A bridle path bridleway, equestrian trail, horse riding path, bridle road, or horse trail, is a path, trail or a thoroughfare, used by people riding on horses. Trails created for use by horses now serve a wider range of users, including equestrians and cyclists; such paths are either impassable for motorized vehicles. The laws relating to allowable uses vary from country to country. In industrialized countries, bridle paths are now used for recreation. However, they are still important transportation routes in other areas. For example, they are the main method of traveling to mountain villages in Lesotho. However, In England and Wales a bridle path now refers to a route which can be used by horse riders in addition to walkers, since 1968, by cyclists. A "ride" is another term used for a bridleway: "a path or track, esp. one through a wood made for riding on horseback". In the US, the term bridle path is used colloquially for trails or paths used for people making day treks on horses, used only on the east coast, whereas out west the equivalent term is trail.
The term "bridleway" is used in the U. S. Most of the time horses are presumed allowed to use trails in America unless banned, although rules differ among locations. In some countries long distance multi-use trails have been created, including the Bicentennial National Trail in Australia, one of the longest marked multi-use trails in the world, stretching 5,330 kilometres. Rail trails can be used by equestrians. In England and Wales a bridleway is "a way over which the public has a right of way on foot and a right of way on horseback or leading a horse, with or without a right to drive animals along the way." Although Section 30 of the Countryside Act 1968 permits the riding of bicycles on public bridleways, the act says that it "shall not create any obligation to facilitate the use of the bridleway by cyclists". Thus the right to cycle exists though it may be difficult to exercise on occasion in winter. Cyclists using a bridleway are obliged to give way to other users on horseback. In London's Hyde Park the sand-covered avenue of Rotten Row is maintained as a bridleway and forms part of Hyde Park's South Ride.
It is convenient for the Household Cavalry, stabled nearby at Hyde Park Barracks in Knightsbridge, to exercise their horses. A number of long distance multi-use trails have been created in England, including three National Trails, the Pennine Bridleway, 192 km, The Ridgeway, 139 km, South Downs Way, 160 km; the British Horse Society has promoted long distance routes for horse riders known as bridleroutes, incorporating bridleways and minor roads. The Land Reform Act 2003 establishes a right to be on land for recreational and certain other purposes and a right to cross land. Access rights apply to any non-motorised activities, including horse-riding but only if they are exercised responsibly, as specified in the Scottish Outdoor Access Code. However, there is a lack of asserted public rights of way in Scotland for horse riding and cycling. Rights of way in Scotland provide access for walkers, only for horse riders; the United States has few if any formal designations for bridle paths, though horses are allowed on most state and federal trails and public routes except where restricted.
Horses under saddle are subject to the same regulations as pedestrians or hikers where those requirements differ from those for cyclists. In most states, horses are classified as livestock and thus restricted from areas such as the right of way of the interstate highway system, though permitted to travel along the side of other roadways in rural areas. Urban bridle paths exist in Philadelphia's Fairmount Park and New York City's Central Park Some trails managed by the U. S. Forest Service and other governmental entities may restrict access of horses, or restrict access during certain times of the year. For example, horses are allowed on the American Discovery Trail, which crosses the country, but only on specific sections of the Appalachian Trail. Access to trails and pathways on private land is left to the discretion of the landowner, subject to the general trespass laws of each of the 50 states. Rail trails/paths are shared-use paths, they can be used for walking and horse riding as well. The following description comes from Australia, but is applicable to other rail trails that exist throughout the world.
"Following the route of the railways, they cut through hills, under roads, over embankments and across gullies and creeks. Apart from being great places to walk, cycle or horse ride, rail trails are linear conservation corridors protecting native plants and animals, they link remnant vegetation in farming areas and contain valuable flora and fauna habitat. Wineries and other attractions are near many trails as well as B&B's and other great places to stay." Most trails have a dirt surface suitable for walking, mountain bikes and horses. Equestrian use of roadways Green lane List of rail trails Long-distance trail Public right of way Trail riding Media related to Equestrian trails at Wikimedia Commons Byways & Bridleways Trust The Long Riders Guild National Federation of Bridleway Association: article on bridleway usage by motorists New Zealand Bridleways Riding trails in England and Wales Bridleway Map — a map of bridleways in the UK Bridle Trails State Park Bridle Trails at Gettysburg
Vector graphics are computer graphics images that are defined in terms of 2D points, which are connected by lines and curves to form polygons and other shapes. Each of these points has a definite position on the x- and y-axis of the work plane and determines the direction of the path. Vector graphics are found today in the SVG, EPS and PDF graphic file formats and are intrinsically different from the more common raster graphics file formats of JPEG, PNG, APNG, GIF, MPEG4. One of the first uses of vector graphic displays was the US SAGE air defense system. Vector graphics systems were retired from the U. S. en route air traffic control in 1999, are still in use in military and specialized systems. Vector graphics were used on the TX-2 at the MIT Lincoln Laboratory by computer graphics pioneer Ivan Sutherland to run his program Sketchpad in 1963. Subsequent vector graphics systems, most of which iterated through dynamically modifiable stored lists of drawing instructions, include the IBM 2250, Imlac PDS-1, DEC GT40.
There was a home gaming system that used vector graphics called Vectrex as well as various arcade games like Asteroids, Space Wars and many cinematronics titles such as Rip-Off, Tail Gunner using vector monitors. Storage scope displays, such as the Tektronix 4014, could display vector images but not modify them without first erasing the display. In computer typography, modern outline fonts describe printable characters by cubic or quadratic mathematical curves with control points. Bitmap fonts are still in use. Converting outlines requires filling them in. Processing outline character data in a sophisticated fashion to create satisfactory bitmaps for rendering is called "hinting". Although the term implies suggestion, the process is deterministic and done by executable code a special-purpose computer language. While automatic hinting is possible, results can be inferior to that done by experts. Modern vector graphics displays can sometimes be found at laser light shows, where two fast-moving X-Y mirrors position the beam to draw shapes and text as straight and curved strokes on a screen.
Vector graphics can be created in a form using a pen plotter, a special type of printer that uses a series of ballpoint and felt-tip pens on a servo-driven mount that moves horizontally across the paper, with the plotter moving the paper back and forth through its paper path for vertical movement. Although a typical plot might require a few thousand paper motions and forth, the paper doesn't slip. In a tiny roll-fed plotter made by Alps in Japan, teeth on thin sprockets indented the paper near its edges on the first pass and maintained registration on subsequent passes; some Hewlett-Packard pen plotters had stationery paper. However, the moving-paper H-P plotters had grit wheels which, on the first pass, indented the paper surface, collectively maintained registration. Present-day vector graphic files such as engineering drawings are printed as bitmaps, after vector-to-raster conversion; the term "vector graphics" is used today in the context of two-dimensional computer graphics. It is one of several modes.
Vector graphics can be uploaded to online databases for other designers to download and manipulate, speeding up the creative process. Other modes include text, 3D rendering. All modern 3D rendering is done using extensions of 2D vector graphics techniques. Plotters used in technical drawing still draw vectors directly to paper; the World Wide Web Consortium standard for vector graphics is Scalable Vector Graphics. The standard is complex and has been slow to be established at least in part owing to commercial interests. Many web browsers now have some support for rendering SVG data but full implementations of the standard are still comparatively rare. In recent years, SVG has become a significant format, independent of the resolution of the rendering device a printer or display monitor. SVG files are printable text that describes both straight and curved paths, as well as other attributes. Wikipedia prefers SVG for images such as simple maps, line illustrations, coats of arms, flags, which are not like photographs or other continuous-tone images.
Rendering SVG requires conversion to raster format at a resolution appropriate for the current task. SVG is a format for animated graphics. There is a version of SVG for mobile phones. In particular, the specific format for mobile phones is called SVGT; these images can count links and exploit anti-aliasing. They can be displayed as wallpaper; the list of image file formats covers public vector formats. Modern displays and printers are raster devices; the size of the bitmap/raster-format file generated by the conversion will depend on the resolution required, but the size of the vector file generating the bitmap/raster file will always remain the same. Thus, it is easy to convert from a vector file to a range of bitmap/raster file formats but it is much more difficult to go in the opposite direction if subsequent editing of the vector picture is required, it might be an advantage to save an image created
A footpath is a type of thoroughfare, intended for use only by pedestrians and not other forms of traffic such as motorized vehicles and horses. They can be found in a wide variety of places, from the centre of cities, to farmland, to mountain ridges. Urban footpaths are paved, may have steps, can be called alleys, steps, etc. National parks, nature preserves, conservation areas and other protected wilderness areas may have footpaths that are restricted to pedestrians; the term footpath can describe a pavement/sidewalk in some English-speaking countries. A footpath can take the form of a footbridge, linking two places across a river. Public footpaths are rights of way created by people walking across the land to work, the next village and school; this includes Corpse roads. Some footpaths were created by those undertaking a pilgrimage. Examples of the latter are the Pilgrim's Way in Pilgrim's Route in Norway; some landowners allow access over their land without dedicating a right of way. These permissive paths are indistinguishable from normal paths, but they are subject to restrictions.
Such paths are closed at least once a year, so that a permanent right of way cannot be established in law. A mass path is a pedestrian track or road connecting destinations used by rural communities, most the destination of Sunday Mass, they were most common during the centuries that preceded motorised transportation in Western Europe, in particular the British Isles and the Netherlands (where such a path is called "kerkenpad". Mass paths included stretches crossing fields of neighboring farmers and were to contain stiles, when crossing fences or other boundaries, or plank footbridges to cross ditches; some mass paths are still used today in the Republic of Ireland, but are subject to Ireland's complicated rights of way law. Corpse roads provided a practical means for transporting corpses from remote communities, to cemeteries that had burial rights, such as parish churches and chapels of ease. In Great Britain, such routes can be known by a number of other names: bier road, burial road, coffin road, coffin line, lyke or lych way, funeral road, procession way, corpse way, etc.
Nowadays footpaths are used for recreation and have been linked together, along with bridle paths and newly created footpaths, to create long distance trails. Organizations have been formed in various countries to protect the right to use public footpaths, including the Ramblers Association in England. Footpaths are now found in botanic gardens, regional parks, conservation areas, wildlife gardens, open-air museums. There are educational trails, themed walks, sculpture trails and historic interpretive trails. In England and Wales, public footpaths are rights of way on which pedestrians have a protected right to travel. Other public rights of way in England and Wales, such as bridleways, byways and green lanes are used by pedestrians. In Scotland there is no legal distinction between a footpath and a bridleway and it is accepted that cyclists and horse riders may follow any right of way with a suitable surface; the law is different in both Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland and there are far fewer rights of way in Ireland as a whole.
Footpaths and other rights of way in England and Wales are shown on definitive maps. A definitive map is a record of public rights of way in Wales. In law it is the definitive record of; the highway authority has a statutory duty to maintain a definitive map, though in national parks the national park authority maintains the map. The Inner London boroughs are exempt from the statutory duty though they have the powers to maintain a map: none does so. In Scotland different legislation applies and there is no recognised record of rights of way. However, there is a National Catalogue of Rights of Way, compiled by the Scottish Rights of Way and Access Society, in partnership with Scottish Natural Heritage, the help of local authorities; the Open Spaces Society is a charitable British organisation that works to protect public rights of way and open spaces in the United Kingdom, such as common land and village greens. It is Britain's oldest national conservation body; the society was founded as the Commons Preservation Society and merged with the National Footpaths Society in 1899, adopted their present name.
Much of the Open Spaces Society's work is concerned with the preservation and creation of public paths. Before the introduction of definitive maps of public paths in the early 1950s, the public did not know where paths were, the Open Spaces Society helped the successful campaign for paths to be shown on Ordnance Survey maps, it advises the Department for Environment and Rural Affairs and National Assembly for Wales on applications for works on common land. Local authorities are required to consult the society whenever there is a proposal to alter the route of a public right of way; the Ramblers are another British organisation concerned with the protection of footpaths. There are a variety of footpaths in urban settings, including paths along streams and rivers, through parks and across commons. Another type is the alley providing access to the rear of properties or connecting built-up roads not reached by vehicles. Towpaths are another
A clipping path is a closed vector path, or shape, used to cut out a 2D image in image editing software. Anything inside the path will be included. Applying the clipping path results in a hard or soft edge, depending on the image editor's capabilities By convention, the inside of the path is defined by its direction. Reversing the direction of a path reverses what is considered inside or outside. An inclusive path is one where what is visually "inside" the path corresponds to what will be preserved. By convention, a clockwise path, non-self-intersecting is considered inclusive. A compound path results from the combination of multiple paths and the Boolean operations that determine what the combined path contains. For instance, an inclusive path which contains a smaller exclusive path results in a shape with a "hole". One common use of a clipping path is to cull objects that do not need to be rendered because they are outside the user's viewport or obscured by display elements. Clipping planes are used in 3D computer graphics in order to prevent the renderer from calculating surfaces at an extreme distance from the viewer.
The plane is perpendicular to the camera, a set distance away, occupies the entire viewport. Used in real-time rendering, clipping planes can help preserve processing for objects within clear sight; the use of clipping planes can result in a detraction from the realism of a scene, as the viewer may notice that everything at the threshold is not rendered or seems to appear spontaneously. The addition of fog—a variably transparent region of color or texture just before the clipping plane—can help soften the transition between what should be in plain sight and opaque, what should be beyond notice and transparent, therefore does not need to be rendered. Clipping path services are professional offerings provided by companies for extracting objects or people from still imagery, includes other photo editing and manipulation services. Addressees of such services are photography and graphic design studios, advertising agencies, web designers, as well as lithographers and printing companies. Clipping path service companies reside in developing countries such as Bangladesh, India and Nepal, which can provide their services at comparatively low cost to developed countries, fostering outsourcing of such activities.
Adobe InDesign CS5 & CS5.5 – Clipping paths Adobe Photoshop – Clipping paths
PATH is a network of underground pedestrian tunnels, elevated walkways, at-grade walkways connecting the office towers of Downtown Toronto, Canada. It is more than 30 kilometres long. According to Guinness World Records, PATH is the largest underground shopping complex in the world with 371,600 square metres of retail space; the PATH network's northerly point is the Toronto Coach Terminal at Dundas Street and Bay Street, while its southerly point is Waterpark Place on Queens Quay. Its main axes of walkways parallel Yonge Street and Bay Street. There is continuous expansion to PATH system around Union Station. Two towers are being built as part of CIBC Square and will be linked to the PATH, extending the PATH to east to cross over Yonge Street by a pedestrian bridge into the Backstage Condominium building, giving closed access to Union, Scotiabank Arena, other buildings in the Financial District. In 1900, the Eaton's department store constructed a tunnel underneath James Street, allowing shoppers to walk between the Eaton's main store at Yonge and Queen streets and the Eaton's Annex located behind the City Hall.
It was the first underground pedestrian pathway in Toronto, is credited as a historic precursor to the current PATH network. The original Eaton's tunnel is still in use as part of the PATH system, although today it connects the Toronto Eaton Centre to the Bell Trinity Square office complex, on the site of the former Annex building. Another original underground linkage, built in 1927 to connect Union Station and the Royal York Hotel remains an integral part of today's PATH network; the network of underground walkways expanded under city planner Matthew Lawson in the 1960s. Toronto's downtown sidewalks were overcrowded, new office towers were removing the much-needed small businesses from the streets. Lawson thus convinced several important developers to construct underground malls, pledging that they would be linked; the designers of the Toronto-Dominion Centre, the first of Toronto's major urban developments in the 1960s were the first to include underground shopping in their complex, with the possibility of future expansion built in.
The city helped fund the construction, but with the election of a reform city council this ended. The reformers disliked the underground system based on Jane Jacobs' notion that an active street life was important to keeping cities and neighbourhoods vital and that consumers should be encouraged to shop on street level stores rather than in malls; this converted low-valued basements into some of the most valuable retail space in the country. The first expansion of the network occurred in the 1970s with the construction and underground connection of the Richmond-Adelaide office tower and the Sheraton Centre hotel complex. Construction of the PATH tunnel north from Scotia Plaza through the Bay Adelaide Centre started in fall 2007. Completion of this section closed the last remaining gap in the north-south route through PATH that parallels Yonge Street, thus eliminating the need to double back from Bay Street to get between buildings located on the eastern edge of PATH. In 1987, City Council adopted a unified wayfinding system throughout the network.
The design firms Gottschalk+Ash International and Muller Design Associates were hired to design and implement the overall system in consultation with a diverse group of land owners, City staff and stakeholders. A colour-coded system with directional cues was deployed in the early 1990s. Within the various buildings, pedestrians can find a PATH system map, plus cardinal directions on ceiling signs at selected junctions; the signage can be hard to find inside some of the various connected buildings. Building owners concerned about losing customers to neighbouring buildings insisted that the signs not dominate their buildings, or their own signage system; the city relented and the result is the current system. Many complain. PATH provides an important contribution to the economic viability of the city's downtown core; the system facilitates pedestrian linkages to public transit, accommodating more than 200,000 daily commuters, thousands of additional tourists and residents en route to sports and cultural events.
Its underground location provides pedestrians with a safe haven from the winter cold and snow, alongside the summer heat and humidity. In August 2014, a major southward expansion of the PATH network brought it closer to the Toronto waterfront, with the opening of a covered pedestrian bridge connecting Scotiabank Arena south to WaterPark Place on Queens Quay. In 2011, the City of Toronto released a long-term expansion plan for the PATH, developed by Urban Strategies Inc; as part of the expansion plan there will be 45 new entry points, the walkway expanded to as long as 60 kilometres when changes are completed. The city of Toronto is constructing a 300-metre, CAD$65 million tunnel connecting Union Station to Wellington Street, the first publicly owned segment of the 4,000,000-square-foot PATH subterranean shopping district. Toronto planners have begun work to guide future PATH development and ensure PATH link construction is included in basement levels of key new buildings. More than 50 buildings or office towers are connected through the PATH system.
It comprises twenty parking garages, five subway stations (Osgoode station connects only to the Four Seasons Centr
Pathé or Pathé Frères is the name of various French businesses that were founded and run by the Pathé Brothers of France starting in 1896. In the early 1900s, Pathé became the world's largest film equipment and production company, as well as a major producer of phonograph records. In 1908, Pathé invented the newsreel, shown in cinemas prior to a feature film. Pathé is a major film production and distribution company, owning a number of cinema chains through its subsidiary Les Cinémas Gaumont Pathé and television networks across Europe, it is the second oldest operating film company behind Gaumont Film Company, established in 1895. The company was founded as Société Pathé Frères in Paris, France on 28 September 1896, by the four brothers Charles, Émile, Théophile and Jacques Pathé. During the first part of the 20th century, Pathé became the largest film equipment and production company in the world, as well as a major producer of phonograph records; the driving force behind the film operation and phonograph business was Charles Pathé, who had helped open a phonograph shop in 1894 and established a phonograph factory at Chatou on the western outskirts of Paris.
The Pathé brothers began selling Edison and Columbia phonographs and accompanying cylinder records and the brothers designed and sold their own phonographs that incorporated elements of other brands. Soon after, they started marketing pre-recorded cylinder records. By 1896 the Pathé brothers had offices and recording studios not only in Paris, but in London, St. Petersburg. Pathé manufactured cylinder records until 1914. In 1905 the Pathé brothers entered the growing field of disc records. In France, Pathé became the largest and most successful distributor of cylinder records and phonographs. These, failed to make significant headway in foreign markets such as the United Kingdom and the United States where other brands were in widespread use. In December 1928, the French and British Pathé phonograph assets were sold to the British Columbia Graphophone Company. In July 1929, the assets of the American Pathé record company were merged into the newly formed American Record Corporation; the Pathé and Pathé-Marconi labels and catalogue still survive, first as imprints of EMI and now EMI's successor Parlophone Records.
As the phonograph business became successful, Pathé saw the opportunities offered by new means of entertainment and in particular by the fledgling motion picture industry. Having decided to expand the record business to include film equipment, the company expanded dramatically. To finance its growth, the company took the name Compagnie Générale des Établissements Pathé Frères Phonographes & Cinématographes in 1897, its shares were listed on the Paris Stock Exchange. In 1896, Mitchell Mark of Buffalo, New York, became the first American to import Pathé films to the United States, where they were shown in the Vitascope Theater. In 1907, Pathé acquired the Lumière brothers' patents and set about to design an improved studio camera and to make their own film stock, their technologically advanced equipment, new processing facilities built at Vincennes, aggressive merchandising combined with efficient distribution systems allowed them to capture a huge share of the international market. They first expanded to London in 1902 where they set up production facilities and a chain of movie theatres.
By 1909, Pathé had built more than 200 movie theatres in France and Belgium and by the following year they had facilities in Madrid, Moscow and New York City plus Australia and Japan. They opened a film exchange in Buffalo, New York. Through its American subsidiary, it was part of the MPCC cartel of production in the United States, it participated in the Paris Film Congress in February 1909 as part of a plan to create a similar European organisation, however the company withdrew from the project in a second meeting in April which fatally undermined the proposal. Prior to the outbreak of World War I, Pathé dominated Europe's market in motion picture cameras and projectors, it has been estimated. In 1908, Pathé distributed Excursion to the Moon by Segundo de Chomón, an imitation of Georges Méliès's A Trip to the Moon. Pathé and Méliès worked together in 1911. Georges Méliès made a film Baron Munchausen's Dream, his first film to be distributed by Pathé. Pathé's relationship with Méliès soured, in 1913 Méliès went bankrupt, his last film was never released by Pathé.
Worldwide, the company emphasised research, investing in such experiments as hand-coloured film and the synchronisation of film and gramophone recordings. In 1908, Pathé invented the newsreel, shown in theatres prior to the feature film; the news clips featured the Pathé logo of a crowing rooster at the beginning of each reel. In 1912, it introduced 28 mm non-flammable equipment under the brand name Pathescope. Pathé News produced cinema newsreels from 1910, up until the 1970s when production ceased as a result of mass television ownership. In the United States, beginning in 1914, the company's film production studios in Fort Lee and Jersey City, NJ, where their building still stands; the Heights, Jersey City produced the successful serialised episodes called The Perils of Pauline. By 1918 Pathé had grown to the point where it was necessary to separate operations into two distinct divisions. With Emile Pathé as chief executive, Pathé Records dealt with phonographs and recordings while brother Charles managed Pathé-Cinéma, responsible for film production and exhibition.
1922 saw the introduction o
PATH (global health organization)
PATH is an international, nonprofit global health organization based in Seattle, with 1,600 employees in more than 70+ offices around the world. Its president and CEO is Steve Davis. PATH focuses on five platforms—vaccines, diagnostics and system and service innovations—to develop innovations and implement solutions that save lives and improve health among women and girls. PATH's tagline is "Better health moves humanity forward." Founded in 1977 with a focus on family planning, PATH soon broadened its purpose to work on a wide array of emerging and persistent global health issues in the areas of health technologies, maternal health, child health, reproductive health and immunization, emerging and epidemic diseases such as HIV, tuberculosis. Since 2000, PATH expanded from about 300 employees and an annual budget of $60 million to, in 2016, a payroll of 1,600 people working in 70+ countries and a budget of $305 million. PATH is one of the largest nonprofit organizations in global health today.
PATH's headquarters are in the South Lake Union, Seattle neighborhood, close to several other global health organizations including the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. OneWorld Health was a 501 nonprofit drug development organization founded in San Francisco in 2000 by Victoria Hale. In December 2011, OneWorld Health became a drug development program of PATH. What was the Institute for OneWorld Health has become PATH's Drug Development program. PATH's vision is "a world where innovation ensures that health is within reach for everyone." Its mission is "to improve the health of people around the world by advancing technologies, strengthening systems, encouraging healthy behaviors."PATH is best known for developing and adapting technologies, such as improved vaccination devices and new tools to prevent cervical cancer, to address the health needs of developing countries. It targets health problems, evaluates possible solutions, assesses whether they would be useful in finding health solutions.
Steve Davis, PATH's CEO, has described the organization's role as a "bridge-builder and innovator on the global stage." PATH develops and advances technologies focused on disease diagnostics, vaccine delivery, reproductive health and sanitation, other areas. One of PATH's best-known technologies is the vaccine vial monitor, a small sticker that adheres to a vaccine vial and changes color as the vaccine is exposed to heat over time; the sticker helps health workers know when a vaccine has reached its preset temperature limit and can no longer be safely used. It promotes more reliable vaccinations as well as cost savings, because health workers no longer have to throw out vaccine just because they suspect it has gone bad. UNICEF requires these monitors on all vaccines. Another vaccine technology developed by PATH is the Uniject injection system; the single-dose, autodisabling injection system consists of a needle attached to a small bubble of plastic, prefilled with medication. The system is designed to prevent disease transmission and enable health workers with only a little training to administer vaccine and other drugs in remote villages.
PATH develops nutrition-focused innovations such as Ultra Rice, a manufactured, micronutrient-fortified "grain" that can be mixed with rice to fight malnutrition in countries where rice is a staple food. Made of rice flour and nutrient-protecting ingredients, Ultra Rice can mimic the look and taste of local rice and deliver the specific micronutrients a population needs. Ultra Rice has been produced and tested in several countries, including Brazil and India, where it has been served in school-lunch programs. PATH is working with partners in Cambodia to distribute Ultra Rice through food assistance programs and deepen the evidence base for rice fortification. In Brazil, PATH has partnered with a commercial rice producer to sell Ultra Rice on supermarket shelves and reach 10 million low-income consumers in three years. Several PATH technologies address sexual and reproductive health, including: The careHPV test, developed in conjunction with Qiagen as the first molecular diagnostic to screen for human papillomavirus —the most common cause of cervical cancer—in clinics in low-resource settings.
China's State Food and Drug Administration approved the test for sale beginning in January 2013, followed by India and other emerging markets. The test is designed for use in clinics that lack reliable clean water or electricity; the SILCS diaphragm, a "one size fits most" contraceptive device. The device differs from traditional latex diaphragms in that it is made of silicone instead of latex, is designed to hold up to extreme temperatures and poor storage conditions common in developing countries, will not require a doctor's fitting; the Woman's Condom, a new female condom designed to be more acceptable to both partners than other female condoms, plus easier to use, more secure, less noisy, more comfortable. PATH transferred production of the condom to Dahua Medical Apparatus Company in China in 2008; the condom has received regulatory approvals in China and the European Union and became commercially available in China in late 2011. PATH employs a user-driven design process for its reproductive technologies to meet women's specific needs.
PATH looks at ways to improve water quality in developing countries, including helping companies develop low-cost filters and other water-treatment products to stimulate a commercial market and keep prices low. PATH is working with biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies to support the development of vaccines for diseases such as meningitis and pneumonia and to help countries introduce vaccines for childhood illnesses such as rotavirus and Japanese encephalitis