Hohenthurn is a municipality in the district of Villach-Land in the Austrian state of Carinthia. Hohenthurn is located in the Gail Valley on the slope of the Carnic Alps at the border with Italy. It comprises the municipality of Hohenthurn and Dreulach. The municipality was the site of a prehistoric Hallstatt settlement as well as of a Roman watchtower, however Hohenthurn, first mentioned in a 1253 deed as Göströsdorf, probably derived its name from the steeple of the Gothic St. Cyriacus parish church. The Carinthian Slovene priest and activist Matija Majar from 1851 until 1867 served at the Holy Name of Mary parish church in the hamlet of Göriach
Finkenstein am Faaker See
Finkenstein am Faaker See is a market town in the district of Villach-Land in Carinthia, Austria. It is located south of Villach and the Drava river, on the slope of the Karavanke range with Mt. Mittagskogel. The municipal area comprises the southern shore of Lake Faak, the municipality includes the Katastralgemeinden of Faak am See, Ferlach, Fürnitz, Greuth, Gödersdorf, Latschach am Faakersee and Sankt Stefan. According to the 2001 census 5. 6% of the population are Carinthian Slovenes, the municipality is named after Finkenstein Castle, a possession of the Carinthian dukes, which was first mentioned in an 1142 deed. In 1335 the ducal estates passed to the Austrian House of Habsburg, in 1508 Emperor Maximilian I, Duke of Carinthia since 1493, granted Finkenstein to his liegeman Siegmund von Dietrichstein, whose descendants held the castle until 1861. From the 18th century on it decayed, only ruins remain and it is today the backdrop of the Burgarena Finkenstein, an amphitheatre with 1150 seats mainly used for concerts.
The Finkenstein municipality was established in 1850 at Mallestig, it became a town in 1979. To advert to its location on the shore of Lake Faak, the area largely depends on tourism, moreover Elan snowboards operates a factory in Fürnitz
Protestantism is a form of Christianity which originated with the Reformation, a movement against what its followers considered to be errors in the Roman Catholic Church. It is one of the three divisions of Christendom, together with Roman Catholicism and Orthodoxy. The term derives from the letter of protestation from German Lutheran princes in 1529 against an edict of the Diet of Speyer condemning the teachings of Martin Luther as heretical. Although there were earlier breaks from or attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church—notably by Peter Waldo, John Wycliffe, Protestants reject the notion of papal supremacy and deny the Roman Catholic doctrine of transubstantiation, but disagree among themselves regarding the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist. The Five solae summarize the reformers basic differences in theological beliefs, in the 16th century, Lutheranism spread from Germany into Denmark, Sweden, the Baltic states, and Iceland. Reformed churches were founded in Germany, the Netherlands, Scotland and France by such reformers as John Calvin, Huldrych Zwingli, the political separation of the Church of England from Rome under King Henry VIII brought England and Wales into this broad Reformation movement.
Protestants developed their own culture, which made major contributions in education, the humanities and sciences, the political and social order, the economy and the arts, some Protestant denominations do have a worldwide scope and distribution of membership, while others are confined to a single country. A majority of Protestants are members of a handful of families, Anglicanism, Baptist churches, Reformed churches, Methodism. Nondenominational, charismatic and other churches are on the rise, and constitute a significant part of Protestant Christianity. Six princes of the Holy Roman Empire and rulers of fourteen Imperial Free Cities, the edict reversed concessions made to the Lutherans with the approval of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V three years earlier. During the Reformation, the term was used outside of the German politics. The word evangelical, which refers to the gospel, was more widely used for those involved in the religious movement. Nowadays, this word is still preferred among some of the historical Protestant denominations in the Lutheran and Calvinist traditions in Europe, above all the term is used by Protestant bodies in the German-speaking area, such as the EKD.
In continental Europe, an Evangelical is either a Lutheran or a Calvinist, the German word evangelisch means Protestant, and is different from the German evangelikal, which refers to churches shaped by Evangelicalism. The English word evangelical usually refers to Evangelical Protestant churches, and it traces its roots back to the Puritans in England, where Evangelicalism originated, and was brought to the United States. Protestantism as a term is now used in contradistinction to the other major Christian traditions, i. e. Roman Catholicism. Initially, Protestant became a term to mean any adherent to the Reformation movement in Germany and was taken up by Lutherans. Even though Martin Luther himself insisted on Christian or Evangelical as the only acceptable names for individuals who professed Christ and Swiss Protestants preferred the word reformed, which became a popular and alternative name for Calvinists
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library, the National Library of France joined the project on October 5,2007. The project transitions to a service of the OCLC on April 4,2012, the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together, a VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary see and see records from the original records, and refers to the original authority records. The data are available online and are available for research and data exchange. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol, the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAFs clustering algorithm is run every month, as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records
Arriach is a municipality in the district of Villach-Land in the Austrian state of Carinthia. It consists of the four Katastralgemeinden, Innerteuchen, situated within the Nock Mountains range of the Central Eastern Alps, about 20 kilometres in the north of the city of Villach, Arriach houses the geographical centre of the state of Carinthia. The economy of the commune mainly depends on tourism, Arriach was first mentioned in a 1207 deed as Ovriach. According to a 2001 census 68. 8% of the population were Protestants, the Four Evangelists parish church, erected in 1903, is the largest Protestant church building in mainly Catholic Carinthia. Furthermore, Arriachs coat of arms depicts an Eucharist chalice and a Luther rose, a smaller Catholic church dedicated to Sts. Philipp and Jakob from about 1200 stands nearby, Arriach features several historic rustic log homes preserved in quite good condition
Feld am See
Feld am See is a town in the district of Villach-Land in the Austrian state of Carinthia. It is located in a valley of the Nock Mountains range at the shore of the Brennsee and it consists of one Katastralgemeinde, the oldest settlement in the area. The hidden Gegendtal was not populated until the Middle Ages, when about 1300 its sunny northern side was stubbed, the village called Rauth was the most important settlement in the whole area for a long time. Feld am See itself was established with the construction of a Protestant church in 1787 according to the 1781 Edict of Tolerance by Emperor Joseph II, the lake called Brennsee or Feldner See was named after the tavern and distillery Brenn which was founded in 1632. An elementary school was established in 1851, in the late 19th century summer tourism around the lake started. In the period between 1973 and 1991 Feld am See and neighbouring Afritz am See were united to a single municipality, the census in 2001 counted 1,188 inhabitants. 66. 0% are Protestants,27.
5% are Roman Catholics,0. 8% are Muslims and 5. 1% belong to other denominations, several associations exist in Feld am See
Bad Bleiberg is a market town in the Villach-Land District of Carinthia, Austria. Originally a mining area, especially for lead, Bad Bleiberg today due to its hot springs is a spa town. Bad Bleiberg is situated west of the districts capital Villach in a valley on the northern slope of the Dobratsch massif. It consists of the Katastralgemeinden Bleiberg and Kreuth, when under Emperor Frederick II Bamberg evolved to a Prince-Bishopric, the territories became ecclesiastical exclaves within the territory of the medieval Duchy of Carinthia. In 1759 the Bamberg estates were acquired by Empress Maria Theresa. The mine was first mentioned as Pleyberg in a 1333 deed and operated by the Fugger family from the late 15th century onwards, georgius Agricola described the mining and smelting of lead and zinc in his 1556 book De re metallica. Mining operations ceased in 1993 for economic reasons, today a toruist mine offers guided underground tours, when in 1951 a hot spring had flooded an adit, a public bath was established and Bleiberg received the official Bad title of a spa town in 1978
Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor
Ferdinand I was Holy Roman Emperor from 1558, king of Bohemia and Hungary from 1526, and king of Croatia from 1527 until his death. Before his accession, he ruled the Austrian hereditary lands of the Habsburgs in the name of his brother, Charles V. Also, he served as Charles representative in Germany and developed useful relationships with German princes. Ferdinand was able to defend his realm and make it more cohesive. His flexible approach to Imperial problems, mainly religious, finally brought more result than the more confrontational attitude of his brother, Ferdinands motto was Fiat iustitia, et pereat mundus, Let justice be done, though the world perish. Ferdinand shared his customs and even his birthday with his maternal grandfather Ferdinand II of Aragon and he was born and educated in Spain, and did not learn German when he was young. In the summer of 1518 Ferdinand was sent to Flanders following his brother Charless arrival in Spain as newly appointed King Charles I the previous autumn.
He returned in command of his brothers fleet but en route was blown off-course and he was Archduke of Austria from 1521 to 1564. Though he supported his brother, Ferdinand managed to strengthen his own realm, by adopting the German language and culture late in his life, he grew close to the German territorial princes. After the death of his brother-in-law Louis II, Ferdinand ruled as King of Bohemia and Hungary. Ferdinand served as his brothers deputy in the Holy Roman Empire during his brothers many absences, according to the terms set at the First Congress of Vienna in 1515, Ferdinand married Anne Jagiellonica, daughter of King Vladislaus II of Bohemia and Hungary on 22 July 1515. Therefore, after the death of his brother-in-law Louis II, King of Bohemia and of Hungary, at the battle of Mohács on 29 August 1526, the success was only partial, as the Diet refused to recognise Ferdinand as hereditary lord of the Kingdom. The Croatian nobles unanimously elected Ferdinand I as their king in the 1527 election in Cetin, in Hungary, Nicolaus Olahus, secretary of Louis, attached himself to the party of Ferdinand but retained his position with his sister, Queen Dowager Mary.
Ferdinand was elected King of Hungary by a rump Diet in Pozsony in December 1526, the throne of Hungary became the subject of a dynastic dispute between Ferdinand and John Zápolya, Voivode of Transylvania. They were supported by different factions of the nobility in the Hungarian kingdom, Ferdinand had the support of his brother, the Emperor Charles V. Ferdinand defeated Zápolya at the Battle of Tarcal in September 1527 and again in the Battle of Szina in March 1528. Zápolya fled the country and applied to Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent for support, a further Ottoman invasion was repelled in 1533. In 1538, in the Treaty of Nagyvárad, Ferdinand induced the childless Zápolya to name him as his successor, but in 1540, just before his death, Zápolya had a son, John II Sigismund, who was promptly elected King by the Diet. Ferdinand invaded Hungary, but the regent, Frater George Martinuzzi, Bishop of Várad, Suleiman marched into Hungary and not only drove Ferdinand out of central Hungary, he forced Ferdinand to agree to pay tribute for his lands in western Hungary
Ladenburg is a town in the district of Rhein-Neckar-Kreis, in Baden-Württemberg, Germany. It is situated on the bank of the Neckar,10 kilometres east of Mannheim. Ladenburgs history dates back to Celtic and Roman ages, in Roman times it was called Lopodunum. Emperor Trajan elevated it to the status of a city in the year 98 and its old centre dates back to the Late Middle Age. Ladenburg is located on Bertha Benz Memorial Route, list of mayors, Johann Friedrich von Seilern, son of a dyer and Imperial Count, was born in Ladenburg. Johann Christoph Sauer, the first German-language printer and publisher in North America, was born in Ladenburg Franz Xaver and Friedrich von Hertling, Bavarian war ministers, were born in Ladenburg. Michael Frey, composer and conductor Lambert Heinrich von Babo, chemist Karl Benz, inventor of the automobile, martin Hartmann, head of the Baden office Rudolf Agricola and journalist The first time this village was populated was between 3000 and 200 BC. It consisted of a Celtic settlement Lopodunum, in the year 40 the Romans populated the town as a farmer/military outpost and kept its Celtic name.
The local territory formed the district of Civitas Ulpia Sueborum Nicretum. In 74 AD the Romans founded the town Auxiliarkastelle which included a supply-keeping town, the garrison included a regiment of cavalry made up from the Canaefaten. Ladenburg is twinned with, Burkina Faso Paternion, Austria Automuseum Dr. Carl Benz Bertha Benz Memorial Route