jonas Jeberg. Together they wrote and produced for Pussycat Dolls, Kylie Minogue, Pixie Lott, The Wanted, JLS, Jessica Mauboy, Claire Richards, Jordin Sparks. In 2004, Cutfather received a prestigious Ivor Novello songwriting award for Best Performing song, for his composition "Superstar" by Jamelia, the most performed song in the United Kingdom that year. In 2015, "Up", performed by Olly Murs featuring Demi Lovato and produced alongside Daniel Davidsen and Peter Wallevik, became an international hit.

Cutfather produced and remixed songs with his former production partner Joe Belmaati, as Cutfather and Joe. Cutfather was one half of the Danish producer team Soulshock & Cutfather in partnership with Carsten Schack, they founded together the Danish label Soulpower Productions in 1990. Cutfather collaborates with many other Danish songwriters and producers, including Peter Wallevik, Daniel Heloy Davidsen, Kasper Larsen. On 24 September 2010, it was announced that Cutfather would replace Soulshock in season four of The X Factor in Denmark, he joined returning former judge Thomas Blachman. Cutfather won in his first season with Sarah Skaalum Jørgensen. After completing the fifth season, Cutfather was replaced by Anne Linnet. Official website

Martin Nakell

Martin Nakell is an American poet and author. Winner of the Gertrude Stein Award in Poetry for 1996–1997 and an NEA Interarts Grant, he was a finalist for the America's Award in Fiction, 1997, a finalist in the New American Poetry Series for 1999. Nakell has published poetry and fiction extensively in journals, including recent publications of poetry in Proliferations, Ribot, ReMap, fiction in Literal Latte, Hanging Loose, Hyper Age, Subvoicity. Three chapters from Two Fields That Face and Mirror Each Other have been published in literary journals, including Washington Review and Onyx, he has held fellowships from the Fine Arts Work Center, from the Blue Mountain Center, from Writers and Books, from the State University of New York at Albany. He was a panelist for the America Awards in fiction for 1998, a panelist for the Los Angeles Arts Commission in 1999, serves on the panel of the "100 Most Important Books of the Twentieth Century" for The Encyclopedia of Twentieth Century Literature of The Contemporary Arts Educational Project, Inc.

Visual Poetics, Inc. a Los Angeles film company, optioned three of his short stories, for a film entitled A Heisenberg Trilogy. Martin Nakell earned a Doctorate of Arts from the State University of New York at Albany, is Professor of Literature at Chapman University, Visiting Professor in Creative Writing at the University of California at San Diego, he is married to novelist Rebecca Goodman. The Myth of Creation Form Ramon The Library of Thomas Rivka Two Fields That Face & Mirror Each Other Goings Settlement Spuyten Duyvil New York State Writers Institute The East VillageWork samplesfrom Settlement "On Narrativity" "Ox"


Lindesnes is a municipality in Agder county, Norway. It is located in the traditional district of Sørlandet; the administrative centre of the municipality is the village of Vigeland. Other villages in Lindesnes include Åvik, Høllen, Skofteland and Vigmostad; the 316-square-kilometre municipality is the 271st largest by area out of the 422 municipalities in Norway. Lindesnes is the 202nd most populous municipality in Norway with a population of 4,950; the municipality's population density is 16.6 inhabitants per square kilometre and its population has increased by 9.5% over the last decade. The municipality of Lindesnes was created as a new municipality on 1 January 1964 after the merger of the older municipalities of Spangereid, Sør-Audnedal, Vigmostad. On 1 January 2020, the three neighboring municipalities of Mandal and Lindesnes will be merged into one large municipality called Lindesnes with its administrative centre being the town of Mandal; the oldest Old Norse form of the name was Líðandi.

That name is derived from the verb líða which means "lead/go to an end" and the meaning is just "the end". A form was Líðandisnes where the word nes which means "headland" was added; the traditional English language version of the name is just the Naze, derived from ness meaning headland. The coat-of-arms is from modern times; the arms are blue with a silver lighthouse on the center. The lighthouse represents the oldest lighthouse in Norway, it was built in 1655 on the Lindesnes peninsula. The Church of Norway has three parishes within the municipality of Lindesnes, it is part of the Mandal prosti in the Diocese of Agder og Telemark. All municipalities in Norway, including Lindesnes, are responsible for primary education, outpatient health services, senior citizen services and other social services, economic development, municipal roads; the municipality is governed by a municipal council of elected representatives, which in turn elect a mayor. The municipal council of Lindesnes is made up of 21 representatives that are elected to four year terms.

The party breakdown is as follows: Lindesnes is a coastal municipality, with a long stretch of coastline to the south. It borders Audnedal municipality to the north, Lyngdal to the west, Mandal and Marnardal to the east; the Lindesnes Lighthouse stands on the southernmost point of the mainland of Norway, nearly 1,700 kilometres southwest of Knivskjellodden, the northernmost point of mainland Norway. The southern coast of Lindesnes is rugged and includes several fjords such as the Snigsfjorden and Grønsfjorden as well as many islands such as Svinør; the interior of the municipality follows the Audnadalen valley through which the river Audna flows south into the Snigsfjorden. Peder Claussøn Friis, a Norwegian clergyman and author Ansgar Gabrielsen, a Norwegian consultant and former politician for the Conservative Party Emanuel Vigeland, a multi-talented Norwegian artist Gustav Vigeland, a Norwegian sculptor, associated with the Vigeland Sculptures in Frogner Park, Oslo and he designed the Nobel Peace Prize medal Asbjørn Aavik, a Norwegian Lutheran missionary to China and writer.

Media related to Lindesnes at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of Lindesnes at Wiktionary Vest-Agder travel guide from Wikivoyage Municipal fact sheet from Statistics Norway